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Constantine the Great moved the capital of the Roman Empire to the former Byzantium in Thrace and renamed it Constantinopolis, present day Istanbul, Turkey. Numismatists, for convenience, have arbitrarily categorized coins from Anastasius I and after as Byzantine coins. Numismatists use Anastasius as the beginning of Byzantine because he dramatically reformed the bronze coinage. A significant minority of numismatists pick an earlier time and ruler, often Constantine the Great, as the dividing time between the Roman and Byzantine empires, because most coins were issued from Constantinople, or since it became the seat of government. Although the citizens generally spoke Greek, they considered themselves Roman for the entire Byzantine period, making our division of the empire an entirely modern convention.
Byzantine Empire, Nicephorus I and Stauracius, December 803 - 25 July 811 A.D.
Nicephorus, the logothete (lord high treasurer) under Empress Irene, gained rule in a palace coup. At the Battle of Pliska, the Bulgarian Khan, Krum, surprised and slew Nicephorus along with a large portion of the Byzantine army. Krum is said to have made a drinking-cup of Nicephorus' skull. Stauracius escaped the battle to Constantinople but was mortally wounded. He surrendered his throne to his brother-in-law, retired to a monastery, and died soon after.SH83915. Gold solidus, DOC III, part 1, 2c.2; Wroth BMC 8; Tolstoi 9; Ratto 1786; Berk Gold 238; Sommer 27.1; SBCV 1604, EF, lustrous, well centered on a tight flan, weight 4.349 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, 10th officina, Constantinople mint, 803 - 811 A.D.; obverse hICI-FOROS bASILE', bearded facing bust of Nicephorus, wearing chlamys and cross with crown, cross potent on base in right hand, akakia in left hand, no pellet left; reverse STAVRA-CIS dESPO' X, unbearded facing bust of Stauracius, wearing chlamys and cross with crown, globus cruciger in right hand, akakia in left hand; from the Robert Watcher Collection, ex Heritage CICF auction (Chicago, Apr 2013), lot 3024 ($940 plus fees); scarce; $1130.00 SALE PRICE $1017.00
Byzantine Empire, Leontius, 695 - 698 A.D.
Leontius' success as a general forced the Arab Caliph Abd al-Malik to make concessions and pay tribute to Emperor Justinian II; but when war was renewed, Leontius was defeated. Furious over the loss, Justinian imprisoned him for two years. When he was freed, Leontius and his former prison comrades organized a revolt, and he took the throne. Justinian was deposed, his nose and tongue were slit and he was exiled to a monastery. After the Arabs took Carthage, the fleet Leontius sent to retake the city failed. Rather than report defeat to the emperor, the army overthrew their admiral and named Apsimar, a Germanic sailor, as their leader. Apsimar changed his name to Tiberius, returned to Constantinople, seized the thrown, cut off Leontius' nose and ears and exiled him to a monastery. In 705, Justinian II returned to Constantinople with an army of Bulgars and Slavs. Both Leontius and Tiberius were dragged through the streets in chains and beheaded.SH83907. Gold tremissis, DOC II 4, SBCV 1333, Hahn MIB III 5, Sommer 15.3, Ratto 1731, Berk Gold 191, Morrisson BnF - (p. 417), VF, uneven strike, tight flan, graffitiobverse right field, weight 1.330 g, maximum diameter 14.4 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople mint, 695 - 698 A.D.; obverse D LEO-N PE AV, bearded facing bust, wearing loros and crown with cross, globus cruciger in right hand; reverseVICTORIA AVSY S, cross potent on base, CONOB in exergue; from the Robert Watcher Collection, ex Heritage auction 3002 (Long Beach, Sep 2008), lot 2013 (sold for $747.50 plus fees); rare; $1120.00 SALE PRICE $1008.00
Byzantine Empire, Theophilus, 12 May 821 - 20 January 842 A.D.
Most references date this type to the joint reign of Michael II and his son Theophilus II (12 May 821 - 2 Oct 829 A.D.) Anastasi identified it as Theophilus' first issue after Michael's death (2 Oct 829 - 830 A.D.).
