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Second Jewish Revolt - "Bar Kochba" Uprising, 133 - 135 A.D.
Simon Bar Kochba led a rebellion against Rome from 133 - 135 A.D. This Second Jewish Revolt or "Bar Kochbah" uprising ended with Hadrian's destruction of Jerusalem, the founding of "Aelia Capitolina" on the site, and dispersal of the Jews throughout the Roman Empire.
|In 66 A.D., Legion X Fretensis moved toto suppress the revolt. In 68, the Xth destroyed the monastery of Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls originated. In 70, the Xth camped on the Mount of Olives and used war machines to hurl 25 kg stones 400 meters at the ramparts of besieged Jerusalem. After a five month siege and the horrors of starvation, the city was taken and then completely destroyed. In the autumn of 72, the Xth, auxiliary troops, and thousands of Jewish prisoners erected a wall of circumvallation around Masada, the last Jewish stronghold. The Jewish defenders chose mass suicide before the final assault. After the revolt, the Xth was the sole legion in and garrisoned at Jerusalem. X Fretensis is recorded to have existed at least until the 410s.|