, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG II
This may have been II , disbanded by . The well-known II Augusta, which took in the conquest of Britain and was later stationed in South Wales, was one of Octavian's legions, and so not likely to be the Second Legion referred to on this coin. Other Second Legions (Adiutrix, , Parthica and Traiana) were raised much later in imperial times.SH85060. Silver , 544/14, 1216, II East 190, 27, 349, EF, bold strike on a , light marks, small edge cracks, 3.875 g, maximum 17.0 mm, 180o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - II, ( ) between two legionary standards; ex & Mosch auction 244, lot 441; $1000.00 (€890.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
Caesar's old Gallica was not disbanded and later became the Augusta; however, that legion was associated with rather than Antony.SH85063. Silver , 544/21, 1225, II East 199, 35, EF, off center, 3.830 g, maximum 17.8 mm, 180o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - , ( ) between two legionary standards; ex & Mosch auction 245, lot 1560; $875.00 (€778.75)
and Divus , , 36 B.C., , Gaul
was originally founded as the Roman city , a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became increasingly referred to as by the end of the 1st century A.D. The etymology of is a latinization of the Gaulish place name Lugodunon. While dunon means , the source of Lug is uncertain. The most commonly offered meaning is the god named Lug. During the Middle Ages, was transformed to by natural sound change.RR70870. Bronze , 515, 7, 689, F, 16.797 g, maximum 29.9 mm, 0o, ( , France) mint, 36 B.C.; IMP DIVI , two heads back to back: laureate of Divus to left and of to right; between them branch with its tip bent to right over Octavian's ; Prow of galley to right, ornamented with an eye and ; superimposed on globe and above deck, below; ; $540.00 (€480.60)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
This may have been a legion raised by Antony and disbanded by . The XI , an old legion of Caesar's, fought for (and won the title Actiaca at the battle of ).SL79267. Silver , 544/25, 1229, II East 203, 39, NGC F, strike 3/5, surface 2/5, banker's marks (2400602-008), , 3.48 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 180o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - XI, ( ) between two legionary standards; NGC certified (slabbed); $450.00 (€400.50)
, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D., Hadrianopolis,
refounded a Thracian tribal capital, changed its name to Hadrianopolis, developed it, adorned it with monuments, and made it the capital of the Roman province. The city is Edirne, Turkey today. From ancient times, the around Edirne has been the site of no fewer than 16 major battles or sieges. Military historian John Keegan identifies it as "the most contested spot on the globe" and attributes this to its geographical location. Licinius was defeated there by in 323, and was killed by the Goths during the Battle of Adrianople in 378.SH65237. Bronze AE 25, p. 157 & pl. XXII, 244 (V137/R244); , Suppl. II, 658; -, -, -, VF, green , 7.837 g, maximum 24.7 mm, 180o, Hadrianopolis (Edirne, Turkey) mint, IOYΛIA ∆O CEBACTH, draped right; A∆PIANOΠOΛEITΩN, galley left with four oarsmen and steersman in stern; very ; $400.00 (€356.00)
, , Fifth Democracy, 214 - 212 B.C.
Overcoming formidable resistance and the ingenious devices of Archimedes, the Roman General Marcellus took in the summer of 212 B.C. Archimedes was killed during the attack. The plundered artworks taken back to from lit the initial spark of Greek influence on Roman culture.GI76346. Bronze tetras, II p. 418, 209/3; 1052 var. ( arrangement, etc.); 1514 var. ( left, etc.); -, VF, nice green , 4.176 g, maximum 16.5 mm, 105o, mint, c. 214 - 212 B.C.; diademed of Poseidon right; ΣYPAKO−ΣIΩN (clockwise from upper right), ornamented trident ; very ; $400.00 (€356.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
This may have been the famous V Alaudae ('the larks'), a Caesarean legion which remained loyal to Antony but was later retained by . There are other possibilities, however: V Macedonica, a Caesarean legion about which little is known; V Urbana, disbanded after (and therefore quite likely an Antonian legion); and V Gallica, a Caesarean legion that was probably the one that under Lollius lost its to German raiders in Gaul in 17 B.C.RS79795. Silver , 544/18, 1221, II East 196, 32, 354, 1479, VF, slightly off-center, banker's mark on , 3.714 g, maximum 17.7 mm, 180o, mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT AVG III. VIR. R. P. C., galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - V, legionary between two standards; $320.00 (€284.80)
Herakleia, , Italy, 3rd Century B.C.
The sea god , the son of Poseidon and , lived with his parents in a golden palace on the bottom of the sea. Also called Tritons were a group of fish-tailed sea gods or daimones, the Satyrs of the sea. Some, called Ikhthyokentauroi (Sea-Centaurs), had the upper bodies of men and the lower bodies of Hippokampoi (fish-tailed horses).
Glaucus began his life as a mortal fisherman from Anthedon, . He discovered a magical herb which could bring fish back to life, and decided to try eating it. The herb made him immortal, but he grew fins and a fish tail, forcing him to dwell forever in the sea. Glaucus was initially upset by this side-effect, but Oceanus and Tethys received him well and he was quickly accepted among the deities of the sea, learning from them the art of prophecy.GB83465. Bronze AE 13, cf. 144 ff.; 116 ff.; p. 234, 66; 1141; 265; 1437, VF, , nice , green , 2.151 g, maximum 13.1 mm, 180o, Heraklea (in Matera Province, Italy) mint, c. 276 - 250 B.C.; of right, wearing a crested Corinthian helmet; marine deity ( or Glaukos?) right, spear in right hand, in left hand, HPAKΛEIΩN below; very ; $270.00 (€240.30)
the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., ,
Pacensis (or Pacifica) was founded by . The colony assumed his family name, , and on account of Vespasian's devotion to the goddess of Peace (to whom he built a temple at ); it was called Pacensis (or Pacifica).RP77123. Bronze AE 22, 1746-1749 (same dies); 454, 3023(?); -, gVF, nice , nice , die wear and crack, 6.695 g, maximum 22.4 mm, (Debelt, Bulgaria) mint, Feb 244 - End Sep 249 A.D.; IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped, and right, from behind, centration dimple; CO-L FL PAC DEV,LT (LT in ), prow of galley left on waves, ram's on point of ram, octopus and swimming left beside hull above waves; Pecunem Gitbud & Naumann auction 31 (3 May 2015), lot 313; ; $240.00 (€213.60)
Phaselis, , 500 - 466 B.C.
Partial . The was re-struck off-center over a of the , leaving two clear impressions.GA83588. Silver tetrobol, 4396, 1200 var. (ΦA above galley, Σ below), -, -, VF, , , die wear, die cracks, partial , 3.507 g, maximum 15.0 mm, 90o, Phaselis mint, 500 - 440 B.C.; prow of war galley right in the form of a boar's forepart, partial with letters ΦA visible on ; stern right, ΦAΣ above, all in square; ex Numismatics, e-sale 21 (31 Oct 2015), 368; $230.00 (€204.70)
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