Theophilus was an accomplished scholar and highly cultured. Although he admired Arab art and civilization, he was obliged to expend much effort defending his eastern frontier against Mutasim, the Caliph of Baghdad. He died of dysentery.SH83908. Gold solidus, DOC III, part 1, 15a; Anastasi 515c; Wroth BMC 11; Tolstoi 13; SBCV 1646; Sommer 30.6; Morrisson BnF -; Ratto -, VF, slightly irregular tight flan, weight 3.794 g, maximum diameter 13.4 mm, die axis 180o, Syracuse mint, 829 - 830 A.D.; obverse MI-XAHL bA, bearded facing bust of Michael, wearing chlamys and crown with cross, globus cruciger in right hand; reverse ΘE-OFILO bA, beardless facing bust of Theophilus, wearing loros and crown with cross, cross potent in right hand; from the Robert Watcher Collection; very rare; $990.00 SALE PRICE $891.00
Byzantine Empire, Justinian II, 10 July 685 - Late 695 and Summer 705 - 4 November 711 A.D.
The only other example of this variant known to Forum is CNG auction 88, lot 1695 (misdescribed as an ordinary SBCV 1270). All other examples have the K below the H on the left, vice below the Λ on the right. Even the "normal" SBCV 1270 type is missing from the Dumbarton Oaks collection (DOC II 33 refs the Tolstoi coin) and described by Grierson as an extreme rarity.
The obversemonograms can probably be read to mean, "God-bearer [the Virgin Mary] help Justinian." SH73338. Bronze follis, CNG auction 88, lot 1695 (described as SBCV 1270); cf. SBCV 1270, Tolstoi 81, DOC II 33, Morrisson BnF 15/Ct/AE/03, Hahn MIB 56 (all K below H left), gVF, weight 3.187 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, Carthage mint, 1st reign, c. 694 - 695 A.D.(?); obverse no legend, Justinian standing facing, wearing crown with cross and chlamys, globus cruciger in right, akakia in left, cruciform monogram (ΘEOTOKE BOHΘEI?) left, cruciform Justinian monogram right; reverse no legend, large M (40 nummi), monogram above, H (year 8?) left, Λ over K right, KΓω in exergue; extreme rarity, 2nd known; $940.00 SALE PRICE $846.00
Byzantine Empire, Michael II and Theophilus, 12 May 821 - 2 October 829 A.D.
Michael II started his career as a humble soldier. Leo V's assassination while trying to impose iconoclasm probably taught Michael a lesson, as he chose to remain religiously neutral. With Bulgarian help, he defeated the usurper Thomas, who with his Arab allies even besieged Constantinople for one year. Even after the rebellion was crushed, the Arabs still occupied Crete and initiated an invasion of Sicily.SH83906. Gold tremissis, Morrisson BnF 31/Cp/AV/2 corr. (solidi); Anastasi 511; DOC III 18 (not in collection, refs BnF); SBCV 1650; BMC -; Sommer -; Tolstoi -; Ratto -, EF, tight flan, weight 1.275 g, maximum diameter 12.8 mm, die axis 180o, Syracuse mint, 821 - 829 A.D.; obverse MI-XAHL bA, bearded facing bust of Michael, wearing chlamys and crown with cross, globus cruciger in right hand; reverse ΘE-OFILO b, bearded facing bust of Theophilus, wearing chlamys and crown with cross, cross potent in right hand, cross in right field; from the Robert Watcher Collection, ex Savoca Numismatik; very rare; $810.00 SALE PRICE $729.00
Byzantine Empire, Leontius, 695 - 698 A.D.
