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NEW Charles IX ascended the throne of France upon the death of his brother Francis II. After decades of tension, war broke out between Protestants and Catholics after the massacre of Vassy in 1562. In 1572, after several unsuccessful peace attempts, Charles ordered the marriage of his sister Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre, a major Protestant nobleman and the future King Henry IV of France, in a last desperate bid to reconcile his people. Facing popular hostility against this policy of appeasement, Charles allowed the massacre of all Huguenot leaders who gathered in Paris for the royal wedding at the instigation of his mother Catherine de' Medici. This event, known as the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, was a significant blow to the Huguenot movement. Religious civil warfare soon began anew. Charles ordered the Siege of La Rochelle, but was unable to take the Protestant stronghold. Charles died of tuberculosis without legitimate male issue in 1574 and was succeeded by his brother Henry III.SH96064. Gold ecu d'or, Duplessy 1057 var. (legends), Ciani 1343 var. (same), Friedberg 378 var. (same), Lafaurie 890 var. (same), Choice EF, double struck, weight 3.353 g, maximum diameter 25.3 mm, die axis 0o, Limoges mint, 1567; obverse (sun) CAROLVS:VIIII:D:G:FRANCO:REX: (Charles IX, by the Grace of God, King of France), crowned coat of arms (three fleur de lis); reverse + CRISTVS: REGNAT: VINGIT•ET•IMPE• (pellets under first G and N, floral ornament at end = mint master Jean Dubois), cross fleurée, I (mintmark) in lozenge at the center, arms ending in lis; ex Karl Stephens Inc. (Temple City, CA); this is the only example of this extremely rare variant known to FORVM; very rare; $1200.00 (€1104.00)
Byzantine Empire, Theme of Chaldia (Trebizond), Theodore Gabras, c. 1075 - 1126 A.D., In the Name of Alexius I
The general Theodore Gabras captured Trebizond and ruled it and the theme of Chaldia as a virtually autonomous state (c. 1081 - 1098). He was celebrated for his martial exploits, and was later venerated as a saint in the region. Following the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the region became the center of the new Empire of Trebizond which survived until falling to the Ottomans in 1461.BZ95867. Bronze follis, Bendall Trebizond (NC 77), p. 133, issue 13B & pl. 7, 18; DOC IV p. 433, 13b; Schlumberger pl. ii, 5; Hendy -; Wroth BMC -; Ratto -, gF, overstruck on Michael IV follis, dark brown patina, obverse off center, light marks, weight 6.735 g, maximum diameter 26.3 mm, die axis 180o, Trebizond (Trabzon, Turkey) mint, c. 1092 - 1098 A.D.; obverse facing bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and himation, Gospels in right hand, IC - XC (Greek: Ihsoús Xristós - Jesus Christ) across field; reverse Latin cross on three steps, a globule at the end of each arm, AΛBP (Greek: AΛεξιω Bασιλευϖ Pωμαιων - Alexius king of the Romans) in angles, Arab countermark 'Lillah" (For Allah); rare; $800.00 (€736.00)
Anglo-Gallic, Edward II, 1307 - 1326
NEW Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most efficient military powers in Europe. His reign saw vital developments in the evolution of the English parliament, the ravages of the Black Death and the beginning of the Hundred Years' War. He remained on the throne for 50 years.
