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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Gods, Non-Olympian| ▸ |River God||View Options:  |  |  |   

River Gods
Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Tyre, Phoenicia

|Phoenicia|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.,| |Tyre,| |Phoenicia|, |dichalkon|NEW
Romans refounded Tyre as a colony in 64 B.C., when Pompey annexed Phoenicia to the Roman Empire. Tyre flourished under the Rome and remained a Roman port city, even under the Byzantine Empire, until the 7th century when it was taken by Muslim conquest.
RP96396. Bronze dichalkon, BMC Phoenicia p. 289, 465 var. (murex shell on right); Rouvier -; Baramki AUB -; SNG Hunt -; SNG Cop -, F, rough dark green patina, earthen deposits, weight 16.345 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 0o, Tyre mint, Oct 253 - Jun 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, laureate bust right; reverse COL TVRO METR, river-god (Adonis?) standing facing, head left, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, right hand dropping incense on flaming altar at her feet on left, long grounded reed vertical in left hand, murex shell on left; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, 1971 Caesarea Maritima surface find; Coin Archives records only one specimen of the type at auction in the last two decades; extremely rare; $450.00 SALE |PRICE| $400.00
 


Neapolis, Campania, Italy, c. 350 - 326 B.C.

|Italy|, |Neapolis,| |Campania,| |Italy,| |c.| |350| |-| |326| |B.C.|, |quarter| |or| |half| |unit|
This is either an underweight early half unit or an overweight quarter unit. The usual half unit has a star on the man-faced bull's shoulder, but a few heavy specimens suggest an early series of half-units was struck without the star. Perhaps the star was introduced after they discovered it could difficult to differentiate between the denominations. Click to see a larger image.
GI89069. Bronze quarter or half unit, cf. Potamikon 195 (half unit) or Potamikon 196 ff. (quarter unit), aF, heavy flan, green and red mottled patina, reverse die wear and break at 10:00, tiny edge cracks, weight 4.283 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 225o, Neapolis (Naples, Italy) mint, c. 350 - 326 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, laurel leaves in triple clusters; reverse NEOΠOΛITEΩN (or similar, clockwise starting behind), forepart of river-god Acheloios Sebethos as a man-faced bull right, head in profile, linear border, no star on shoulder; very rare; $220.00 SALE |PRICE| $198.00
 


Neapolis, Campania, Italy, c. 275 - 250 B.C.

|Italy|, |Neapolis,| |Campania,| |Italy,| |c.| |275| |-| |250| |B.C.|, |didrachm|
Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Bronze Age Greek settlements were established in the second millennium B.C. The city was refounded as Neapolis in the sixth century B.C. and became an important hub of Magna Graecia, playing a key role in the merging of Greek culture into Roman society. Naples remained influential under Rome and more so after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, serving as the capital city of the Kingdom of Naples between 1282 and 1816. Thereafter, it became the capital of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.
SL94272. Silver didrachm, SNG ANS 1, 382; SNG BnF 6.1, 762-765; SNG Lockett 87; SNG Cop 441; HN Italy 586, NGC VF, strike 4/5, surface 1/5 (5770028-012), weight 6.995 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 0o, Neapolis (Naples, Italy) mint, 275 - 250 B.C.; obverse diademed head of the siren Parthenope left, wearing triple-pendant earring and pearl necklace, TAP behind neck, EYΞ below neck truncation; reverse river-god Acheloios as a man-faced bull walking right, head turned facing, crowned with wreath by Nike flying right above, EΠI below, NEOΠOΛITΩN in exergue; NGC| Lookup; $195.00 SALE |PRICE| $175.00
 


Syracuse, Sicily, Timoleon and the Third Democracy, c. 344 - 317 B.C.

|Syracuse|, |Syracuse,| |Sicily,| |Timoleon| |and| |the| |Third| |Democracy,| |c.| |344| |-| |317| |B.C.|, |hemilitron|
Timoleon installed a democracy in 345 B.C. After the long series of internal struggles had weakened Syracuse's power, Timoleon tried to remedy this, defeating the Carthaginians near the Krimisos river in 339 B.C. Unfortunately the struggle among the city's parties restarted after his death and ended with the rise of another tyrant, Agathocles, who seized power in 317 B.C.
GI91325. Bronze hemilitron, Calciati II p. 211, 92 DS 25 (same obv. die); BMC Sicily p. 188, 304 var. (no helmet); SNG ANS 1384 var. (same); HGC 2 1505 (S); SNG Cop -; SNG Mün -, gVF, well centered, rough corrosion/encrustation, weight 2.588 g, maximum diameter 14.4 mm, Syracuse mint, c. 336 - 317 B.C.; obverse head of head of nymph Arethusa facing slightly left, Thessalian helmet (control symbol) left; reverse ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, Pegasos forepart flying left, archaic curved wing; Ex Eric J. Engstrom Collection; scarce; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00
 


Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

|Roman| |Egypt|, |Antoninus| |Pius,| |August| |138| |-| |7| |March| |161| |A.D.,| |Roman| |Provincial| |Egypt|, |drachm|
The Nilometer measured the height of the annual Nile flood. Sixteen cubits was considered the ideal height of the annual Nile flood. Less could mean drought or famine. Even in modern times, grand celebrations were held when the flood reached 16 cubits. In years when the flood failed to reach 16 cubits, the celebrations were canceled, and prayers and fasting were held instead. The peak flood occurred at the end of August, which explains why the Egyptian year began on 29 August.
RX94446. Bronze drachm, Geissen 1708; Savio 2764; Milne 2230; BMC Alexandria p. 136, 1152; Kampmann 35.602; SNG Cop -; Hunterian -, aF, a few pits, edge splits, weight 21.805 g, maximum diameter 39.9 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 153 - 28 Aug 154; obverse AYT K T AIΛ A∆P ANTWNINOC CEB EYC, laureate and draped bust right, from behind; reverse Nilus reclining left, reed in right, genius emerging from cornucopia in his left, wearing lotus crown, himation from waist down, domed Nilometer in background on left, L I-Z (year 17) above, crocodile right and water plants below; $125.00 SALE |PRICE| $113.00
 


