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Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.
This type is apparently unpublished and this is the only example of the type known to Forum. This reverse was used for very rare (both R5) issues of Licinius I and Licinius IICaesar. CNG e-auction 368, lot 496, is Constantine II with this same reverse, also 5th officina, but with Constantine II on the obverse left holding a Victory on globe and mappa.RL76392. Billoncentenionalis, apparently unpublished, cf. RIC VIISiscia 116 - 117 (for obv.type) and 138 - 139 (for rev.type, issues of the Licinii), EF, excellent portrait, both sides slightly off-center, left side of reverselegend weak, some porosity, a few light marks, weight 2.773 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, 5th officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, as caesar, 320 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassedbust left; reverseVIRTVS EXERCIT (courage of the army), vexillum inscribed VOT / XX in two lines, two seated barbarian captives back-to-back flanking base, Christogram (Chi-Rho monogram) left, ESISstar in exergue; ex Scott Collection; extremely rare; $270.00 SALE PRICE $243.00
Carinus, First Half 283 - Spring 285 A.D.
When this coin was struck in 282, Carinus was still the Prince of Youth, full of promise. Later he would be remembered as one of the worst Roman emperors. This infamy is, however, likely part fiction, supported by Diocletian himself. For example, the (unreliable) Historia Augusta has Carinus marrying nine wives, while neglecting to mention his only real wife, Magnia Urbica, by whom he had a son, Nigrinianus. After his death, Carinus' memory was officially condemned in the Roman proceeding known as Damnatio Memoriae. His name, along with that of his wife, was erased from inscriptions.RS71588. Billonantoninianus, Venèra IV 390 (LV 4227); RIC V, part 2, 182; Cohen VI 97; Hunter III 71; Pink VI-2, p. 28; SRCV III 12302, Choice EF, most silvering remains, well centered and struck, nice portrait, some porosity, weight 4.627 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 2nd issue as caesar, 282 - 283 A.D.; obverseM AVR CARINVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reversePRINCIPI IVVENTVT (to the Prince of Youth), Carinus standing left, globe in extended right hand, spear vertical behind in left hand, bound captive seated left at feet on left, QXXI in exergue; $200.00 SALE PRICE $180.00
Aurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.
In 274, Rome greeted Aurelian as Restitutor Orbis ("Restorer of the World") and accorded him a magnificent triumph (victory procession), which was graced by his captives Tetricus I and his son Tetricus II. Aurelian's conquests of the Palmyran Empire and the Gallic Empire reunited the Roman Empire.RA83500. Billondenarius, MER-RIC 1854, RIC V 73, Venèra 1503, BnF XII 260, Cohen VI 257, Choice VF, excellent centering, silvering, weight 2.756 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Rome mint, 11th issue, early - Sep 275 A.D.; obverse IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, laureate and cuirassedbust right; reverseVICTORIA AVG (the victory of the Emperor), Victory walking left, wreath extended in right, palm frond in left, bound captive in Parthian garb seated left on left at Victory's feet, head turned back looking at Victory, B in exergue; scarce; $180.00 SALE PRICE $162.00
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
Adventus reverse types commemorate the emperor's arrival at Rome, either at the commencement of his reign or on his return from a distance. They may also refer to his arrival in some other city or province of the empire. At their accession, emperors were not conveyed in a chariot nor in any other vehicle, but went on horseback or on foot when they made their first public entry into the capital of the Roman world.RA76277. Silveredantoninianus, RIC V, part 2, 166 (S); Cohen VI 69; Hunter IV 6; Pink VI-1, pp. 55; SRCV III 11953 var. (obv leg), aEF, magnificent armed bust, most silvering remaining, perfect centering, some corrosion, weight 4.183 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, emission 2, 277 A.D.; obverseVIRTVS PROBI AVG (the valor of Emperor Probus), radiate, helmeted, and cuirassedbust left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, oval shield on left shoulder; reverseADVENTVS PROBI AVG (the arrival of Emperor Probus), Probus on horseback left, raising right hand in salute, long scepter in left hand, horses' right foreleg raised over bound captive seated left, R in exergue; scarce; $145.00 SALE PRICE $131.00
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
In 321, Constantine I assigned convicts to grind Rome's flour in a move to hold back the rising price of food in an empire whose population had shrunk as a result of plague.RL76394. Billoncentenionalis, RIC VIILondon 185 (R2), SRCV IV 16315, Cohen VII 690, Choice EF, attractive style, excellent strike, some silvering, weight 2.941 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 195o, 1st officina, Londinium (London, England) mint, 320 - 321 A.D.; obverse CONSTA-NTINVS AVG, helmeted and cuirassedbust right; reverseVIRTVS EXERCIT (courage of the army), vexillum inscribed VOT / XX in two lines, two captives seated at base facing outward, the one on the left with hand to face in attitude of mourning, the one on the right with hands bound behind and turned looking back left, PLON in exergue; from the Scott Collection; $145.00 SALE PRICE $131.00
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
In 280 - 281, Probus put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems (an inscription with the name of Probus erased has been found as far as Spain). In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph.RA79969. Silveredantoninianus, RIC V, part 2, 223; Cohen VI 766; Pink VI-1, pp. 57-58/6; Hunter IV -; SRCV III -, Choice EF, perfect centering, bold obverse, excellent portrait, much silvering, reverse die wear, weight 4.205 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Rome mint, emission 6, 281 A.D.; obverse PROBVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reverseVICTORIA GERM (victory over the Germans), trophy of captured arms, flanked on each side at the base by a seated bound captive facing outward, R thunderbolt A in exergue; $135.00 SALE PRICE $122.00
Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.
