, and , October 49 - 15 March 44 B.C.
"The coin that killed ." The declares is "Dictator for Life" and he wears the veil, symbolic of his life-term position as . would be both the and high priest of Rome for the remainder of his life, but his life would end only a few weeks after this coin was struck. For to put his image on coins and in effect declare himself was too much for and his republican allies. On the Ides of March (15 March) 44 B.C. was stabbed to death by as many as 60 conspirators, led by and Cassius. According to Plutarch, a seer had warned that harm would come to no later than the Ides of March. On his way to the Theater of Pompey, where he would be assassinated, passed the seer and joked, "The ides of March have come," meaning to say that the prophecy had not been fulfilled, to which the seer replied "Aye, ; but not gone." This meeting is famously dramatized in William Shakespeare's play , when is warned by the soothsayer to "beware the Ides of March."
Minted for Caesar's planned Parthian war, this was often carelessly struck indicating the mint was working under great pressure.SH84733. Silver ON RESERVE
, 480/13, 1074, 107d, 39, I Rome 4173, 1414, 56, VF, full centering on a broad , all on (highly desirable), , slightest , 3.685 g, maximum 20.1 mm, 45o, Rome mint, moneyer P Sepullius , Feb - Mar 44 B.C.; DICT PERPETVO, veiled and wreathed of right; P SEPVLLIVS , standing left, in extended right, long in left hand, at feet right; from the Marcelo Leal Collection; $2000.00 (€1780.00)
, and , October 49 - 15 March 44 B.C.
This coin declares as for the second time, consul for the third time, and . The of refers to the grain producing wealth delivered to Rome by his in . The D (and on similar coins an M) indicates this was struck to be distributed as a donativum (largess) or munus (gift) to his legions. Some may have been distributed at Caesar's quadruple triumph celebrated in 46 B.C., when celebrations included public banquets, plays and gladiatorial games, lasting forty days. Vercingetorix was paraded and executed. Also in 46 B.C., made his nephew his heir. Queen VII of , Caesar's mistress, and Caesarion, his bastard son by her, moved into one of his residences on the . They would remain in Rome as Caesar's guests until his assassination on 15 March 44 B.C.SH84609. Silver , 467/1a, 1637, 1023, 4a; 57, 21, 1403, gVF, dark , some marks and scratches, slightly off center, 3.283 g, maximum 19.1 mm, 0o, African, (?) mint, 46 B.C.; - COS (counterclockwise from lower right, for the 2nd time, consul for the third time), of right, wreathed with grain; implements of the augurate and pontificate: (ladle), ( ), capis (jug), and (wand), ( ) above, below D (donativum = largess) to right, ( ) below; from the James Collection, purchased in 2004 from Numismatica (9A Via Barberini, Rome); $670.00 (€596.30)
Roman Republic, Sextus Magnus, 45 - 44 B.C.
This was struck while was free-booting in Spain following the Battle of Munda. was the Pompeians' battle cry at Munda and the refers to his vow to avenge the deaths of his father and elder brother. and Grueber interpret SAL as salutatus. and Buttrey identify it as a for Salpensa, but David points out that such a prominent would be unprecedented on a of the period and seems to be an integral of the .RR77515. Silver , 4 (6/D); 477/3a; 1042a; 232b, 13, gF, attractive old cabinet tone, banker's marks, light bumps and scratches, 3.331 g, maximum 19.2 mm, 90o, uncertain mint, 45 - 44 B.C.; SEX IMP SAL, of Cnaeus Magnus ( ) right; standing left, branch in right hand, long transverse in left hand, downward on right; From the Andrew McCabe Collection, Numismatics auction 23, lot 372, ex Gemini auction X (13 Jan 2013), lot 261, ex Randy Haviland Collection; very ; $640.00 (€569.60)
and Divus , , 36 B.C., , Gaul
was originally founded as the Roman city , a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became increasingly referred to as by the end of the 1st century A.D. The etymology of is a latinization of the Gaulish place name Lugodunon. While dunon means , the source of Lug is uncertain. The most commonly offered meaning is the god named Lug. During the Middle Ages, was transformed to by natural sound change.RR70870. Bronze , 515, 7, 689, F, 16.797 g, maximum 29.9 mm, 0o, ( , France) mint, 36 B.C.; IMP DIVI , two heads back to back: laureate of Divus to left and of to right; between them branch with its tip bent to right over Octavian's ; Prow of galley to right, ornamented with an eye and ; superimposed on globe and above deck, below; ; $540.00 (€480.60)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
This may have been a legion raised by Antony and disbanded by . The XI , an old legion of Caesar's, fought for (and won the title Actiaca at the battle of ).SL79267. Silver , 544/25, 1229, II East 203, 39, NGC F, strike 3/5, surface 2/5, banker's marks (2400602-008), , 3.48 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 180o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - XI, ( ) between two legionary standards; NGC certified (slabbed); $450.00 (€400.50)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
This may have been the famous V Alaudae ('the larks'), a Caesarean legion which remained loyal to Antony but was later retained by . There are other possibilities, however: V Macedonica, a Caesarean legion about which little is known; V Urbana, disbanded after (and therefore quite likely an Antonian legion); and V Gallica, a Caesarean legion that was probably the one that under Lollius lost its to German raiders in Gaul in 17 B.C.
