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Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, October 49 - 15 March 44 B.C., L. Aemilus Buca
"The coin that killed Caesar." The obverse legend declares Caesar is "Dictator for Life" and he wears the veil, symbolic of his life-term position as Pontifex Maximus. Caesar would be both the dictator and high priest of Rome for the remainder of his life, but his life would end only a few weeks after this coin was struck. For Caesar to put his image on coins and in effect declare himself king was too much for Brutus and his republican allies. On the Ides of March (15 March) 44 B.C. Caesar was stabbed to death by as many as 60 conspirators, led by Brutus and Cassius. According to Plutarch, a seer had warned that harm would come to Caesar no later than the Ides of March. On his way to the Theater of Pompey, where he would be assassinated, Caesar passed the seer and joked, "The ides of March have come," meaning to say that the prophecy had not been fulfilled, to which the seer replied, "Aye, Caesar, but not gone." This meeting is famously dramatized in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar when Caesar is warned by the soothsayer to "beware the Ides of March."
Minted for Caesar's planned Parthian war, this type was often carelessly struck indicating the mint was working under great pressure.SH89754. Silver denarius, Crawford 480/7b, Sydenham 1062, Sear CRI 104a, RSC I Julius Caesar 24, Russo RBW 1682, BMCRR I Rome 4155, SRCV I 1410, aEF, toned, light marks, off center, irregular flan with edge splits , weight 3.780 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 0o, struck by L. Aemilus Buca, Rome mint, lifetime issue, Feb - Mar 44 B.C.; obverse CAESAR DICT PERPETVO, wreathed head of Caesar right; reverse Venus seated left, Victory in extended right, long transverse scepter in left hand, L:BVCA downward behind; ex CNG e-auction 353 (17 Jun 2015), lot 409; rare; $1350.00 (€1188.00)
Roman Republic, Julius Caesar, Posthumous, 42 B.C., Moneyer L. Livineius Regulus
L. Livineius Regulus had served with Caesar in North Africa.SH87936. Silver denarius, SRCV I 1425, Crawford 494/24, Sear CRI 115, Sydenham 1106, RSC I 27, BMCRR Rome 4274, F, iridescent rainbow toning, well centered, banker's mark, weight 3.462 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, posthumous, 42 B.C.; obverse wreathed head of Julius Caesar right, laurel branch behind, winged caduceus before; reverse L LIVINEIVS / REGVLVS, bull charging right; rare; $610.00 (€536.80)
Roman Republic, L. Sulla and L. Manlius Torquatus, 82 B.C.
L. Manlius Torquatus was proquaestor to Sulla during the Mithridatic war (he was later Consul - 65 B.C.); this issue was struck for the civil war in Italy 82 B.C. RR89737. Silver denarius, Crawford 367/5; Sydenham 757; RSC I Manlia 4; BMCRR II p. 461, 5; Russo RBW 1386; SRCV I 286, Choice EF, well centered and struck with attractive dies, nice rose toning, light marks, tiny edge cracks, weight 4.063 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 0o, military mint, 82 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right, PRO Q (proquaestor) downward behind, L MANLI upward before; reverse Sulla walking in a quadriga right, holding reins in right hand and caduceus in left, crowned by Victory flying above, L SVLLA IM (imperator) in exergue; $600.00 (€528.00)
Luceria, Apulia, Italy, c. 211 - 200 B.C.
In 321 B.C., the Romans, deceived into thinking Lucera was under siege by the Samnites, walked into an ambush and were defeated. The town threw out the Samnites, sought Roman protection, and in 320 B.C. was granted the status of Colonia Togata, which meant it was ruled by the Roman Senate. To strengthen ties, 2,500 Romans moved to Lucera. Roman culture merged with the native one slowly, probably accompanied by cross-cultural marriages, but Lucera was a steadfast supporter of Rome. By the 2nd century B.C., the rustic town was transformed into a proper Roman city with houses, public buildings, paved roads, sidewalks and services for travelers, accommodation for livestock with running water, and warehouses for storing goods.GB86125. Bronze uncia, SNG ANS 709; SNG Cop 663; SNG BnF 1368; SNG München 504; HN Italy 682; BMC Italy p. 141, 62; Hunterian -, VF, rough, weight 4.084 g, maximum diameter 14.9 mm, die axis 0o, Luceria mint, c. 211 - 200 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, bow and quiver at shoulder, pellet behind; reverse LOVC-ERI, toad seen from above; very rare; $540.00 (€475.20)
Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., Struck by Octavian
According to Livy, the caduceus, a symbol of peace, was sometimes carried by diplomats sent to negociate a treaty. Antony and Octavian allied to defeat Caesar's assassins, but after defeating Brutus and Cassius, each was determined to obtain absolute power. While Antony was in Egypt, his brother and his wife gathered an army to remove Octavian but they were defeated. Antony and Octavian met with their armies at Brundisium, but the legions, both Caesarian, refused to fight. The two men reached an agreement. This is when this coin was struck by Octavian's mint with Antony's portrait on the obverse. It appeared that peace was finally reigning in the Roman world, but it only was a short calm before another storm. RR89740. Silver denarius, Crawford 529/3, Sydenham 1328, Sear CRI 303, BMCRR II Gaul 94, Russo RBW 1817, RSC I Mark Antony 5, F, uneven toning, light marks, weight 3.488 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 270o, travelling mint with Octavian mint, 39 B.C.; obverse ANTONIVS IMP, bare head right; reverse CAESAR - IMP (counterclockwise below), winged caduceus; rare; $500.00 (€440.00)
Roman Republic, M. Marcius Mn. F., 134 B.C.
