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Hadrian, one of the "Five Good Emperors," abandoned the expansionist policy of Trajan and established a policy of defense and consolidation during which Hadrian's Wall in Britain was constructed. He traveled to nearly every province of the Empire, more than any other emperor, often ordering grandiose building programs to improve infrastructure and the quality of life in those regions. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and ordered the construction of many opulent temples in the city. He spent much of his time with the military; usually wore military attire and even dined and slept amongst the soldiers. He ordered military training and drilling to be more rigorous and made use of false reports of attack to keep the army alert. He suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina.
Pergamon, Mysia, c. 134 A.D.
Eurypylos was a Mysian hero of the Trojan War. His image is otherwise unknown on coinage. Like Bellerophon at Corinth and Dionysos at Tium, this image of a local hero appears modeled on Antinous. Homer (Odyssey 11.522) has Odysseus say that Eurypylus was, next to Memnon, the most beautiful man he had ever seen.
The strategos I. Pollion is named on several coin types of Pergamon during the reign of Hadrian, including one for Sabina (RPC III 1737) and another for Antinous (RPC III, 1738).
The link between Pergamon and Paphos, evidenced by this coin, is not well understood. However, the same reverse was used, from Hadrian to Philip I, on coins struck to honor an alliance between Sardes and Paphos.RP96071. Orichalcum dupondius, RPC Online III 1740 (4 spec.), SNG BnF 1897, Weber 5206, SNG Cop -, BMC Mysia -, F, porous, reverse off center, countermark obscure, weight 11.652 g, maximum diameter 26.5 mm, die axis 0o, Pergamon mint, time of Hadrian, c. 134 A.D.; obverse HPΩC EYPYΠYΛOC (Hero Eurypylos), head of hero Eurypylos (with the features of Antinous) right, flowing hair, uncertain oval countermark; reverse ΠEPΓAMHNΩN EΠI CTP ΠΩΛΛIΩNOC (Pergamon, struck under strategos Pollion), temple of Aphrodite at Paphos, in which conical xoanon, semicircular walled courtyard, ΠAΦIA (of Paphos) across the courtyard; extremely rare, the 5th known; $1200.00 SALE |PRICE| $1080.00
Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.RB95780. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC II-3 260 (S), BMCRE III 1203, Hunter II 358, SRCV II 3625, Cohen II 1207 var. (no drapery), Choice aEF, dark patina, light deposits, spots of corrosion, weight 27.215 g, maximum diameter 35.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 119 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III, laureate bust right, bare chest, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse PROVIDENTIA DEORVM (to the foresight of the gods), Hadrian standing facing, togate, lituus (or scroll?) in left hand, head left looking at eagle flying right with scepter held in talons, extending right hand to receive scepter from eagle, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; scarce; $1100.00 SALE |PRICE| $990.00
NEW During Hadrian's reign agriculture in Italy declined. Imports from Egypt and North Africa depressed wheat prices, making farming unprofitable and forcing many farmers off the land. In Rome, bakeries produced dozens of bread varieties, and free bread was distributed to the poor. RS94574. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 854, RSC II 379, BMCRE III 385, Strack II 166, Hunter II -, SRCV -, VF, nice portrait, light toning, flow lines, slightly grainy, a little off center, tiny edge cracks, weight 3.002 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 128 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse COS III, Annona (or Abundantia) seated left, reaping hook in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, modius with grain ears at feet; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $160.00 SALE |PRICE| $144.00
Hadrian toured Greece, 124 - 125, made a detour to Sicily, and returned to Italy in 126. He left again in 128 to visit Africa. Hadrian returned to Italy in the summer of 128 but his stay was brief and he set off on another tour that would last three years. Hadrian's galley reverse types refer to his travels to the provinces and his safe return.RB92428. Copper as, BMCRE III 1342, Hunter II 422, RIC II-3 820, SRCV II 3682, Cohen II 446 var. (no drapery), aVF, nice portrait, nice galley, well centered, light deposits, scattered light corrosion, part of obv. legend weak, weight 10.699 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 125 - 128 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse COS III, galley right with rowers; ram, acrostolium, and vexillum (or furled sail) at prow; rudder and arched cabin at stern; S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $150.00 SALE |PRICE| $135.00
