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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |The Tetrarchy||View Options:  |  |  |   

Roman Coins of the Tetrarchy
Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D., Antioch, Syria, Civic Christian Persecution Issue

|Antioch|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.,| |Antioch,| |Syria,| |Civic| |Christian| |Persecution| |Issue||quarter| |follis|
In 311, after the death of Galerius in late April or May, representatives from Nicomedia presented themselves before Maximinus, bringing images of their gods and requested that Christians not be allowed to live in their city. Late in 311, an embassy from Antioch, led by their curator Theotecnus, also requested permission to banish Christians from their city and its territory. Other cities followed with the same request. Maximinus support for Antioch's requests is advertised by this coin type. Fearing his co-emperors, however, Maximinus changed his mind. His edict in May 313 restored privileges and property to Christians. Later in 313, Licinius captured Antioch and executed Theotecnus.
RL93284. Billon quarter follis, McAlee 171(d), Van Heesch 2, Vagi 2955, SRCV IV 14932, gVF, dark patina, earthen highlighting deposits, weight 1.560 g, maximum diameter 15.5 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 312 - May 313 A.D.; obverse IOVI CONSERVATORI (to Jupiter the Protector), Jupiter seated left, globe in right, long scepter vertical behind in left; reverse VICTORIA AVGG (victory of the two emperors), Victory left, wreath in extended right hand, palm frond in left, ∆ in right field, ANT in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; scarce; $180.00 (165.60)


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

|Maximian|, |Maximian,| |286| |-| |305,| |306| |-| |308,| |and| |310| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA92322. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 399, bust type H (S); Bastien VII 387, pl. XXVIII (46 spec.); Cohen VI 442; Compas Collection 235, Choice aEF, much silvering, well centered, light marks, edge cracks, weight 3.606 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 7th emission, spring 290 - 291 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, radiate consular bust left, wearing imperial mantle, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand; reverse PAX AVGG (the peace of the two emperors), Pax standing left, Victory on globe in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, B in exergue; scarce; $90.00 (82.80)


Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.

|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||antoninianus|
In 294, Galerius, caesar in the Balkans, proved his worth campaigning on the Danube frontier, fighting the Goths, Marcomanni, Sarmatians, and Carpi. Galerius was assigned the job of land reclamation and repopulation, moving the entire tribe of the Carpi to settlements within the Roman Empire.
RA92335. Billon antoninianus, Bastien XI 657 (9 examples), RIC V-2 Lugdunum 692 (C), SRCV IV 14317, Cohen VI 211, Hunter IV -, VF, well centered, traces of silvering, flow lines, bumps and marks, scattered mild porosity, weight 4.222 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, officina 2, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, as caesar, 294 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS NOB C, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVGG (valor of the two emperors), Mars standing slightly left, head left, wearing helmet and military garb, resting right hand on grounded shield, inverted spear in left hand, B in exergue; RIC V lists as common but market evidence indicates they type is at least scarce; $90.00 (82.80)


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO AVGVSTI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Augusti, the Emperors. The figure depicted is the statue of the Spirit of the Roman People which was then in the Roman Forum (it is now lost). The act of pouring the libation to the emperor illustrates what the Christians were required to do in order not to be persecuted.
RT93355. Billon follis, RIC VI Alexandria 152b, SRCV IV 14841, Cohen VII 17, Hunter V -, gVF, dark brown patina, flow lines, porosity, slightly off center, reverse die wear, tiny edge crack, weight 5.116 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Alexandria mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGVSTI (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor), Genio standing facing, head left, kalathos on head, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, head of Serapis in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, crescent upper left, X in left field, B in right field, ALE in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $90.00 (82.80)


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO AVGVSTI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Augusti, the Emperors. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
RT92754. Billon follis, RIC VI Antiochia 164b, SRCV IV 14840, Cohen VII 21, Hunter V 91, Choice aEF, well centered, dark patina, traces of silvering, slightest porosity, weight 4.715 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 0o, 6th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGVSTI (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor), Genio standing left, nude but for paludamentum over shoulders and left arm, radiate head of Sol in extended right hand, cornucopia in left, * in left field, S in right field, ANT in exergue; $80.00 (73.60)