RS79795. Silver , 544/18, 1221, II East 196, 32, 354, VF, slightly off-center, banker's mark on , 3.714 g, maximum 17.7 mm, 180o, mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT AVG III. VIR. R. P. C., galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - V, legionary between two standards; $320.00 (€284.80)
Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, , 5 - 4 B.C., Legate P. Quinctilius Varus
Publius Quinctilius Varus was a Roman general and politician under . From 7 or 6 B.C. until 4 B.C. he governed where he was known for harsh rule and high taxes. Josephus mentions the action of Varus in 4 B.C., against a revolt in following the death of Herod the Great. Varus occupied Jerusalem and crucified 2000 rebels. Varus is most infamous for losing three Roman legions in an ambush by Germanic tribes led by Arminius in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, at which point he took his own life. Upon hearing the news, tore his clothes, refused to cut his hair for months and, for years afterward, was heard, upon occasion, to moan, "Quinctilius Varus, give me back my Legions!" (Quintili Vare, legiones redde!).
RP84651. Bronze trichalkon, 87; 50c; 4252; 92; 640; p. 159, 59; 402 (S), F, centered on a , dark with red earthen highlighting, , light corrosion, 5.501 g, maximum 20.0 mm, 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, legate P. Quinctilius Varus, 5 - 4 B.C.; laureate of Zeus right; ANTIOXEΩ EΠI OVAPOV, seated right on , turreted, wearing and , frond in her right hand, half-length figure of river-god swimming right below, his turned facing, ZK (Actian Era year 27) in the right ; ; $220.00 (€195.80)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG XV
This LEG XV was probably raised by Antony and disbanded by . It is not likely to have been the XV Apollinaris, a legion that was reconstituted by .RR90398. Silver , 544/20, 1224, II East 198, 34, , 3.154 g, maximum 18.4 mm, 315o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - XV, ( ) between two legionary standards; $120.00 (€106.80)
Marc Antony and , Triumvirs, 26 November 43 - 36 B.C.
According to , this issue was struck sometime between 30 May 43 B.C. and early 42 B.C., during the time Antony was of Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul and was of Gaul and Spain.RR84164. Silver , cf. 489/3, 3, 1158, Gaul 33, 1500 (other varieties with variations), aF, many banker's marks, 1.651 g, maximum 12.9 mm, 90o, Transalpine Gaul mint, Jun 43 - early 42 B.C.; M ANT IMP (or similar), implements of the augurate: (wand), capis (jug), and raven; LEP IMP (or similar), implements of the pontificate: (ladle), (ladle), (sacrificial ax), and (priest's hat); $120.00 (€106.80)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG XX
Antony's XX must have been disbanded by . The well-known XX Valeria (which later took in the conquest of Britain) was probably constituted by , perhaps after .SL70953. Silver ON RESERVE
, 544/36, 1243, II East 215, 57, G4 (4756278), maximum 16.9 mm, 90o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - XX, ( ) between two legionary standards; authenticated (slabbed) by ; $100.00 (€89.00)
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