NEW Juno was the chief female divinity in the Roman pantheon. She was the wife of Jupiter and a member of the Capitoline Triad. She had many different aspects, such as Juno Regina, Juno Sospita, and Juno Lucina, but here she is depicted as Juno Moneta, holding the scales symbolic of equity and a cornucopia indicating plenty. This surname was given to Juno because she counseled the Romans to undertake only just wars in which case she promised that they would never be in want of money. The first mint in Rome was within the temple of Juno Moneta.RS94580. Silver denarius, RSC II 965, RIC II-3 2224, Strack II 251, SRCV II 3507, BMCRE III 677 var. (no drapery), Hunter II 222 var. (same), Choice gF, well centered, nice portrait, flow lines, toning, some reverse legend weak, tiny edge cracks, weight 3.183 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 136 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse MONETA AVG, Moneta standing facing, head left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $150.00 SALE |PRICE| $135.00
NEW Liberalitas coin types attest to occasions when the emperor has displayed his generosity towards the people by a distribution to them of money, provisions, or both. The first mention of Liberalitas was on coins of Hadrian. It was a type frequently repeated by the succeeding emperors. Indeed these instances of imperial generosity are more carefully recorded on coins than they are by history.RS94578. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 1100 (R), RSC II 920c, BMCRE III 559 (note), Strack II 345, SRCV II -, Hunter II -, aVF/F, light toning, flow lines, tiny encrustations, light marks, die wear, small edge cracks, weight 2.869 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 129 - 130 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse LIBERALITAS AVG COS III P P (the generosity of the Emperor, consul three times, father of the country), Liberalitas standing slightly-right, head right, emptying cornucopia held in both hands; from the Ray Nouri Collection; rare; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00
NEW In 122, Hadrian gave up the conquered territories in Scotland. During a personal visit to the area, Hadrian ordered construction of a 73 mile (117-kilometer) long wall to mark the northern border and keep the Caledonians, Picts and other tribes at bay. Construction of Hadrian's Wall began on 13 September.RS94586. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 497, RSC II 212b, BMCRE III 252, Hunter II 91, Strack II 60, SRCV II 3463, aVF, light toning, flow lines, reverse a little off center, small edge split/cracks, weight 3.237 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 150o, Rome mint, late 121 - 123 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse P M TR P COS III, Clementia (mercy) standing left, leaning on column, patera in right hand held over altar, long scepter vertical in left hand, left elbow rests on column, CLEM in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $130.00 SALE |PRICE| $117.00
NEW Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.RS94568. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 124, RSC II 1015a, BMCRE III 78, Strack II 38, Hunter II 28, SRCV II 3511, gF, light marks, die wear, edge crack, obverse slightly off center on an oval flan, weight 3.133 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 240o, Rome mint, 118 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse P M TR P COS II, Pax standing slightly left, head left, olive branch downward in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, PAX in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00
NEW Bonus Eventus (Good Outcome) was a divine personification in ancient Roman religion. The Late Republican scholar Varro lists him as one of the twelve deities who presided over agriculture, paired with Lympha, the goddess who influenced the water supply. The original function of Bonus Eventus may have been agricultural, but during the Imperial era, he represents a more general concept of success and was among the numerous abstractions who appeared as icons on Roman coins. -- wikipediaRS94573. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 355, RSC II 1089, BMCRE III 178, Hunter II 49, Strack II 109, SRCV II -, aVF, well centered, flow lines, light marks, die wear edge cracks, weight 2.735 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Apr - Aug 121 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse P M TR P COS III, Bonus Eventus standing facing, head left, nude, sacrificing from patera in right hand over lit altar, two stalks of grain in left hand; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00
NEW Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing. This coin, dedicated to the health of the emperor, probably indicates the emperor was at the time suffering from some disease, and sacred rites had been performed for his recovery.RS94576. Silver denarius, RIC II-2 231, Strack II 124, BMCRE III 207, RSC II 1151, Hunter II 76, SRCV III 3525, F, uneven toning, porosity, obverse slightly off center, tiny edge splits, weight 3.262 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 119 - mid 120 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder; reverse P M TR P COS III, Salus seated left, from patera in right hand, feeding snake rising from altar before her, resting left elbow on back of chair; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00
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