Maxentius, the son of Maximinian, was made in rebellion against Severus II. He invited his father, who had abdicated, to resume rule. Although declared a public enemy at the Conference of Carnutum, he ruled Italy until at the Battle of Milvian Bridge he fell and drowned in the Tiber. His army was defeated by Constantine.RL74570. Billon half follis, RIC VIOstia 61, Hunter V 41 var. (2nd officina), cf. SRCV IV 15035 (Rome), Choice aVF, full circles strike on a broad flan, weight 3.362 g, maximum diameter 21.8 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Ostia (port of Rome) mint, 309 - 312 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassedbust left, spear in right over shoulder, shield on left arm; reverseVICTORIA AETERNAAVG N (the eternal victory of our emperor), Victory standing right, left foot on base of cippus supporting shield on which she inscribes VOT / X, captive seated left, MOSTP in exergue; $130.00 SALE PRICE $117.00
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
In 320, Crispus, eldest son of Constantine I, led a victorious campaign against the Franks, assuring twenty years of peace along the Rhine frontier. He established his residence in Augusta Treverorum (modern Trier), capital of Germania.RL76385. Billoncentenionalis, Paolucci-Zub 255a, RIC VIIAquileia 48, SRCV IV 16323, Cohen VII 690, Choice gVF, some silvering, some porosity, weight 3.122 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 330o, 1st officina, Aquileia mint, 320 A.D.; obverseCONSTANTINVS AVG, helmeted and cuirassedbust right; reverseVIRTVS EXERCIT (courage of the army), vexillum inscribed VOT / XX, two captives seated at base facing outward, the one on the left with hands bound behind, the one on the right looking back left, S left, F right, AQP in exergue; from the Scott Collection, ex Beast Coins (2007); $110.00 SALE PRICE $99.00
Licinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.
For many years, the two imperial colleagues had maintained an uneasy truce, but temperatures rose again in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging territory in his realm, across the Danube into Licinius' territory. When he repeated this with another invasion, this time by the Goths who were pillaging Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them.RL79435. Billonfollis, RIC VII Cyzicus 15 (R2), Cohen VII 71, SRCV IV 15216, Hunter V 173 ff. var. (2nd officina not listed), Choice aEF, well centered bold strike, some die wear, areas of mild porosity, weight 2.850 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 321 - 324 A.D.; obverse IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseIOVI CONSERVATORI (to Jupiter the protector), Jupiter standing slightly left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, Victory on globe presenting wreath in right hand, long eagle-topped scepter vertical in left hand, eagle standing left with wreath in beak at feet on left, in right field: X/IIΓ over bound captive seated right and looking left, SMKB in exergue; $110.00 SALE PRICE $99.00
Licinius Junior, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 18 September 324 A.D.
In 321 A.D., the Catholic Church was first allowed to hold property.RL79436. Billonfollis, RIC VII Cyzicus 18 (R1), SRCV IV 15409, Cohen VII 21, Hunter V 37 ff. var. (3rd officina not listed), Choice gVF, well centered and struck, attractive coin, weight 3.613 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 321 - 18 Sep 324 A.D.; obverse D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, helmeted, cuirassedbust left, shield in left hand and spear in right; reverseIOVI CONSERVATORI (to Jupiter the protector), Jupiter standing left, nude but for chlamys over left shoulder, Victory on globe presenting wreath in right hand, long eagle-topped scepter vertical behind in left hand, eagle with wreath in beak at feet left, captive seated right but looking left at feet on right, X/IIΓ (12 1/2) in right field, SMKΓ in exergue; $110.00 SALE PRICE $99.00