I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D.,
I, son of the famed general Count , was made by after the disastrous battle of Hadrianople. He repulsed a invasion and destroyed the forces of and . He reigned 36 years.AS65213. Lead (tag seal), Conical, uniface, with three draped facing busts; commonly attributed to I and his sons and , VF, 9.335 g, maximum 19.4 mm, $60.00 (€53.40)
The , was a of Roman cavalry , a with a military ensign marked with the (Greek of Christ). It was an object of religious veneration amongst the soldiers, who paid it divine honors.
RL84200. Bronze , 38(b)1, II 1570, 20450, 23, VF, and struck, light marks and corrosion, 2.374 g, maximum 18.8 mm, 0o, 1st , (Sisak, Croatia) mint, fall 384 - summer 387 A.D.; D N THEODOSIVS , pearl-diademed, draped, and right; , emperor standing slightly right, left, right hand on of captive kneeling right on one knee with bound behind his back, (Chi-Rho ) in left hand, in ; ; $55.00 (€48.95)
or is seen with wings in most and paintings, with one of the most famous being the Winged of Samothrace. Most other winged deities in the Greek had shed their wings by Classical times. is the goddess of strength, speed, and . was a very close acquaintance of and is thought to have stood in Athena's outstretched hand in the statue of located in the Parthenon. or is also one of the most commonly portrayed figures on Greek and Roman coins.
RL84230. Bronze half , Cyzicus 26(b)2, II 2577, 20561, 30, VF, and struck, dark with buff earthen highlighting, edge cracks, 1.315 g, maximum 14.8 mm, 0o, 2nd , Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 28 Aug 388 - 15 May 392 A.D.; D N THEODOSIVS , pearl-diademed, draped, and right; , walking left, right, carrying in right hand, dragging captive with left hand, left, SMKB in ; $40.00 (€35.60)
In 393, I outlawed the Olympic Games, ending a thousand years of festivals, as of the general Christian policy to establish universal Christian worship in accordance with the doctrines set forth in the Nicene Creed.
BB77671. Bronze maiorina, 88(a)4, II 2186, 20489, 18, F, , dark , edge split, 5.367 g, maximum 21.8 mm, 180o, 4th , Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 15 May 392 - 17 Jan 395 A.D.; D N THEODOSIVS , pearl-diademed, draped, and right; , emperor standing facing, right, wearing military attire, in right hand, globe in left hand, ∆ in ; $28.00 (€24.92)
was born in Cauca, Gallaecia, (according to Hydatius and Zosimus) or , , (according to Marcellinus , later). He was the son of General and learned his military lessons by campaigning with his father's staff in where he had gone to quell the Great Conspiracy in 368.
RL77945. Bronze maiorina, Cyzicus 23.2, II 2563, 20483, 19, VF, dark green , porous, light earthen deposits, 5.434 g, maximum 22.7 mm, 180o, 2nd , Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 25 Aug 383 - 386 A.D.; D N THEODOSIVS , helmeted, pearl-diademed, draped, and right, spear in right hand pointed forward, in left hand; , Emperor standing facing on galley left, right, wearing helmet and military garb, flying behind, raising right hand in salute, steering at stern, T in upper left , SMKB in ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $28.00 (€24.92)
On 19 January 379, Emperor elevated Flavius at , giving him the title with power over all the eastern provinces. came to terms with the and settled them in the Balkans as military allies ( ).
RL79895. Bronze maiorina, Cyzicus 14(c)3, II 2550, 20482, 19, VF/F, , rough, bumps and scratches, corrosion, edge cracks, 4.442 g, maximum 23.2 mm, 0o, 3rd , Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 19 Jan 379 - 25 Aug 383 A.D.; D N THEODOSIVS , helmeted, pearl-diademed, draped, and right, transverse spear in right hand, on left arm; , Emperor standing slightly left on galley, right, wearing helmet and military garb, flying behind, raising right hand in salute, seated steering at stern, left, SMKΓ in ; $28.00 (€24.92)
In 390, the population of rioted against the presence of a garrison. The garrison commander was killed. In retaliation, ordered the Goths to kill all the spectators in the . Theodoret, a witness, reports: "...the anger of the Emperor rose to the highest pitch, and he gratified his vindictive desire for vengeance by unsheathing the sword most unjustly and tyrannically against all, slaying the innocent and guilty alike. It is said seven thousand perished without any forms of law, and without even having judicial sentence passed upon them; but that, like ears of wheat in the time of harvest, they were alike cut down." was excommunicated by the of , Saint Ambrose for the massacre. Ambrose told to imitate David in his repentance as he had imitated him in guilt. Ambrose readmitted the emperor to the Eucharist only after several months of penance.BB83835. Bronze half , 62(b) (S), II 1859, 20553, 16, VF, nice green , 1.640 g, maximum 13.1 mm, 105o, (Salonika, ) mint, fall 384 - Aug 388 A.D.; D N THEODOSIVS , pearl-diademed, draped, and right; REIPVLICE, campgate with two towers, TES in ; ; $28.00 (€24.92)
issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state of the Roman Empire. He allowed the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of in and the Serapeum in . He dissolved the order of the Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient . It was not until the end of the 19th century, in 1896, that Olympics were held again.
BB83893. Bronze half
In the spring of 387, I increased the taxes in Antioch. The peasants rioted and set fire to public buildings. sent imperial troops to quell the disturbance and closed the public and theaters.
RL77766. Bronze , Antioch 44(a)1, II 2671, 20528, 6, aVF, , scratches, partially uncleaned, 1.973 g, maximum 18.2 mm, 0o, 3rd , Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 19 Jan 379 - 25 Aug 383 A.D.; D N THEODOSIVS , pearl-diademed, draped, and right; , seated facing on throne, turreted right, in right hand, resting left hand on knee, ANTΓ in ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $24.00 (€21.36)
Treaties with the Goths, signed 3 October 382, permitted large contingents of barbarians, primarily Thervingian Goths, to settle south of the Danube frontier and largely govern themselves. The treaties included military obligations which required the Goths to fight for the Romans as a national contingent, as opposed to being fully integrated into the Roman forces. However, many Goths would serve in Roman legions and others, as , for a single campaign. Bands of Goths switching loyalties became a destabilizing factor in the internal struggles for control of the Empire.
RL77780. Bronze , 57(d)3, II 2128, 20531, 5, VF, dark green , , earthen encrustations, light scratches, 1.972 g, maximum 16.5 mm, 0o, 2nd , Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 19 Jan 379 - 9 Aug 383 A.D.; D N THEODOSIVS , pearl-diademed, draped, and right; , seated facing on throne, helmeted right, in right hand, globe in left hand, right leg bare, right foot on prow, o left, CONSB in ; $24.00 (€21.36)
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