Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy IV , 221 - 204 B.C.
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy IX Lathyros, Reign as of , 101 - 88 B.C.
Ptolemy IX Lathyros ("grass pea") was of three times, 116 B.C. to 110 B.C., 109 B.C. to 107 B.C. and 88 B.C. to 81 B.C., with intervening periods ruled by his brother, Ptolemy X Alexander. When this coin was struck Ptolemy IX ruled in and Ptolemy X in .
Serifs are unique to just a few Ptolemaic coins from this time period. Perhaps all are the of a single engraver. Serifs also appear on a very Kition of this ruler. They appear on the K behind the of on the latest of the octadrachms. The heavy-set portrait compares well to MFA 59.51, and not so well to images of Ptolemy I. SH72904. Silver
, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D., Paphos(?),
visited the Sanctuary of Aphrodite at Paphos in 69 A.D., when the future emperor was on his way to . He consulted the oracle of Aphrodite, and was told that he had a great future.
The 1.2 mm high gray-green conical stone, which once stood at the center of the Sanctuary of Aphrodite at Paphos, was found by archaeologists near the temple and is now in the Museum in Nicosia. It is not a meteorite. GP59007. Silver
Ptolemaic Kingdom, VII Thea , 51 - 30 B.C., Paphos,
, in his book The Coinage System of VII and in , assembles evidence dating this to VII instead of the reign of Ptolemy IV used in older references.GB72638. Bronze 1/8
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy IX II (Lathyros) or Ptolemy X Alexander, c. 114 - 80 B.C.
After Ptolemy died in 116 B.C., III ruled with her mother II and son Ptolemy IX. In 110 B.C., she replaced Ptolemy IX as co-regent with her second son Ptolemy X. Ptolemy IX regained the throne in 109 but was again replaced in 107 B.C. In 101 B.C., Ptolemy X had his mother III murdered, and then ruled alone or with his niece and wife, Berenice III.GP62519. Bronze AE 14, unpublished, cf.
Salamis, , Evagoras I, 411 - 374 B.C.
Evagoras claimed descent from Teucer, the son of Telamon and half-brother of . His family had long ruled Salamis. During his childhood Phoenicians took Salamis and he was exiled to . He returned secretly in 410 with 50 followers and retook his throne. Expecting an eventual Persian attack, he cultivated the friendship of the Athenians. For a time, he also maintained friendly relations with and secured the aid of Artaxerxes II for Athens against Sparta. He took in the battle of Cnidus of 394 B.C. which he provided most of the resources for and in which the Spartan fleet was defeated thanks to his efforts, and for this service his statue was placed by the Athenians side by side with that of Conon in the Ceramicus. Relations with deteriorated and from 391 they were at war. Aided by the Athens and , Evagoras extended his rule over the greater of , crossed over to , took several cities in (including Tyre), and persuaded the Cilicians to revolt. Under the peace of Antalcidas in 387, Athens abandoned him and recognized Persian lordship over . The Persian generals Tiribazus and at invaded in 385 B.C. Evagoras managed to cut off Persian resupplies and the starving troops rebelled. The war then turned in the Persian favor when Evagoras' fleet was destroyed at the Battle of Citium, and he was compelled to flee to Salamis. Here, although closely blockaded, Evagoras managed to hold his ground, and took advantage of a quarrel between the two Persian generals to conclude peace in 376. Evagoras was allowed to remain nominally of Salamis, but in reality a vassal of , to which he was to pay a yearly tribute. The chronology of the last of his reign is uncertain. In 374 he was assassinated by a eunuch from motives of private revenge. He was succeeded by his son, Nicocles.GS68007. Silver 1/12
Ptolemaic Kingdom, III and Ptolemy IX II (Lathyros), c. 116 - 110 B.C.
The date and reign of issue for this are uncertain. attributed it to Ptolemy IV but noted it may "belong to a later reign." Recent attributions span from Ptolemy to Ptolemy X. suggests it is very similar to 1426, from the mint, with a in place of the silphium .GB65953. Bronze AE 20,
, Time of , 27 B.C. - 14 A.D.
Augustus' sun sign was Libra. We don't know why he selected the Capricorn as his emblem. Perhaps Capricorn was either his rising sign or his Moon sign. Popular astrology, of the newspaper kind, is sun sign astrology. The ancients tended to attach more importance to the Moon sign and rising signs. Perhaps selected the Capricorn because it is associated with stern moral authority. (born Nov. 13) was a .SH58097. Bronze AE 18,
Salamis, , Evagorus II, c. 361 - 351 B.C.
Salamis was a town on the east coast of , at the end of a fertile plain between two mountains, near the River Pediaeus.GB59141. Bronze AE 12, Unpublished; cf.
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy II , 285 - 246 B.C.,
became of Alexander the Great's empire when he defeated . After the succession struggles between Alexander's generals, was ruled by the Ptolemies of .GP90086. Bronze
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