The outer obverse legend abbreviates, "BENEDICTUM SIT NOMEN DOMINI NOSTRI," which means, "Blessed be the name of our Lord."ME95908. Silver maille blanche Hibernie, Elias 32, Duplessy Féodales 1049, Poey d'Avant 2864, SCBC-SII 8026; double annulet stops, gVF, light toning, weight 1.798 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 0o, Aquitaine mint, 1326; obverse inner legend: + ED' : REX AnGLIE (Edward King of England); outer legend: + BnDICTV : SIT : nOmE : DnI : nRI (Blessed be the name of the Lord), short cross pattée; reverse + DnS : hIBERnIE (Lord of Ireland), châtel tournois with two turreted towers, three pellets over gateway, and topped with a cross pattée, three pellets in a triangle below; all within tressure of arches containing twelve leaves; $380.00 (€349.60)
Anglo-Gallic, Henry V de Lancastre, King of England, 1413 - 1422
NEW Henry V was the second English monarch from the House of Lancaster. After fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndwr, and against the powerful aristocratic Percys of Northumberland at the Battle of Shrewsbury, Henry came into political conflict with his father, whose health was increasingly precarious after 1405. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War (1337-1453). His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 and he came close to conquering France. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes (1420) recognized Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne, and he was subsequently married to Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois. Following Henry V's sudden and unexpected death in France two years later, he was succeeded by his infant son, who reigned as Henry VI.ME96060. Silver Gros Florette, Elias 249a (R), Duplessy 435C, Ciani 591, Lafaurie 439c; leopard mintmark, VF, light toning, porous, edge cracks, weight 2.152 g, maximum diameter 24.7 mm, die axis 0o, Normandy, Rouen mint, 4th issue, authorized 16 Jun 1420; obverse (leopard) h:REX:ANGLIE:Z:hERES:FRANCIE:(Henry King of the Franks), triple pellet stops, annulet under 1st letter, crown above three fleurs-de-lis, leopard rampant on left and right; reverse (leopard) SIT: nOmE: DnI: BENEDICTV (the name of our Lord be blessed), triple pellet stops, S reversed(?), annulet under 1st letter, cross fleury, h within an annulet at center, crown in first quarter, lion in fourth quarter; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; rare; $370.00 (€340.40)
France, Louis XV the Beloved, 1715 - 1774
France took 20 Sols de Navarre coins minted in 1719 and 1720, re-struck them as Sixth Ecu de France (between the years of 1720 and 1723) essentially creating a coin worth 1 livre. These re-struck coins, however, were eventually assigned the value of 18 Sols.WO93952. Silver Ecu, SCWC KM 512.12, Duplessy 1680, Ciani 2122, Lafaurie 698, VF, nicely toned, weight 28.866 g, maximum diameter 41.5 mm, die axis 180o, Bayonne mint, 1771; obverse LVD•XV•D•G•FR•ET•NAV•REX (Louis XV, by the Grace of God, king of France and Navarre), young portrait left, laureate, two flowers (privy mark) below; reverse •SIT•NOMEN•DOMIN•BENEDICTVM*1771• (May the name of the Lord be blessed), crowned arms of France, crowned oval shield with three lis, surrounded by oak wreath; $360.00 (€331.20)
Anglo-Gallic, Henry VI de Lancastre, King of France and England, 1422 - 1453
NEW In 1422, the year old king of England inherited the French throne from his mad grandfather Charles VI of France; the iconography of this type represents the unification of the two nations. Ten years later Joan of Arc would make an appearance which would eventually loosen the English grip on France until by 1436 only Normandy and part of Maine remained in Henry's control.ME96059. Silver grand blanc aux écus, Elias 290a (RR), Duplessy 445, Ciani 602, Lafaurie 449, SCBC-SII 8166; rose mint mark (type II), F, dark patina, weight 2.709 g, maximum diameter 28.5 mm, die axis 180o, Troyes mint, 23 Nov 1422 - 1429; obverse (rose mm) FRANCORVm: ET: ANGLIE: REX (King of France and England), shields of France (on left) and England (on right), side by side, hERICVS above; reverse (rose mm) SIT: nOmEN: DnI: BENEDICTV (Blessed be the name of the Lord), Latin cross, fleur-de-lis to left, leopard left on right, hERICVS on a line below; ex Gordon Andreas Singer (17 Aug 1990), ex Peter Woodhead; very rare; $360.00 (€331.20)
France, John II the Good, 1350 - 1364 A.D.
NEW When John II the Good (French: Jean le Bon) came to power, France faced many disasters: the Black Death killed nearly half its population, there were popular revolts, unemployed mercenaries plundered the country, and losses to the English, including the Battle of Poitiers of 1356, in which John was captured. While John was a prisoner in London, his son Charles had to suppress several rebellions. To liberate his father, in 1360 Charles concluded the Treaty of Brétigny, by which France surrendered territory and promised to pay an enormous ransom. In an exchange of hostages, including his son Louis, John was released from captivity to raise funds for his ransom. Upon his return in France, he created the franc to stabilize the currency. John tried to get rid of the mercenaries by sending them on a crusade, but Pope Innocent VI died shortly before their planned meeting in Avignon. After his son Louis escaped from captivity, John shocked and dismayed his people by announcing that for "good faith and honor" he would voluntarily return to captivity in England. John was greeted in London in 1364 with parades and feasts, however, a few months after his arrival he fell ill with an unknown malady and died. His body was returned to France, where he was interred in the royal chambers at Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Charles V.ME95905. Silver Gros à la couronne, Duplessy 305, Ciani 397, Roberts 2624, Lafaurie I 308, F, toning, weight 3.705 g, maximum diameter 31.3 mm, die axis 300o, 22 Aug - 30 Oct 1358; obverse outer legend: + BNDICTV: SIT: nOmE: DnI: nRI: DEI: IhV: XPI (the name of our Lord Jesus Christ be blessed), inner legend: + IOhAnnES DEI : GRA (John by the Grace of God, two flowers legend break); cross fleury, base dividing inner legend; reverse crown, FRANCO / RV : REX in two lines below crown (three pellet within annulet inscription break), border of twelve lis within annulets; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; $340.00 (€312.80)
