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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Greek Coins| ▸ |Geographic - All Periods| ▸ |Anatolia| ▸ |Cappadocia||View Options:  |  |  | 

Cappadocia

Cappadocia is in eastern Anatolia, in the center of what is now Turkey. After ending Persian rule, Alexander the Great intended to rule Cappadocia through one of his military commanders, but Ariarathes, a Persian aristocrat, somehow made himself king of the Cappadocians. Ariarathes I was successful and extended the borders of the Cappadocian Kingdom as far as the Black Sea. After Alexander's death, Perdiccas designated Eumenes to rule the area. Ariarathes was defeated, captured and crucified, but due to Macedonian infighting Ariarathes' son recovered his inheritance. He left the kingdom to a line of successors, who mostly bore the name of the founder of the dynasty. Under Ariarathes IV, Cappadocia became an ally of Rome. The kingdom maintained independence until A.D. 17, when the Tiberius reduced Cappadocia to a Roman province.

Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Caesarea, Cappadocia, Titus Reverse

|Cappadocia|, |Vespasian,| |1| |July| |69| |-| |24| |June| |79| |A.D.,| |Caesarea,| |Cappadocia,| |Titus| |Reverse||didrachm|NEW
Kayseri, originally called Mazaka or Mazaca, is in central Turkey on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes (Mount Argaeus in ancient times). During Achaemenid Persian rule, it was the capital of a Satrapy on the crossroads of the Royal Road from Sardis to Susa and the trade route from Sinope to the Euphrates. It was conquered by Alexander's general Perdikkas, was ruled by Eumenes of Cardia, then passed to the Seleucid empire after the battle of Ipsus. It became the capital of the independent Cappadocian Kingdom under Ariarathes III, around 250 B.C. During Strabo's time it was also known as Eusebia, after the Cappadocian King Ariarathes V Eusebes, 163 – 130 B.C. The name was changed again to "Caesarea in Cappadocia" in honor of Caesar Augustus, upon his death in 14 A.D. The city passed under formal Roman rule in 17 A.D. In Roman times, it prospered on the route from Ephesus to the East. Caesarea was destroyed by the Sassanid King Shapur I after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in 260 A.D. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants. Arabic influence changed Caesarea to the modern name Kayseri. The city gradually recovered and has a population of almost 1 million people today. Few traces of the ancient city survive.
RP96735. Silver didrachm, RPC II 1650, Sydenham Caesarea 102, Metcalf Cappadocia 4, SNG Righetti 1761, VF, excellent portraits, flow lines, light deposits, light marks, reverse off center, weight 6.429 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 0o, Cappadocia, Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, 76 - 77 A.D.; obverse AYTOKPA KAICAP OYECΠACIANOC CEBACTOC, laureate bust of Vespasian right; reverse AYTO KAI OYECΠACIANOC CEBACTOY YIOC, laureate bust of Titus right; $600.00 (€552.00)
 


Eusebeia (Caesarea), Cappadocia, 21 - 20 B.C.

|Cappadocia|, |Eusebeia| |(Caesarea),| |Cappadocia,| |21| |-| |20| |B.C.||AE| |21|
Kayseri, originally called Mazaka or Mazaca, is in central Turkey on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes (Mount Argaios or Argaeus in ancient times). It was renamed Eusebia in honor of Ariarathes V Eusebes, King of Cappadocia, 163 - 130 B.C. The last king of Cappadocia, King Archelaus, renamed it "Caesarea in Cappadocia" to honor Caesar Augustus upon his death in 14 A.D. Muslim Arabs slightly modified the name into Kaisariyah, which became Kayseri when the Seljuk Turks took control, c. 1080 A.D.
GB95831. Bronze AE 21, RPC I 3610 (11 spec.), SNGvA 6337, HGC 7 868 (R2) corr. (date); BMC Galatia -, Choice VF, attractive style, highlighting earthen deposits on nice green patina, porous, lower reverse weakly struck, weight 6.142 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 0o, Eusebeia (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, 21 - 20 B.C.; obverse head Dionysos right, wearing ivy wreath; reverse eagle right atop Mount Argaios, thyrsus inner right, EVΣE/BEIAΣ in two downward lines, staring on the right, ending on the left, monogram and Iς (year 16 [of the reign of King Archelaos of Cappadocia) below; very rare; $200.00 (€184.00)
 


Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 December 192 A.D., Caesarea, Cappadocia

|Cappadocia|, |Commodus,| |March| |or| |April| |177| |-| |31| |December| |192| |A.D.,| |Caesarea,| |Cappadocia||didrachm|NEW
Mount Erciyes (Argaios to the Greeks, Argaeus to the Romans) is a massive stratovolcano 25 km to the south of Kayseri (ancient Caesarea) in Turkey. The highest mountain in central Anatolia, with its summit reaching 3,916 meters (12,848 ft). It may have erupted as recently as 253 B.C. Strabo wrote that the summit was never free from snow and that those few who ascended it reported seeing both the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south in days with a clear sky.
RP92065. Silver didrachm, RPC IV Online 7113 (18 spec.); BMC Galatia p. 72, 209; Metcalf Cappadocia 155e; Sydenham Cappadocia 372; SNG Cop 252 (most with TPI in ex.), aVF, light toning, scratches, edge cracks, weight 4.622 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 0o, Cappadocia, Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, 182 - 183 A.D.; obverse AYT M AYP KOMO - ANTΩNINOC C, laureate head right; reverse UΠATOC ∆ - ΠAT ΠA-TP-I (consul for the 4th time, Father of the Country), Mount Argaios with rocks and trees, star above dividing legend; $110.00 (€101.20) ON RESERVE


Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Caesarea, Cappadocia

|Cappadocia|, |Septimius| |Severus,| |9| |April| |193| |-| |4| |February| |211| |A.D.,| |Caesarea,| |Cappadocia||AE| |28|
Kayseri, Turkey was originally named Mazaca. It was renamed Eusebia by Ariarathes V Eusebes, King of Cappadocia, 163 - 130 B.C. The last king of Cappadocia, King Archelaus, renamed it "Caesarea in Cappadocia" to honor Caesar Augustus upon his death in 14 A.D. Muslim Arabs slightly modified the name into Kaisariyah, which became Kayseri when the Seljuk Turks took control, c. 1080 A.D.
RP96759. Bronze AE 28, Sydenham Caesarea 428; BMC Galatia p. 77, 245; SNG Cop 263, aVF, well centered, green patina, light earthen deposits, weight 16.328 g, maximum diameter 28.8 mm, die axis 0o, Cappadocia, Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, 205 - 206 A.D.; obverse AV KAI Λ CEΠ CEOVHPOC A, laureate head right; reverse MHTPOΠO KAICAPIAC, Model of Mount Argaeus on top of garlanded altar, ET IΓ (year 13 of Septimius Severus) in exergue; $60.00 (€55.20)
 







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REFERENCES|

Bland, R. The Bronze Coinage of Gordian III from Caesarea in Cappadocia in Ashton, RNS Special Publication No. 29. (London, 1996).
Bland, R. "The last Coinage of Caesarea in Cappadocia" in Studia Arslan.
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (London, 1992 - ).
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Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Vol III, Part 2. (London, 1926).
Hoover, O. Handbook of Coins of Northern and Central Anatolia, Pontos...Kappadokia...Fifth to First Centuries BC. HGC 7. (Lancaster, PA, 2012).
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Metcalf, W. The Silver Coinage of Cappadocia, Vespasian - Commodus. ANSNNM 166. (New York, 1996).
Mørkholm, O. "A Further Comment on the Coinages of Ariarathes VIII and Ariarathes IX" in Quaderni Ticinesi 4 (1975), pp. 109 - 138.
Mørkholm, O. "The Coinages of Ariarathes VI and Arirathes VII of Cappadocia" in SNR 57 (1978).
Mørkholm, O. "The Coinages of Ariarathes VIII and Arirathes IX of Cappadocia" in Essays Robinson (1968), pp. 241- 258, pl. 30 - 33.
RPC Online - http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2: Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
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Simonetta, A. The coinage of the Cappadocian kings: a revision and a catalogue of the Simonetta Collection. Parthica 9. (Pisa-Rome, 2007).
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Sydenham, E. The Coinage of Caesarea in Cappadocia, with supplement by A. Malloy. (New York, 1978).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 7: Cyprus to India. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 6: Phrygien - Kappadokien; Römische Provinzprägungen in Kleinasien. (Berlin, 1998).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 3: Pisidia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, Galatia, Cappadocia, Cyprus, [etc.]. (Berlin, 1964).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IV, Fitzwilliam Museum, Leake and General Collections, Part 7: Asia Minor: Lycia - Cappadocia. (London, 1967).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, Univ. of Glasgow, Part 1: Roman Provincial Coins: Spain-Kingdoms of Asia Minor. (Oxford, 2004).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Schweiz II. Münzen der Antike. Katalog der Sammlung Jean-Pierre Righetti im Bernischen Historischen Museum. (Bern, 1993).
Wroth, W. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Syria. (London, 1899).

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