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Roman Republic, Anonymous, c. 280 - 276 B.C., Heavy Series
All the references only describe the pellets as below the dolphin. None of the references include a variation with pellets above, but Crawford and HN Italy note the dolphin is sometimes left, which may actually be describing pellets above. There are a few examples with the pellets above on Coin Archives.RR93746. Aes grave triens, cf. Crawford 14/3; HN Italy 270; Haeberlin pp. 95- 97, pl. 39, 6 ff.; Thurlow-Vecchi 3; Sydenham 10; Vecchi ICC 27 (all with pellets below), VF, dark green patina, earthen deposits, casting flaw, weight 96.948 g, maximum diameter 53.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 280 - 276 B.C.; obverse dolphin swimming right •••• (mark of value) above; reverse fulmen (thunderbolt) •••• (mark of value) perpendicular to the fulmen in center; from the Errett Bishop Collection, very rare with the pellets above the dolphin, huge AE53!; $1500.00 (€1380.00)
Syracuse, Sicily, Timoleon and the Third Democracy, c. 344 - 317 B.C.
Threatened by Carthage and dominated by Hiketas, the tyrant of Leontini, Syracusans sent an appeal for help to their mother city, Corinth. By a unanimous vote Corinth selected Timoleon to set sail for Sicily with a few leading citizens of Corinth and a small troop of Greek mercenaries. After defeating Hiketas, Timoleon put order to Syracuse' affairs and established a democratic government. He repelled Carthage in several wars, ending with a treaty which divided the island. Timoleon then retired without any title or office, though he remained practically supreme. He became blind before his death, but when important issues were under discussion he was carried to the assembly to give his opinion, which was usually accepted. When he died the citizens of Syracuse erected a monument to his memory, afterward surrounded with porticoes, and a gymnasium called Timoleonteum.GI95238. Silver dilitron, SNG ANS 518; SNG Cop 717; SNG Munchen 1126; BMC Sicily p. 186, 283; Weber 1644; HGC 2 1373 (R2), VF, well centered, very dark toning, porosity, edge crack, weight 1.226 g, maximum diameter 14.3 mm, die axis 45o, Syracuse mint, c. 344 - 317 B.C.; obverse laureate Janiform female head, ΣYPAKOΣI-ΩN upward on left, two dolphins nose to nose on right; reverse horse galloping right, barley ear right above, N below; ex Forum (2018); rare; $400.00 (€368.00)
Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.
The shopping mall is not a new idea. The Macellum Magnum was a shopping mall located on the Caelian Hill in Rome, dedicated by Nero in 59 A.D. The building had flanking wings of slightly different construction and a central dome which may have been 120 feet (36 meters) in diameter. Records indicate the mall was still open in the fourth century A.D. Part of it may be incorporated into the church of S. Stefano Rotundo which stands today.The Macellum Magnum appears to have been the model for many medieval government buildings in Europe, all the U.S. state capitols and the U.S. national capitol building. (Source: Monumental Coins by Marvin Tameanko) SH26038. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC I 400, SRCV I 1963 variety, VF, weight 13.650 g, maximum diameter 28.9 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 64 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P, laureate head left; reverse MAC AVG S C, Macellum Magnum (great market), two-story, domed section, wings unequal height, steps with dolphin on each side, Neptune statue holding a long scepter inside; ex CNG Sale 60 #35, one of FORVM's favorite Roman Coins; SOLD