This half-follis of Leontius was first identified and published by S. J. Mansfield, in "A New Coin of the Byzantine Emperor Leontius" in Numismatic Circular, Nov 1999. It is otherwise unpublished and this is the second known specimen.BZ73337. Bronze half follis, Mansfield, S. J., A New Coin of the Byzantine Emperor Leontius in Num. Circ., Nov 1999; DOC IIpart 2 -; Anastasi -, SBCV -, Hahn MIB III -, et al. -, F, rough green patina, weight 2.806 g, maximum diameter 16.1 mm, die axis 180o, Syracuse mint, 695 - 696 A.D.; obverse half length bust facing with short beard, wearing crown with cross and loros with pelleted lozenge pattern, akakia in right, globus cruciger in left; reverse large K (40 nummi), cruciform Leontiusmonogram (Anastasimonogram 5) above, cross left, I (year 1) right, SCL in exergue; great rarity, 2nd known; $630.00 SALE PRICE $567.00
Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
In "Le trésor byzantine de Nikertai" in Revue Belge de Numismatique 118 (1972), Morrisson writes that this officina mark is horizontal, perpendicular to the rest of the legend, and indicates the 7th officina (a reversed Z, not an H). Hahn lists the Nikertai Hoard coin 146, described by Morrisson as 7th officina, as his only example from the H (8th) officina. The 8th officina probably did not strike this variant with an I in the right field. Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung Auction 196, lot 3100, was struck with the same dies in a similar state of wear.SH69990. Gold solidus, Nikertai Hoard 146; Hahn MIB 13 (Z) and 14 (H); Sommer 11.10; SBCV 739; DOC II - (type 14, officina not listed); Morrisson BnF -, Tolstoi -, Ratto -, VF, worn dies, weight 4.431 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 225o, 7th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 616 - 625 A.D.; obversedd NN hERACLIVS Et hERA CONSt PP A, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, beardless and smaller, each wearing a simple crown with cross on circlet, cross between them above; reverseVICTORIA AVGu Z (victory of the Emperor, 7th officina, Z reversed), cross potent on three steps, I right, CONOB in exergue; scarce; $470.00 SALE PRICE $423.00
Constantine IV Pogonatus, 15 July 668 - 10 July 685 A.D.
Constantine IV Pogonatus should be credited with saving Europe from Muslim conquest. Beginning in 674, the great siege of Constantinople, by the caliph Muawiyah I, lasted four years. The newly invented famous "Greek Fire" made the city impregnable and the Arabs were forced to retreat. In 681 he deposed his two brothers. He was succeeded by his 16-year-old son Justinian II.BZ84239. Bronze half follis, Anastasi 245, DOC II 67, Spahr 186, Hahn MIB III 112, SBCV 1214, Berk -, VF, green patina, rough, weight 2.566 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 180o, Syracuse mint, 679 - 681 A.D.; obverse helmeted and cuirassedbust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder; reverse large K, cross above, +AN-NO ∆ (year 4) flanking left and right; very rare; $450.00 SALE PRICE $405.00
Byzantine Empire, Maurice Tiberius, 13 August 582 - 22 November 602 A.D.
They look similar, but there is a significant physical difference between angels and Victory. Angels are all male. Victory (Nike) is female. On Byzantine coinage, the male angel replaced the female Victory after the reunion with Rome was concluded on 28 March 519 A.D.SH83909. Gold solidus, Morrisson BnF 7/Cp/AV/10, Ratto 1002, DOC I 5h (8th officina missing from collection, cites Ratto), Hahn MIB II 6, Sommer 7.5, SBCV 478, VF, well centered, weak centers, struck with worn dies, weight 4.343 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 180o, 8th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 583 - 602 A.D.; obverse D N mAVRC - TIb P P AVC, helmeted and cuirassedbust facing, globus cruciger in right hand, fold of paludamentum over left shoulder, helmet with plum, circlet in front and pendilia; reverse VICTORI-A AVCC H, angel standing facing, staurogram (rho-cross) topped staff in right hand, globus cruciger in left hand, CONOB in exergue; from the Robert Wachter Collection, ex Rudnik Numismatics; $450.00 SALE PRICE $405.00
Byzantine Empire, Focas, 23 November 602 - 5 October 610 A.D.
The last recorded act of the Senate of the Western Roman Empire in Rome was to acclaimed new statues of Emperor Phocas and Empress Leontia in 603. The institution must have vanished by 630 when the Curia was transformed into a church by Pope Honorius I. The Senate at Constantinople continued to exist in the Eastern Roman Empire's capital until at least the mid-14th century when the ancient institution finally vanished from history.SH83916. Gold solidus, DOC IIpart 1, 5c; Morrisson BnF 8/Cp/AV/3; Wroth BMC 4; Ratto 1191; Hahn MIB II 7; Sommer 9.6; SBCV 618; Tolstoi -, gVF, well centered, scratches on obverse, reverse die wear and crack, weight 4.478 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 225o, 3rd officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 603 - 607 A.D.; obverse o N FOCASPERP AVC, bust facing, bearded, wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with cross on circlet and without pendilia, globus cruciger in right hand; reverseVICTORIA AVCC Γ (victory of the two emperors), angel standing facing, staurogram (cruciform Christ monogram) staff in right hand, globus cruciger in left hand, CONOB in exergue; $450.00 SALE PRICE $405.00
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