France, III, 1574 - 1589
Three months after Henri was made the elected of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, his brother, Charles IX of France, died and Henri returned to France to assume the French throne. Henri brought several Polish inventions back to France, including septic facilities which deposited excrement outside the castle walls, a bath with regulated hot and cold water, and the fork. Henri gave protestant Huguenots the right of public worship, except in and at Court. In response, I, Duke of Guise, formed the Catholic League. Henri III was eventually forced to flee . After he had the duke assassinated, Henri III prepared to return to but was murdered before he could return. During the French Revolution, Henri III was disinterred from his tomb, his body was desecrated and thrown into a common grave.
On May 31, 1575, III created a new 14.188 grams, .833 silver coin with the value of 20 sols tournois. The gold écu was set at 60 sols. The gold franc equaled 1/3 écu or 20 sols. This coin, corresponding to the value of the medieval gold franc, naturally took the name franc d'argent (silver franc). Our coin is a franc avec fraise, distinguished from the franc au col plat by the addition of a lace ruff to the king's collar. It was unique to the Toulouse mint. Due to constant clipping, the coinage of francs was suspended for on October 13, 1586. After the death of the , however, mints held by the Catholic League struck francs in his name.SH84614. Silver franc,
, Armenian , Roupen I, 1080 - 1095 A.D.
In 1080, Roupen I declared independent from the , founding the Roupenian dynasty, which ruled Cilician until 1219. He led bold and successful military campaigns against the Byzantines, including capturing the fortress of Pardzerpert (Andirin, Turkey today), which became a stronghold of the .SH66597. Bronze Pogh,
France, Louis XIV the Sun , 1643 - 1715
This coin is on an older coin, of a "reformation" process involving financial manipulations and impacting all French silver and from 1690 to 1709. The is a Louis XIV, demi-écu aux huit L, , workshop A, 1690 - 1693, 1515; : LVD•XIIII•D•G (sun) FR•ET•NAV•REX, draped and of Louis XIV right, wearing large wig, obscure date below; : (Mg) CHRS - - VINC - IMP ( ), formed of four groups of two L's, each arm under a crown cutting the , A ( mint workshop letter) in a at the center, lis in each quarter.SH84613. Silver demi-écu aux palmes,
France, Strasbourg, Louis XIV, 1684
The Free City of Strasbourg remained neutral during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) and retained its status as a Free Imperial City. However, the city was later annexed by Louis XIV of France to extend the borders of his kingdom. Louis' advisors believed that, as long as Strasbourg remained independent, it would endanger the King's newly annexed territories in Alsace, and, that to defend these large rural lands effectively, a garrison had to be placed in towns such as Strasbourg. Indeed, the bridge over the Rhine at Strasbourg had been used repeatedly by Imperial (Holy Roman Empire) forces, and three times during the Franco-Dutch War Strasbourg had served as a gateway for Imperial invasions into Alsace. In September 1681 Louis' forces, though lacking a clear casus belli, surrounded the city with overwhelming force. After some negotiation, Louis marched into the city unopposed on 30 September 1681 and proclaimed its annexation.SH84610. Silver Sol,
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy IX II (Lathyros), 2nd Reign, 88 - 80 B.C.
Ptolemy IX Lathyros was of three times with intervening periods ruled by his brother, Ptolemy X Alexander. His first reign ended when his mother and co-regent III claimed that he tried to kill her and replaced him with Alexander, her favorite son. Ptolemy IX, replaced the gold sarcophagus of Alexander the Great with a one and melted the original to strike . The citizens of were outraged and he was killed soon after.GP84839. Bronze AE 34,
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs less then 1/3 the of the even the lightest official Class B has handled. to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME73353. Bronze follaro, apparently unpublished, imitative of Class B
United Kingdom, , 20 June 1837 - 22 January 1901
Queen inherited the throne at 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The UK was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon and was identified with strict standards of personal morality. Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era.UK84149. Silver Florin,
Kingdom of Naples and , Philip IV of Spain, 31 March 1621 - 17 September 1665
Naples was ruled by the Crown of Aragon as of the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714.ME66312. Bronze 3 cavalli,
Normans, Kingdom of , Roger II, 1105 - 1154 A.D.
Roger II was of , son of Roger I of and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of in 1105, became Duke of and in 1127, and then of in 1130. Roger II is remembered for having united all of the Norman conquests in Italy under one strong central government. He was also the grandfather of Frederick II.ME70465. Bronze follaro,
United Kingdom, George IV, 29 January 1820 - 26 June 1830
From 1811 until his accession, George IV served as regent during his father's mental illness. He forbade his wife from attending his coronation and unsuccessfully attempted to divorce her, which brought the contempt of the people. For most of George's regency and reign, Prime Minister Lord Liverpool controlled the government with little from George. George's extravagant lifestyle and wasteful spending angered taxpayers at a time when Britain was fighting the Napoleonic Wars. He did not provide leadership in a time of crisis, nor did he act as a role model for his people. Liverpool led Britain's ultimate , negotiated the peace settlement, and attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. George IV was succeeded by his younger brother William.UK84145. Silver shilling,
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