Persian Empire, , Cyrus - Darios I, c. 546 - 520 B.C., Kroiseid
The Lydian Croesus minted the first silver and gold coins. He was famous for his extraordinary wealth, but after his defeat by Cyrus about 546 B.C. became a Persian satrapy. The Persian conquerors of continued to strike the same Croesus' coin types. This coin is a later example issued under . We can tell because under Croesus the and the bull were struck separately, with one punch at a time. Later examples, such as this coin, were struck with only one die with both , and only one die, simulating two square punches.GS84246. Silver (half-stater), 456; 2877; 1025; p. 7, 45; I 409; 3424, gVF, light bumps and marks, tiny edge crack, 5.303 g, maximum 15.1 mm, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 546 - 520 B.C.; on the left, forepart of a roaring right, , on the right, the forepart of a bull left, struck with a single die; two squares, of unequal size, side by side; $580.00 (€516.20)
Persian Achaeminid Empire, Carian Satrapy, Pixodaros, c. 340 - 335 B.C.
Pixodarus was the youngest of the three sons of , all of whom successively ruled. To secure the friendship of , of , Pixodarus offered his eldest daughter in marriage to his Philip's son Arrhidaeus. Arrhidaeus' ambitious younger brother, Alexander (later Alexander the Great) offered himself instead. Pixodarus eagerly agreed but Philip put an end to the scheme. Pixodarus died, apparently a natural death, before Alexander landed in in 334 B.C. and was succeeded by his Persian son-in-law Orontobates.SH63582. Silver , 597; 2375; 280; 891; 2913; p. 185, 5 ff.; 6608; 4966, aVF, porous, 6.541 g, maximum 19.5 mm, 0o, Mylasa (Milas, Turkey) mint, c. 340 - 335 B.C.; of facing slightly right; ΠIΞΩ∆APOY, standing right, (double-headed axe) over shoulder in right, lotus-tipped vertical in left; $450.00 (€400.50)
Persian Empire, , , Ba'Alshillem II, c. 401 - 366 B.C.
, named for the "first-born" of Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Genesis 10:15, 19), is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isaiah 23:2, 4, 12; Jeremiah 25:22; 27:3; 47:4; Ezekiel 27:8; 28:21, 22; 32:30; Joel 3:4). The Sidonians long oppressed Israel (Judges 10:12) but Solomon entered into a matrimonial with them, and thus their form of idolatrous worship found a place in the land of Israel (1 Kings 11:1, 33). Jesus visited the "coasts" of Tyre and (Matthew 15:21; Mark 7:24) where many came to hear him preach (Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17). After leaving , Paul's ship put in at , before finally sailing for Rome (Acts 27:3, 4).GS70326. Silver 1/16 , 851 ff.; Hoover 10 240; 27 (Abd'astart, Straton I); p 146, 36 (same); 197 ff. (same), VF, , tiny edge cuts, banker's mark, , bumps and marks, 0.648 g, maximum 9.5 mm, 90o, (Saida, Lebanon) mint, c. 371 - 370 B.C.; war galley left, Phoenician letter beth above, banker's mark or above galley; of (to left) standing right, slaying erect to right, Phoenician letter ayin between them; $160.00 (€142.40)
Persian Achaeminid Empire, Carian Satrapy, Hekatomnos, c. 392 - 377 B.C.
was a native of Mylasa, which he made his capital and the seat of his government. His coins often depict Zeus Labrandenos from the celebrated temple of that name near Mylasa. The Persian emperor appointed to command naval forces in the war against Evagoras of , but he not only took no in support of the Emperor, but secretly supplied Evagoras with money for mercenaries. The disorganized Persian monarchy took no action against and he continued to rule until his death. He left three sons, , Idrieus and Pixodarus - all of whom - in their turn, succeeded him in the sovereignty.GS76809. Silver tetartemorion, 2c, 848 ff., 837 ff., 3312 ff., 507, II -, -, gVF, of flat strike on male , , 0.172 g, maximum 5.9 mm, 0o, Mylasa (Milas, Turkey) mint, c. 390 - 380 B.C.; forepart of right, turned back left, tongue protruding; male ( ?) facing slightly left, with long hair, no inscriptions or , all within a round ; $155.00 (€137.95)
Persian Empire, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, c. 375 - 340 B.C., , Anatolia
GS79827. Silver 1/4 , IV (late) C; 764; 1041; 37; cf. 679; (early - middle, A/B); p. 167, 143 (middle B), VF, on , 1.206 g, maximum 7.9 mm, 60o, c. 375 - 340 B.C.; kneeling-running figure of the Great right, dagger in right, bow in left, bearded, crowned, quiver on shoulder; square punch; very ; $140.00 (€124.60)
Kios, , c. 340 - 315 B.C.
Traditionally, the earliest precious metal coinage of Kios has been dated after Alexander the Great's capture of Kios in 334 B.C. More recently, however, Oliver Hoover and other numismatists suggest this , struck on a Persic , was probably minted to pay mercenaries to defend against Alexander's invasion, which began in 336 B.C.
