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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Personifications ▸ CourageView Options:  |  |  |   

Courage (Virtus)

'Courage' is depicted as a helmeted soldier, often a female, in armor holding a spear, parazonium, victory or a shield. Virtus and Mars can be distinguished since Mars is usually shown nude and Virtus is always shown clothed.


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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In 288 or 289, Maximian prepared an invasion of Britain to oust Carausius, but it failed. A panegyric delivered to Constantius Chlorus attributes this failure to bad weather, but notes that Carausius claimed a military victory. Eutropius says that hostilities were in vain thanks to Carausius' military skill, and peace was agreed. Carausius began to entertain visions of official recognition. He minted his coins acknowledging and honoring Maximian and Diocletian.
RA73267. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 1038 (S), Webb Carausius 1174, Carausian Hoard 77, Hunter IV -, SRCV IV -, Burton Latimer -, Bicester Hoard -, F, green patina, obverse off center, slightly irregular ragged flan, weak centers, earthen deposits, weight 3.160 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 270o, unmarked mint, c. mid 286 - 287; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, early reign moustache portrait; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor), Mars standing right, nude but for cloak over shoulders, spear vertical in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, no mint marks; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; scarce; $150.00 (127.50)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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Apparently unpublished and the only example known to FORVM. In the references and websites examined, we did not find match to this type with this obverse legend and S-P across the reverse field, even considering all the possible exergue marks.
RA73494. Billon antoninianus, apparently unpublished, cf. RIC V-2 436 (S) (...P F AVG, C in ex., Mars), Webb Carausius 489 var. (same), aVF/aF, tight flan, rough, corrosion, half of reverse legend unstruck or obliterated, earthen deposits, weight 3.725 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 180o, Camulodunum(?) mint, c. 291 - early 293 A.D.; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, middle reign portrait type; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor), Virtvs standing right, spear vertical behind in right hand, left hand resting on grounded shield, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across fields, exergue off flan; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; unique(?); $140.00 (119.00)


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

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Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.
RA87277. Billon antoninianus, unpublished variety; RIC 722 var. (bust type), Alfldi type 53, unlisted var. (bust type and officina not listed with this obv. legend), Choice aEF, nice dark brown patina, excellent portrait, speckled silvering, light cleaning marks, weight 3.920 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 7th emission, 280 A.D.; obverse VIRTVS PROBI AVG (the valor of Emperor Probus), radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, spear in right hand over shoulder; reverse PROVIDENT AVG (the foresight of the Emperor), Providentia standing left, globe in right hand, transverse long scepter in left hand, Q right, XXI in exergue; very rare; $135.00 (114.75)


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

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In 278, Probus defeated the Alamanni, expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the Roman defenses on the Rhine and resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces. He adopted the titles Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus.
RA85002. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 435 corr. (also cuirassed), Hunter IV 112 corr. (same), Cohen VI 819, Pink VI-1 p. 61, Choice VF, nice portrait, much silvering on reverse, some light corrosion, weight 3.724 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 278 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor), Virtus standing facing, helmeted head left, Victory in right hand, resting left hand on grounded spear and shield, QXXT in exergue; $110.00 (93.50)


