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Kings of Paphlagonia, Pylaimenes Euergetes, c. 140 - 89 B.C.
In Greek mythology, Pylaemenes was the king of the Eneti tribe of Paphlagonia (a much earlier king, not the king named on this coin). He claimed to be related to Priam through Phineus, as the latter's daughter Olizone was married to Dardanus. He led his Paphlagonian forces to the Trojan War, as a Trojan ally. Pylaemenes was killed in battle by Menelaus of Sparta. He had a son named Harpalion who was killed by Meriones, son of Molus.
The King Pylaemenes Euergetes named on this coin may have been Pylaimenes II (ruled c. 140 - 130 B.C.), who bequeathed his kingdom to Pontus, or Pylaimenes III (ruled c. 108 - 89 B.C.), a son of Nicomedes III, King of Bithynia. The kerykeion symbolized peace and alliance and perhaps indicated that Pylaimenes III desired close relations with Rome.GB77131. Bronze AE 18, SNG BM 1555; SNGvA 150; Rec Gen I, p. 127 and pl. XVII, 3; BMC Pontus p. 103, 2 and pl. XXIII, 12; SNG Cop -; BMC Stancomb -, VF, well struck, green patina, a little rough, weight 3.905 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 180o, c. 140 - 89 B.C.; obversehead of bull facing; reverse winged kerykeion, BAΣIΛEΩΣ − ΠYΛAIMENOY / EΨEPΓEOY in three downward lines, the first line on the right, concave field; rare; $150.00 (€127.50)
Kingdom of Commagene, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, 38 - 72 A.D.
Commagene was located in modern south-central Turkey, with its capital at Samosata (the site is now flooded by the Atatürk Dam). Antiochus IV was an ally of Rome against Parthia and the last royal descendant of Seleucus. He ruled with his half-sister and queen Iotape. He was deprived of his kingdom after accusations that he was conspiring against Rome. He retired to Rome where he was treated with great respect for the remainder of his life.RP85940. Bronze AE 27, straight edge oval flan; RPC I 3857; Nercessian AC 200; BMC Galatia p. 106, 8; Lindgren-Kovacs 1882, VF, black patina with red earthen highlighting, light marks, oval flan typical of the type, some legend unstruck, slight porosity, weight 14.000 g, maximum diameter 26.6 mm, die axis 0o, Samosata (site now flooded by the Atatürk Dam) mint, 38 - 72 A.D.; obverse BAΣIΛEYΣ MEΓAΣ ANTIOXOΣ, beardless diademed bust right; reverse KOMMA−ΓHNΩN, scorpion and inscription all within laurel wreath (variety without linear boarders enclosing wreath); $150.00 (€127.50)
Kingdom of Commagene, Epiphanes and Callinicus, 72 A.D.
In 72 A.D., only two years after Antiochus IV, King of Commagene, sent troops, commanded by his son Epiphanes, to aid Titus in the siege of Jerusalem, he was accused by the governor of Syria of conspiring with Parthia against Rome. After a reign of thirty-four years from his first appointment by Caligula, Antiochus was deprived of his kingdom. He retired first to Sparta, and then to Rome, where he passed the remainder of his life and was treated with great respect. Antiochus' sons, Epiphanes and Callinicus briefly ruled the kingdom but after an encounter with Roman troops, fled to Parthia. They later joined their father in Rome.SH90336. Bronze AE 21, RPC I 3861; BMC Galatia p. 110, 1 ff.; De Luynes 3440; SGICV 5515, F, dark patina, red earthen deposits, weight 7.954 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 45o, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey) mint, 72 A.D.; obverseEpiphanes and Callinicus riding left on horseback, each wearing chlamys, BACIΛEΩC / YIOI in exergue; reverse KOMMAΓHNΩN, Capricorn right, star above, anchor flukes left below, all within laurel wreath, border of dots; ex John Jencek; $125.00 (€106.25)
Kingdom of Epirus, c. 280/270 - 235 B.C.
In 279 B.C., Pyrrhus' forces, supporting the Greek cities of southern Italy, met and defeated the Romans at the battle of Asculum in Apulia. Pyrrhus, however, lost many men, several close associates, and all of his baggage. When one of his soldiers congratulated him on his victory, he famously replied: "Another such victory and we are ruined!" From this we have the term Pyrrhic victory, a victory achieved at ruinous cost.GI87401. Bronze AE 20, Franke, group X, 72 var. (V-/R66); BMC Thessaly p. 88, 5; HGC 3 166 (S); SNG Cop -; SNG München, VF, green patina, soft reverse strike, weight 4.825 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 270o, Epeiros mint, c. 280/270 - 235 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus left; reverse thunderbolt, A/Π (Apeirotes) above and below, all in oak wreath; rare; $90.00 (€76.50)
Kings of Cilicia, Tarkondimotos, c. 39 - 31 B.C.
Tarkondimotos was made dynast by Pompey and crowned king by Marc Antony. He died at the Battle of Actium. The anchorcountermark, frequently used in an earlier era by Seleukid kings, is almost certainly post-Actium, perhaps from Antioch. GB75283. Bronze AE 22, RPC I 3871, SGCV II 5682, BMC Lycaonia p. 237, 1 ff., F/aF, green patina, weight 8.040 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 0o, Hieropolis mint, c. 39 - 31 B.C.; obverse diademed head right, countermark: anchor in oval punch; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ / TAPKON∆IMO/TOY, Zeus enthroned half left, himation around hips and legs with end over shoulder, Nike offering wreath extended in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, ΦIΛANT exergue; $60.00 (€51.00)