and Divus , , 36 B.C., , Gaul
was originally founded as the Roman city , a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became increasingly referred to as by the end of the 1st century A.D. The etymology of is a latinization of the Gaulish place name Lugodunon. While dunon means , the source of Lug is uncertain. The most commonly offered meaning is the god named Lug. During the Middle Ages, was transformed to by natural sound change.RR70870. Bronze , 515, 7, 689, F, 16.797 g, maximum 29.9 mm, 0o, ( , France) mint, 36 B.C.; IMP DIVI , two heads back to back: laureate of Divus to left and of to right; between them branch with its tip bent to right over Octavian's ; Prow of galley to right, ornamented with an eye and ; superimposed on globe and above deck, below; ; $540.00 (€480.60)
Messana, , c. 330 - 325 B.C.
Founded in the 8th century B.C., until the 5th century Messina was called Zancle, meaning "scythe" because of the shape of its harbor. sacked the city in 397 B.C. and then Dionysius I of conquered it. In 288 B.C. the Mamertine mercenaries seized the city by treachery, killing all the men and taking the women as their wives. The city became a base from which they ravaged the countryside, leading to conflict with . Initially assisted the . When attacked a second time, the asked Rome for . Rome was initially reluctant, but allied with the to limit Carthaginian power.In 264 B.C., Roman troops were deployed to , the first time a Roman army acted outside the Italian Peninsula. At the end of the First Punic War, Messana was a free city allied with Rome.SH77506. Bronze tetras, 840 (R1); 751 ff.; I p. 52, 16; 421; 674; -; -, Nice VF, classical , nice green , 3.603 g, maximum 15.9 mm, 180o, Messana (Messina, , Italy) mint, c. 330 - 325 B.C.; ΠOΣEI∆AN, laureate of Poseidon left, ∆ (mark of value) behind; M−E−Σ−Σ−A−NI−ON, ornate trident , flanked on each side by a with down; ; $450.00 (€400.50)
, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.
"This refers to Vitellius' membership in the priestly college of the Sacris Faciundis, 'fifteen men for the conduct of sacred matters.' This body had care of the Sibylline prophecies and were famous for the opulence of their banquets, a feature of the priesthood which particularly appealed to the gluttonous emperor." -- , Roman Coins and Their ValuesSH77386. Silver , 86 (S); 114; p. 370, 17; 46; -; -, VF, excellent portrait, , marks and scratches, somewhat oval , slight edge damage, 2.972 g, maximum 18.5 mm, 180o, Rome mint, c. May - Jul 69 A.D.; A GERMAN , laureate right; XV VIR SACR FAC, tripod-lebes with dome cover, right on top, raven standing right below ; ex CNG e-auction 221 (28 Oct 2009), lot 483; ex Jörg Collection; ; $380.00 (€338.20)
Istros, , Late 5th - 4th Century B.C.
The has been variously interpreted as representing the , the rising and setting sun, and the two branches of the river Danube. - and Their Values by David .GS76336. Silver , Black Sea 230 - 231, -, -, -, -, gVF, areas of light corrosion, some light marks, , 5.561 g, maximum 17.2 mm, 0o, Istros (near Istria, Romania) mint, Late 5th - 4th Century B.C.; Facing male heads, left inverted; IΣTPIH, sea-eagle grasping a with talons, Γ below ; ; $270.00 (€240.30)
the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., ,
Pacensis (or Pacifica) was founded by . The colony assumed his family name, , and on account of Vespasian's devotion to the goddess of Peace (to whom he built a temple at Rome); it was called Pacensis (or Pacifica).RP77123. Bronze AE 22, 1746-1749 (same dies); 454, 3023(?); -, gVF, nice , nice , die wear and crack, 6.695 g, maximum 22.4 mm, (Debelt, Bulgaria) mint, Feb 244 - End Sep 249 A.D.; IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped, and right, from behind, centration dimple; CO-L FL PAC DEV,LT (LT in ), prow of galley left on waves, ram's on point of ram, octopus and swimming left beside hull above waves; Pecunem Gitbud & Naumann auction 31 (3 May 2015), lot 313; ; $240.00 (€213.60)
, , Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C.
Hieron II was tyrant and then of , c. 270 to 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity, and became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense . The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the , he eventually allied with Rome.GI84181. Bronze tetras, 844; 1446; 830; p. 218, 606; 1550 (S); cf. II p. 395, 197 (controls); 64 ff. (same), VF, dark green , 6.914 g, maximum 19.4 mm, 0o, mint, c. 268 - 218 B.C.; diademed of Poseidon left; ornamented trident , downward flanking on each side, IEPΩ−NOΣ horizontal across divided by shaft, AΠ (control letters) lower right; $220.00 (€195.80)
, , Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C.
Hieron II was tyrant and then of , c. 270 to 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity, and became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense . The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the , he eventually allied with Rome.GI77003. Bronze tetras, p. 218, 608; II p. 395, 197 (ΛY right not listed); 852; 1403; 64 ff.; 1550 (S), gVF, nice Poseidon, about 1/5 off-center, very light corrosion and encrustation, light bumps and marks, 5.556 g, maximum 18.6 mm, 270o, mint, c. 268 - 218 B.C.; diademed of Poseidon left; ornamented trident , downward flanking on each side, IEPΩ−NOΣ horizontal across divided by shaft, ΛY lower right; $180.00 (€160.20)
, , Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C.
Hieron II was tyrant and then of , c. 270 to 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity, and became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense . The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the , he eventually allied with Rome. GB77040. Bronze tetras, cf. II p. 395, 197; p. 218, 588 ff.; 844 ff.; 64 ff.; 1394 ff.; 1550 (S); 1223, gVF/F, Poseidon, weak, areas of light corrosion, tiny edge cracks, 5.564 g, maximum 19.9 mm, 0o, mint, c. 268 - 218 B.C.; diademed of Poseidon left; ornamented trident , downward flanking on each side, IEPΩ−NOΣ in lower divided by shank, uncertain control below; $135.00 (€120.15)
Byzantion, , 387 - 340 B.C.
Byzantion was founded by Greek from Megara in 657 B.C. The city was rebuilt as the new capital of the Roman Empire by in 330 A.D. and renamed Constantinople. It became the capital of the Ottoman Empire when it was conquered in 1453. Today it is Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey, and the country's economic, cultural, and historical heart.GS79643. Silver , cf. 16; 484; p. 94, 23; 15 (none with Σ right), VF, , 1.956 g, maximum 11.8 mm, 45o, Byzantion (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 387 - 340 B.C.; forepart of cow standing left on left, right foreleg raised, Π above (the first letter is an archaic form of "B" used at ); ornamented trident , Σ right; very variety; $135.00 (€120.15)
Mygissos, , c. 350 - 300 B.C.
Many Greek cities had names beginning MY, and this has been attributed to many of them. Most references attribute the to Myus. Mygissos is most likely correct because nearby Nisyros issued coins with a very similar with NI above the .GB69183. Bronze , 335 (MY...), 1022 (Myus), 2114 (Myus), 3115 (Myus), 235 ( ?), 847 ( ), VF, pitting, 1.910 g, maximum 11.0 mm, 270o, Mygissos mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; laureate of Poseidon right; right, MY above, trident right below; ; $125.00 (€111.25)
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