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

|Maximian|, |Maximian,| |286| |-| |305,| |306| |-| |308,| |and| |310| |A.D.||antoninianus|
While serving as co-Augusti, Maximian and Diocletian associated themselves with Hercules and Jupiter respectively. Diocletian was a religious conservative who wished to associate the imperial government with the traditional Roman cult, and these associations helped to do this. This was a departure from the policies of previous emperors, like Aurelian, who had strengthened the positions of non-traditional gods in the Roman pantheon.
RA92749. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 622 corr. (star over B not listed), SRCV IV 13134, Cohen VI 311, Hunter IV 55 var. (1st officina), VF, full border centering, nice green patina, flan edge a little ragged with some small cracks, weight 3.504 g, maximum diameter 24.2 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 285 - 294 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse IOV ET HERCV CONSER AVGG (Jupiter and Hercules protectors the emperors), Jupiter (on left) standing right, long scepter vertical in left hand, globe in right hand; Hercules (on right) standing left, offering Victory to Jupiter with right hand, club and lion-skin in left hand, Victory raising wreath and holding palm frond, star over B low center, XXI in exergue; $70.00 (64.40)


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

|Maximian|, |Maximian,| |286| |-| |305,| |306| |-| |308,| |and| |310| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA87258. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 Lugdunum 408 (S), Bastien Lyon XI 613 pl. XLIII (5 ex.), Cohen VI 436 var. (helmeted), Hunter IV - (p. clxxxvii), SRCV IV -, gVF, well centered and struck, traces if silvering, porous, weight 3.497 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, emission 12, series 2, 294 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVGG (the peace of the two emperors), Pax standing left, olive branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, A in exergue; scarce; $60.00 (55.20)


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the official sun god of the late Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274, Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. Scholars disagree whether the new deity was a re-foundation of the ancient Latin cult of Sol, a revival of the cult of Elagabalus, or completely new. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 A.D. and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.
RL93197. Billon follis, Hunter V 106 (also 1st officina), RIC VI Antiochia 167b, SRCV IV 14894, Cohen VII 161, F/aF, porous, spots of encrustation, parts of legends weak, weight 3.669 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse SOLI INVICTO (to the invincible sun god), Sol standing facing, head left, radiate, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, head of Serapis wearing kalathos in left hand, A left, star right, ANT in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $60.00 (55.20)


Licinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.

|Licinius| |I|, |Licinius| |I,| |11| |November| |308| |-| |18| |September| |324| |A.D.||follis|
Most references describe this bust as laureate and cuirassed. Hunter V breaks from tradition and correctly recognizes that the loop on the left shoulder indicates drapery, the paludamentum. To avoid confusion, we use the traditional description omitting "draped" from the description.
RL93204. Billon follis, Hunter V 4, RIC VII Londinium 3, SRCV IV 15184, Cohen VII 49, F, well centered, dark patina, small corrosion, weight 2.820 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 150o, Londinium (London, England) mint, 313 - 313 A.D.; obverse IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse GENIO POP ROM (to the guardian spirit of the Roman people), Genius standing left, nude but for cloak over shoulder, patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, S and F left and right, PLN in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $60.00 (55.20)


Licinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.

|Licinius| |I|, |Licinius| |I,| |11| |November| |308| |-| |18| |September| |324| |A.D.||follis|
A footnote in RIC identifies this reverse legend break for officina S and T, but not for P (prima or first) officina. This coin appears to be the same reverse legend variety for the first officina.
RL93206. Billon follis, Hunter V 40 (also 3rd officina), RIC VII Rome 23, SRCV IV 15301, Cohen VII 163, VF, brown patina with thin green deposits, broad flan, small edge crack, remnants of pre-strike casting sprues, weight 3.161 g, maximum diameter 21.5 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, 314 A.D.; obverse IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse SOLI IN-VI-CTO COMITI, Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, R - F across fields, R*T in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $60.00 (55.20)




  







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