GS75224. Silver 1/4 , I.2 p. 312, 4, pl. XLIX, 26; 554 (R1); -; -; -; -; -; -; -, VF, , lightly etched and porous surfaces, 1.206 g, maximum 11.1 mm, 270o, Kios (near Gemlik, Turkey) mint, c. 340 - 315 B.C.; laureate of right, KIA below (off ); war galley prow left, ornamented with an eye, large ram, waves indicated on hull, TEIΣAN/∆POΣ (magistrate's name) in two lines one above and one below; very magistrate; $125.00 (€111.25)
Kalchedon, , c. 340 - 320 B.C.
The position of Chalcedon, on the eastern of the , was not as favorable as that of Byzantion on the opposite side. The Persian Megabazus (Herod. iv. 144) said the founders of Chalcedon must have been blind, for Chalcedon was settled seventeen years before ; and the settlers, we must suppose, had the of the two places.GS75218. Silver half , Black Sea 118; 484; 14; p. 124, 8; 518, gVF, off-center, light marks, tiny edge split, 2.430 g, maximum 13.5 mm, Kalchedon mint, c. 340 - 320 B.C.; KAΛX, bull standing left on ear of grain; quadripartite square of mill-sail pattern, stippled texture within areas; $100.00 (€89.00)
Persian Empire, , , Ba'Alshillem II, c. 401 - 366 B.C.
, named for the "first-born" of Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Genesis 10:15, 19), is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isaiah 23:2, 4, 12; Jeremiah 25:22; 27:3; 47:4; Ezekiel 27:8; 28:21, 22; 32:30; Joel 3:4). The Sidonians long oppressed Israel (Judges 10:12) but Solomon entered into a matrimonial with them, and thus their form of idolatrous worship found a place in the land of Israel (1 Kings 11:1, 33). Jesus visited the "coasts" of Tyre and (Matthew 15:21; Mark 7:24) where many came to hear him preach (Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17). After leaving , Paul's ship put in at , before finally sailing for Rome (Acts 27:3, 4).GS70324. Silver 1/16 , 851 ff.; Hoover 10 240; 27 (Abd'astart, Straton I); p 146, 36 (same); 197 ff. (same), VF, , , lightly etched surfaces, 0.841 g, maximum 9.45 mm, 0o, (Saida, Lebanon) mint, c. 371 - 370 B.C.; war galley left, Phoenician letter beth above; of (to left) standing right, slaying erect to right, Phoenician letter ayin between them; $100.00 (€89.00)
Persian Achaeminid Empire, Carian Satrapy, Hecatomnids, c. 392 - 353 B.C.
The Hecatomnid dynasty or Hecatomnids were the rulers of and surrounding areas from about 392 - 334 B.C. They were nominally satraps (governors) under the Persian Achaeminid Empire, but ruled with considerable autonomy, and established a hereditary dynasty. The dynasty was founded by and originally had its seat in Mylasa; moved it to Halicarnassus. Hecatomnus' five children succeeded him in succession. The dynasty engaged in sibling marriage to presumably preserve royal power within the family. The dynasty ended with the conquests of Alexander the Great. Ada adopted him as her son, so that he would succeed to the rule of . The best-known monument of the dynasty is the Mausoleum that Artemisia II built in of her husband and brother .
• , ruled c. 392–377 B.C.
• , son of , ruled c. 377–353 B.C.
• Artemisia II, daughter of , wife of , ruled c. 353–351 B.C.
• Idrieus, son of , ruled c. 351–344 B.C.
• Ada, daughter of , wife of Idrieus, ruled c. 344–340 B.C. and c. 334–326 B.C. (under Alexander the Great)
• Pixodarus, son of , ruled c. 340–335 B.C.GS70805. Silver tetartemorion, 4, 862, 503, cf. 990 (no ), -, -, F, , 0.430 g, maximum 8.2 mm, 180o, (Mylasia? or Halicarnassus?) mint, early to mid 4th century B.C.; and neck of a left, turned slightly facing; and neck of a bull left, turned facing, Karian (resembles MV-H-Φ, clockwise from above), all within a round ; ; $90.00 (€80.10)
Persian Empire, Satrapy of Sparda ( and ), Spithridates II, 344 - Early Spring 334 B.C.
Spithridates II was the Persian Empire's (governor) of Sparda, a region which included and . His rule may have begun as early as 344 but there is no historical record of him until Alexander the Great's invasion of . This coin was likely struck to support the Persian defense. Spithridates II died in the very first battle against Alexander, the Battle of Granicus, allegedly just as he was poised to strike down Alexander himself.GB76668. Bronze , 19.4; 1538; 1823; 2756; 672; p. 327, 19; II/2 72; 367; 6242, VF, , green , encrustation, corrosion, 1.379 g, maximum 10.5 mm, 0o, mint, 335 - early spring 334 B.C.; of Spithridates right, wearing (Persian ); horse forepart leaping right, above, ΣΠI below; $85.00 (€75.65)
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