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

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In 240, the year this coin was struck, a rebellion lead by Sabinianus, the governor of Africa, was defeated in a battle near Carthage.
RB68909. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 293a, Cohen V 390, SRCV III 8745 var. (obv leg), VF, nice portrait, well centered, weight 14.938 g, maximum diameter 30.5 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, c. 240 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor), Virtus standing left, helmeted, in military garb, branch in right hand, inverted spear in left, grounded shield on left against right leg, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $100.00 (85.00)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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Mars, the god of war, and Virtus, the personification of courage and valor, are sometimes confused in coin descriptions. Mars is male and usually nude. Virtus is female and is never nude.
RA73247. Billon antoninianus, apparently unpublished; RIC V-2 1034 var. (legends), Webb Carausius 1180 var. (obv. legend), Burton Latimer -, Carausian Hoard -, Bicester -, F, nice green patina, slight bend in coin, corrosion, weight 4.222 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain British mint, c. 290 - summer 293 A.D.; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor), Mars walking right, helmeted, nude but for cloak on his shoulders and flying behind, transverse spear in right hand, trophy across shoulder in left hand; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; extremely rare; $100.00 (85.00)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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Virtus was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). Virtus applied exclusively to a man's behavior in the public sphere, that is to the application of duty to the res publica in the cursus honorum. Private business was no place to earn virtus, even when it involved courage or feats of arms or other good qualities. There could be no virtue in exploiting one's manliness in the pursuit of personal wealth, for example. It was thus a frequently stated virtue of Roman emperors and was personified as the deity Virtus.
RA73256. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 1172, RIC V-2 1040 (R), Hunter IV -, SRCV IV -, Burton Latimer -, Bicester -, F, green patina, obverse slightly off center, earthen deposits, scratches, weight 2.586 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 225o, unmarked mint, c. mid 286 - 287; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVG (courage of the Emperor), Virtus (or Mars) standing right, helmeted and draped, spear vertical in left hand, right hand resting on large grounded shield, no mint marks; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; rare; $100.00 (85.00)


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

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Virtus was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). Virtus applied exclusively to a man's behavior in the public sphere, that is to the application of duty to the res publica in the cursus honorum. Private business was no place to earn virtus, even when it involved courage or feats of arms or other good qualities. There could be no virtue in exploiting one's manliness in the pursuit of personal wealth, for example. It was thus a frequently stated virtue of Roman emperors and was personified as the deity Virtus.
RA84026. Silvered antoninianus, RIC V-2 816; SRCV III 12071 var. (...P F AVG); Cohen VI 894; Hunter IV -, Choice EF, full silvering, full circles centering, some flatly struck areas, weight 3.888 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, 5th officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, emission 5, 278 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, radiate bust left in consular robe, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand; reverse VIRTVS PROBI AVG (the valor of Emperor Probus), Mars walking right, helmeted, nude but for cloak tied in belt at waist and flying behind, transverse spear upward right in right hand, trophy of captured arms over left shoulder in left hand, XXIV in exergue; $90.00 (76.50)


Volusian, c. November 251 - July or August 253 A.D.

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Virtus (courage, valor) is depicted as a helmeted soldier, often a female, in armor holding a spear, parazonium, victory or a shield. Virtus and Mars can usually be distinguished since Mars is usually shown nude and Virtus is always shown clothed.
RS87915. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 206, RSC IV 133, Hunter III 47, SRCV III 9776, VF, well centered, good portrait, toned, reverse a little weak, frosty surfaces, die wear, tiny edge splits, weight 3.098 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. Nov 251 - Jul/Aug 253 A.D.; obverse IMP C C VIB VOLVSIANVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS AVGG (valor of the two emperors), Virtus standing half right, wearing crested helmet and military garb, inverted spear behind in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield; ex Beast Coins; $85.00 (72.25)


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

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Virtus was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). Virtus applied exclusively to a man's behavior in the public sphere, that is to the application of duty to the res publica in the cursus honorum. Private business was no place to earn virtus, even when it involved courage or feats of arms or other good qualities. There could be no virtue in exploiting one's manliness in the pursuit of personal wealth, for example. It was thus a frequently stated virtue of Roman emperors and was personified as the deity Virtus.
RA87246. Billon antoninianus, Alfldi Siscia V 96, 46; RIC V-2 812; Pink VI-1, p. 51; SRCV III 12071; Cohen VI 885 var. (bust left), Choice EF, well centered, much silvering, some die wear, weight 3.340 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, 2nd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 4th emission, 277 A.D.; obverse IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS PROBI AVG (the valor of Emperor Probus), Mars walking right, helmeted, transverse spear in right hand, trophy over shoulder in left, XXIS in exergue; $80.00 (68.00)




  



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Courage