M. Marcius Mn. F.was a moneyer in 134 B.C., a magistrate, responsible for the production of the Roman coinage. In 134 B.C., Scipio Aemilianus took command in Hispania to finish what lesser generals had failed to do. He recruited 20,000 soldiers and 40,000 allies, including Numidian cavalry under Jugurtha. He constructed a circumvallation around Numantia with seven towers from which his archers could shoot into the city and put chains across a river where it entered and exited. The city refused to surrender and starvation set in. Cannibalism and suicides of whole families ensued. The remnant population finally surrendered only after setting their city on fire. Late in the summer of 133 Scipio leveled the ruins. RR89774. Silver denarius, Crawford 245/1, Sydenham 500, RSC I Marcia 8, BMCRR I Rome 1008, Russo RBW 1009, SRCV I 122, EF, much mint luster, reverse slightly off center, tiny edge cracks, weight 3.947 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 15o, Rome mint, 134 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, modius behind, X (XVI ligature, mark of value=16 asses) below chin; reverse Victory in a biga right, whip in right, reins in left, M - MAR-C (MAR ligate) over RO-MA below, both divided by two heads of grain; $450.00 (€396.00)
Roman Republic, Q. Pomponius Musa, 66 B.C.
Many of the Roman moneyers had a solid sense of humor and word play with homonyms was very popular. Pomponius Musa, playing on his name, issued ten types each depicting Hercules Musagetes (Conductor of the Muses) or one of nine different Muses, creating one of the most interesting and sought after series of the Republican coinage. This coin depicts Melpomene, the muse of Tragedy.RR89043. Silver denarius, RSC I Pomponia 14, Crawford 410/4, Sydenham 816, SRCV I 354, VF, attractive head of Apollo, light toning, light marks, off center, some encrustation, weight 3.453 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 66 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, scepter behind; reverse Melpomene, muse of tragedy, standing left, resting right hand on club, tragic mask in left, MVSA downward on left, Q POMPONI downward on right; ex Harlan J. Berk auction 156, lot 242; $380.00 (€334.40)
Roman Republic, Canusium CA Series, 209 - 208 B.C., Overstruck on Oiniadai, Akarnania Bronze
The Battle of Canusium was a three-day engagement during the spring of 209 B.C., the tenth year of the Second Punic War. It was part of a larger Roman offensive aimed to subjugate and to punish cities and tribes that had abandoned the alliance with Rome after the Battle of Cannae, and to narrow Hannibal's base in southern Italy. Neither side gained a decisive victory and both suffered considerable losses (up to 14,000 killed overall). The outcome has been interpreted with varied perspectives by both ancient and modern historians. While Marcellus took a heavy blow at Canusium, he nevertheless checked for some time the movements of the main Punic forces and thus contributed to other Roman successes against Hannibal's allies in Magna Graecia and Lucania. RR89748. Bronze triens, cf. Russo RBW 450 (also overstruck), Crawford 100/3, Sydenham 309c, BMCRR II Italy 266 8, SRCV I 930, gF, clear undertype: overstruck on a Zeus / Head of river-god Acheloüs issue of Oiniadai, Akarnania (cf. BCD Akarnania 349), weight 5.388 g, maximum diameter 23.6 mm, die axis 90o, Apulia, Canusium (Canosa, southern Italy) mint, 209 - 208 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Minerva right, four pellets above, CA behind; undertype: profile of Acheloüs clear, in an inverted Janiform position, with a trident above his head; reverse prow of galley right, apotropaic eye on side of hull, long diagonal prow stem, ROMA above, CA before, four pellets below; undertype: profile of Zeus clear with nose on the coin edge at 1:00; ex RBW Collection; $300.00 (€264.00)
Roman Republic, L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus, 89 B.C.
This moneyer traced his descent from the Sabines and perhaps from King Tatius himself. Tarpeia was daughter of the commander of the citadel in Rome. She offered to open the gates for the besieging Sabines, if they would give her what they wore on their left arms, meaning their gold bracelets. The Sabines were unable to enter the citadel; its open gates were miraculously protected by boiling jets of water created by Janus. Keeping their promise, the Sabines threw the shields they worn on their left arms upon Tarpeia, crushing her to death, and then they kicked her off a cliff. This myth was likely used to explain the Tarpeian Rock, a cliff on the Capitoline Hill from which murderers and traitors were thrown. SL89813. Silver denarius, Crawford 344/2c, Sydenham 699a, RSC I Tituria 5, BMCRR I Rome 2326, SRCV I 252, NGC AU, strike 4/5, surface 5/5 (4282339-001), weight 3.96 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 89 B.C.; obverse bare head of Sabine King Tatius right, palm frond below chin, SABIN behind, A.PV (argento publico) before; reverse Tarpeia buried to her waist in shields, trying to repel soldiers who are about to cast shields upon her, star over and within crescent with horns up above, left TITVRI in exergue; from the Martineit Collection of Ancient and World Coins; $250.00 (€220.00)
Roman Republic, L. Caecilius Metellus Diadematus, 128 B.C.
In 128 B.C., the Greco-Bactrian kingdom was overrun by the Tocharians and renamed Tocharistan. RR89756. Silver denarius, RSC I Caecilia 38, Crawford 262/1, Sydenham 496, BMCRR I Rome 1044, Russo RBW 1060, SRCV I 138, VF, broad flan, light toning, flow lines, some die wear, weight 3.926 g, maximum diameter 194 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, 128 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, X (XVI ligature = 16 asses) behind, wearing single drop earring and pearl necklace; reverse Pax driving a galloping biga right, olive branch in right hand, reins and scepter in left hand, elephant head with bell at neck below, ROMA in exergue; $200.00 (€176.00)
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