France, Charles VI the Well-Beloved, 1380 - 1422
This first issue is much scarcer than the subsequent issues. Although called Charles the Beloved by his subjects, he was also known as Charles the Mad. Charles's first episode occurred in 1392 during a military expedition. A page dropped the king's lance, which clanged loudly against a steel helmet. Charles shuddered, drew his sword and yelled "Forward against the traitors! They wish to deliver me to the enemy!" The king began swinging his sword at his companions, fighting until one of his chamberlains and a group of soldiers were able to grab him from his mount and lay him on the ground. He then fell into a coma. The king had killed a knight and several other men. Periods of mental illness continued throughout the king's life. During one in 1393, he could not remember his name, did not know his wife, and did not know he was king. During an episode in 1395-96 he claimed he was Saint George. At this time, he recognized all the officers of his household, but did not know his wife nor his children. Sometimes he ran wildly through the corridors of his Parisian residence, and to keep him inside, the entrances were walled up. In 1405, he refused to bathe or change his clothes for five months. His later psychotic episodes were not described in detail, perhaps because of the similarity of his behavior and delusions. There were times when Charles thought that he was made of glass. He had iron rods sewn into his clothes so that he would not shatter if he came into contact with another person.ME96062. Silver blanc guenar, Duplessy 377, Ciani 506, Roberts 2981, Lafaurie 381, aVF, full legends, toned, scratches, weight 3.191 g, maximum diameter 27.1 mm, die axis 180o, Paris mint, 1st emission, 11 Mar 1385 - 1389; obverse +KAROLVS:FRANCORV:REX: (Charles, King of France, double pellet stops), arms of France (three lis), double inner border; reverse +SIT:NOME:D N I:BENEDICTV (the name of our Lord be blessed, triple pellet stops), cross pattée, crown in 1st and 4th quarters, lis in 2nd and 3rd quarters; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; scarce; $320.00 (€294.40)
France, Louis XIV the Sun King, 1643 - 1715
NEW Under Louis XIV, the Sun King, France reached the apogee of its power. His reign began at age four and lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days; one of the longest of any European monarch. He fought three major wars: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession. Louis converted a hunting lodge into the spectacular Palace of Versailles, and by compelling the noble elite to inhabit his lavish palace, he pacified the aristocracy and eliminated the remnants of feudalism. He consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution.WO95907. Silver demi-écu aux huit L, Duplessy 1515A (1690D), Ciani 1890, SCWC KM 273.3, gF/aVF, toned, scratches, weight 12.950 g, maximum diameter 33.9 mm, die axis 180o, Lyon (D) mint, 1st reformation (rev. star), 1690; obverse LVD•XIIII•D•G (sun) FR•ET•NAV•REX• (Louis XIV, by the grace of God, king of France and Navarre), draped, bare-headed bust right, D 1690 • below; reverse CHRS REGN VINC IMP * (Christus regnat vincit imperat: Christ reigns, conquers, and commands), cross of eight L's with crown at each end, D (mintmark) in circle at center, fleur-de-lis in each angle; $300.00 (€276.00)
Anglo-Gallic, Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Aquitaine, 1362 - 1372
NEW Edward of Woodstock (15 June 1330 - 8 June 1376), called the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, and the father of King Richard II of England. He was the first Duke of Cornwall (from 1337), the Prince of Wales (from 1343) and the Prince of Aquitaine (1362-72). He was an exceptional military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular in England during his lifetime. Edward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become King of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II, a minor, upon the death of Edward III.ME96063. Silver esterlin (sterling), Elias 188a (S), SCBC-SII 8133, Duplessy Féodales 1125A, Boudeau 511, Poey d'Avant 2946, F, light tone, oval flan, clashed obverse die, strike a bit weak, obverse double struck, weight 0.969 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 315o, Bordeaux mint, second issue; obverse + : ED' PO·GIT·REG·AnGL B (Edwardus Primo Genetis Regis Anglie Princeps, double annulet before legend, double pellet in annulet stops), half-length figure of Edward right, wearing floral wreath. sword in right hand over right shoulder, raising left hand in benediction, within inner border; reverse PRn-CPS - AQI-TAn (Prince of Aquitaine, double annulet before legend), long cross pattée, trefoil of three pellets in each quarter; scarce; $280.00 (€257.60)
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