Macedonian Kingdom, Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C.

|Macedonian| |Kingdom|, |Macedonian| |Kingdom,| |Philip| |V| |or| |Perseus,| |187| |-| |168| |B.C.|, |AE| |21|
This coin was found in Southwestern Bulgaria (Serdi region) in 1997 alongside imitatives of the type struck by the Serdi Celts. The choice was appropriate for the Serdi Celts as the river Strymon runs through the Serdi region.
CE46744. Copper AE 21, SNG Cop 1299, SNG Alpha Bank -, SNG Munchen,, VF, nice blue-green patina, weight 6.928 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 0o, Amphipolis mint, 187 - 168 B.C.; obverse head of river-god, Strymon, right, with short horns and crown of reeds; reverse ornamented trident head, MAKE/∆ONΩN in two flanking upward lines, monograms below; ex Alex G. Malloy Serdi Celts Collection; scarce; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00
 


Macedonian Kingdom, Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C.

|Macedonian| |Kingdom|, |Macedonian| |Kingdom,| |Philip| |V| |or| |Perseus,| |187| |-| |168| |B.C.|, |AE| |23|
This coin was found in Southwestern Bulgaria (Serdi region) in 1997 alongside imitatives of the type struck by the Serdi Celts. The choice was appropriate for the Serdi Celts as the river Strymon runs through the Serdi region.
GB46739. Copper AE 23, SNG Cop 1299, SNG Alpha Bank -, SNG Munchen,, VF, dark green patina, porous, weight 7.113 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 0o, Amphipolis mint, 187 - 168 B.C.; obverse head of river-god, Strymon, right, with short horns and crown of reeds; reverse ornamented trident head, MAKE/∆ONΩN in two flanking upward lines, monograms below; ex Alex G. Malloy Serdi Celts Collection; scarce; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
 


Danubian Celts, Serdi Region, Moesia, 168 - 31 B.C.

|Serdi| |Celtic| |Bronze|, |Danubian| |Celts,| |Serdi| |Region,| |Moesia,| |168| |-| |31| |B.C.|, |AE| |20|
Celtic imitative of a rare Macedonian issue struck under Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C. The choice was appropriate for the Serdi Celts as the river Strymon runs through the Serdi region.
CE46740. Bronze AE 20, Malloy Danubian Celts type F6B; imitative of a Macedonian Kingdom (Philip V or Perseus) type, 187 - 168 B.C., SNG Cop 1299, VF, very crude, weight 7.541 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 225o, tribal mint, 187 - 168 B.C.; obverse reed-wreathed head of the river god Strymon right; reverse trident, dashes imitating monograms and inscription; ex Alex G. Malloy Serdi Celts Collection; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
 


Danubian Celts, Serdi Region, Moesia, 168 - 31 B.C.

|Serdi| |Celtic| |Bronze|, |Danubian| |Celts,| |Serdi| |Region,| |Moesia,| |168| |-| |31| |B.C.|, |AE| |19|
Celtic imitative of a rare Macedonian issue struck under Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C. The choice was appropriate for the Serdi Celts as the river Strymon runs through the Serdi region.
CE46742. Bronze AE 19, Malloy Danubian Celts type F3B; imitative of a Macedonian Kingdom (Philip V or Perseus) type, 187 - 168 B.C., SNG Cop 1299, VF, green patina, weight 6.743 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, tribal mint, 187 - 168 B.C.; obverse reed-wreathed head of the river god Strymon right; reverse trident, stylized dolphin ornaments between the prongs and flanking shaft, monograms flanking shaft below, blundered illiterate imitation of an inscription; ex Alex G. Malloy Serdi Celts Collection; scarce; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
 


Danubian Celts, Serdi Region, Moesia, 168 - 31 B.C.

|Serdi| |Celtic| |Bronze|, |Danubian| |Celts,| |Serdi| |Region,| |Moesia,| |168| |-| |31| |B.C.|, |AE| |20|
Celtic imitative of a rare Macedonian issue struck under Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C. The choice was appropriate for the Serdi Celts as the river Strymon runs through the Serdi region.
CE46743. Bronze AE 20, Malloy Danubian Celts type B3C; imitative of a Macedonian Kingdom (Philip V or Perseus) type, 187 - 168 B.C., SNG Cop 1299, VF, weight 8.038 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 315o, tribal mint, 187 - 168 B.C.; obverse reed-wreathed head of the river god Strymon right; reverse trident, stylized dolphin ornaments between prongs and flanking shaft, blundered monograms flanking shaft below, blundered illiterate inscription; ex Alex G. Malloy Serdi Celts Collection; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
 




  



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REFERENCES|

Imhoof-Blumer, F. "Fluss- und Meergötter auf griechischen und römischen Münzen (Personifikationen der Gewässer)" in RSN 23 (1923), pp. 173-421.
Malloy, A. "The Danubian Celts" in Alex G. Malloy Auction Sale XLVI, June 24, 1997. NumisWiki webpage
Molinari, N.J. & N. Sisci. Potamikon: Sinews of Acheloios. A Comprehensive Catalog of the Bronze Coinage of the Man-Faced Bull, With Essays on Origin and Identity. (Oxford, 2016).

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