, August 253 - September 268 A.D.
is the personification of valor and courage. Valor was, of course, essential for the success of a Roman emperor and was one of the embodiments of virtues that were of the Imperial cult. During his joint reign with his father, proved his courage in battle; but his failure to liberate his father from Persian captivity was perceived as cowardice and a disgrace to the Emperor and Empire. It was not, however, actually fear that prevented a rescue. While others mourned Valerian's fate, rejoiced in his new sovereignty.RB76153. , 38dd, 248, 1293, 33, 10495, Nice gVF, excellent portrait, green , cutting off much , 10.962 g, maximum 25.3 mm, 0o, Rome mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; IMP C GALLIENVS AVG, laureate and right; (valor of the two emperors), standing left, wearing crested helmet and military garb, right resting hand on grounded , inverted spear vertical behind in left, ( ) flanking across ; $560.00 (€498.40)
, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.
In 240, the year this coin was struck, a rebellion lead by Sabinianus, the governor of , was defeated in a battle near .RB68909. , 293a, 390, 8745 var. (obv leg), VF, nice portrait, , 14.938 g, maximum 30.5 mm, 45o, Rome mint, c. 240 A.D.; IMP GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, and right, from behind; (the valor of the Emperor), standing left, helmeted, in military garb, branch in right hand, inverted spear in left, grounded on left against right leg, ( ) flanking across ; $140.00 (€124.60)
Romano-British Empire, , Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.
This is not listed in the many references examined by . The referenced CNG specimen is listed online on Coin Archives and Wildwinds.RA73244. , Unlisted in references; CNG Mail Bid Sale 60 (22 May 2002), lot 1881; -; -; -; -; , aF, rough, 4.186 g, maximum 23.1 mm, 225o, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, 292 - early 293 A.D.; IMP C CARAVSIVS , , draped, and right; (the valor of the Emperor), standing right, wearing helmet and military garb, spear in left hand, on right arm, ( ) flanking across , C in ; from the Charles Peters Collection; extremely ; $140.00 (€124.60)
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). It was thus a frequently stated virtue of and was personified as the deity .RB77368. , 693 (R); p. 139, 562; 773; 6445; -, F, green , 20.523 g, maximum 28.4 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 195 A.D.; L SEPT SEV V, laureate right; (to the valor of the emperor), on the left, standing left, in military attire, on globe in his right hand, spear in his left hand; or standing left behind him, helmeted, in military attire, crowning him with a in her right hand, in her left, S C ( ) in ; ex 2014; ; $140.00 (€124.60)
, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.
to the ancient Romans included valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). Curiously, despite the masculine characteristics of , the personification or deity was usually depicted as a female warrior, in armor holding a spear, , or a . and can usually be distinguished since is usually shown nude and is always shown clothed.RB73633. Copper as, , 1, 650; 417; 545; 655; 174; cf. I 2817 (COS XV), VF, on a heavy , green with some flaking and bare copper high points, minor corrosion and encrustation, 12.962 g, maximum 29.8 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 88 - 89 A.D.; DOMIT AVG P P, laureate right with ; (to the valor of the Emperor), standing right, helmeted and draped, left foot on a helmet, inverted spear vertical behind in right hand, in left hand, ( ) flanking across ; ex J. ; $135.00 (€120.15)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). applied exclusively to a man's behavior in the public sphere, that is to the application of duty to the res publica in the cursus honorum. Private business was no place to earn , even when it involved courage or feats of arms or other qualities. There could be no virtue in exploiting one's manliness in the pursuit of personal wealth, for example. It was thus a frequently stated virtue of and was personified as the deity .RL84026. , , 2, 816; 12071 var. (...P F AVG); 894; -, EF, full , full circles centering, some flatly struck areas, 3.888 g, maximum 22.4 mm, 180o, 5th , (Sisak, Croatia) mint, emmision 5, 278 A.D.; IMP C PROBVS P AVG, left in consular robe, eagle-tipped in right hand; (the valor of Emperor ), walking right, helmeted, nude but for cloak tied in belt at waist and flying behind, transverse spear upward right in right hand, of captured arms over left shoulder in left hand, XXIV in ; $125.00 (€111.25)
, First Half of 283 - Spring 285 A.D.
A sum of Greek numerals E (5) and ∆ (4) is used to indicate the 9th in order to avoid using Θ (9). Because they sound alike, theta (Θ) was associated with Thanatos, the daemon personification of death. Theta used as a warning symbol of death, in the same way that skull and crossbones are used in modern times. It survives on potsherds used by Athenians voting for the death penalty. Also, after a funeral "Nine Days of Sorrow," were solemnly observed by the family. Romans avoided the use of theta, as we avoid the use of the number 13 today.RL84211. , , 2, 325; 184; 12362; VI/2, p. 52; -, gVF, much , and struck on a , 3.684 g, maximum 20.3 mm, 180o, 9th , Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 4th emission, May - June 284 A.D.; IMP C CARINVS , and right, slight drapery on far shoulder; (valor of the two emperors), Emperor standing right, short in left hand, facing (or ) on right, standing left, with right hand offering on globe, long vertical behind in left hand, E∆ in lower center, XXI in ; $110.00 (€97.90)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
In 280 - 281, put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus, and Bonosus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems. In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph. was eager to start his eastern campaign, delayed by the revolts in the . He left Rome in 282, travelling first towards , his birth city.RB71437. , , 2, 436, 817, VF, 3.044 g, maximum 22.6 mm, 0o, 4th , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 280 - 282 A.D.; IMP C PROBVS , left in consular robe, eagle-tipped in right; (the valor of the Emperor), standing left, in right, grounded spear and behind in left, QXXT in ; $100.00 (€89.00)
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
Septimius Severus' third acclamation (IMP III) was for his at the Battle of Nicaea.RS84449. Silver , 39 (S); 755; p. 32, 73A; cf. 6386 (TR P COS, 193 A.D.); 8 (same), VF, cutting off parts of legends, fingerprint on , small edge cracks, 2.136 g, maximum 17.6 mm, 45o, Rome mint, 194 A.D.; L SEP SEV III, laureate right; TR P II P P, standing half left, wearing helmet and in military dress, presenting in right hand, reversed spear behind in left hand; ; $100.00 (€89.00)
, c. November 251 - July or August 253 A.D.
RIC lists this as but this is the first example handled by and there are very few examples online.RB77901. , 263a (S), 136, 9798, - (p. cvii), F, small cutting off most of legends, , 12.230 g, maximum 25.7 mm, 0o, Rome mint, c. Nov 251 - 252 A.D; IMP CAE C VIB AVG, laureate, draped, and right, from behind; (valor of the two emperors), standing left, helmeted, wearing military garb, resting right hand on grounded at right side, inverted spear vertical in left hand, ( ) flanking across just below center; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; ; $85.00 (€75.65)
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