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Roman Republic, Sextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet, Executed 35 B.C., Portrait of Pompey the Great

|Pompeians|, |Roman| |Republic,| |Sextus| |Pompey,| |Imperator| |and| |Prefect| |of| |the| |Fleet,| |Executed| |35| |B.C.,| |Portrait| |of| |Pompey| |the| |Great|
The inscription PRAEF CLAS ET ORAE MARIT abbreviates Praefectus Classis et Orae Maritimae, which translates Commander-in-Chief of the Fleet and the Sea Coasts. This title was held by both Pompey the Great and his son Sextus Pompey. Although Sextus Pompey was the supreme naval commander, Octavian had the Senate declare him a public enemy. He turned to piracy and came close to defeating Octavian. He was defeated by Marcus Agrippa at the naval battle of Naulochus (3 September 36 B.C.) and was executed by order of Mark Antony in 35 B.C.
RR96734. Silver denarius, Crawford 511/3a, RSC I Pompey the Great 17, Sydenham 1344, BMCRR Sicily 7, Sear CRI 334, SRCV I 1392, aVF, attractive iridescent toning, obverse off center, tight flan, reverse strike weak on right, weight 3.822 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 135o, Sicilian mint, 42 - 40 B.C.; obverse MAG PIVS IMP ITER, head of Pompey the Great right, between capis and lituus (augural symbols); reverse Neptune standing left, right foot on prow, nude but for chlamys on left arm, holding apluster, flanked by the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, running in opposite directions with their parents on their shoulders, PRAEF above, CLAS ET ORAE / MARIT EX S C in two lines in exergue; scarce; $570.00 SALE |PRICE| $460.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|
Dated legends are very scarce in this period!
RA94162. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1342h, Cunetio 1752, RSC IV 824, RIC V-1 S455 var. (nothing in ex.), SRCV III 10320 var. (same), Hunter IV - (p. xlvi), F, traces of silvering, tight flan, small edge splits, centers weak, light deposits, weight 2.955 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 259 A.D.; obverse IMP GALLIENVS P F AVG (or similar), radiate head right; reverse P M TR P VII COS, Emperor seated left on curule chair, veiled, globe in extended right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, MS in exergue; rare; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|
This very unusual reverse legend is found only on this type. Some authorities interpret Iubentus as an alternative spelling for Iuventus, which means youth. This would be a strange legend for Gallienus who was no longer youthful. Some otherwise very similar specimens clearly read LVBENTVS AVG. This might be translated as the joyfulness of the emperor, meaning the joyfulness he brought to the people.
RA94164. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1641a, RSC IV 415, RIC V-1 S615 (S), SRCV III 10249, Hunter IV - (p. lxx), gF, full border strike on a wide flan, some silvering, weak centers, light deposits, weight 3.03 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 266 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse IVBENTVS AVG (Joyfulness of the Emperor), Emperor standing half left, head left, Victory in right hand, spear upward in left hand, VIIC• (= COS VII) in exergue; scarce; $40.00 SALE |PRICE| $36.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|
The reverse legend translates Libero Patri Conservatori Augusti, which identifies Liber Pater, a panther sacred to Bacchus, as a protector of the emperor. Gallienus also identified Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, and others on coins as his protectors.
RA94165. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 713b, RIC V-1 S230, Hunter IV S116, RSC IV 586, SRCV III 10281, Hunter IV 112, gF, nice blue green patina with highlighting earthen deposits, centered on an oval flan, weakly struck centers, weight 2.853 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 270o, 2nd officina, Rome mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse LIBERO P CONS AVG, panther walking left, B in exergue; $36.00 SALE |PRICE| $32.40


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|
The obverse legend translates Libero Patri Conservatori Augusti, which identifies Liber Pater, a panther sacred to Bacchus, as a protector of the emperor. Gallienus also identified Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, and others on coins as his protectors.
RA94167. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 713b, RIC V-1 S230, Hunter IV S112, RSC IV 586, SRCV III 10281, VF, traces of silvering, centered on a oval flan, edge ragged, flan cracks, weight 2.520 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Rome mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse LIBERO P CONS AVG, panther walking left, B in exergue; $45.00 SALE |PRICE| $40.50


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|
To the ancient Romans, Rome was "Roma Aeterna" (The Eternal City) and "Caput Mundi" (Capital of the World). The empire is history but Rome is still today, the eternal city. Rome's influence on Western Civilization can hardly be overestimated; perhaps a greater influence than any other city on earth, making important contributions to politics, literature, culture, the arts, architecture, music, religion, education, fashion, cinema and cuisine.
RA94169. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1613e, RIC V-1 654, RSC IV 920, SRCV III 10343 var. (obv. legend, star position), F, well centered, dark brown patina with highlighting earthen deposits, scratches and marks, weight 2.550 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 260 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; reverse ROMAE AETERNAE (to eternal Rome), Roma seated left, wearing crested helmet, grounded shield at side, Victory in right hand, vertical spear behind in left hand, star upper left; $32.00 SALE |PRICE| $28.80


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|
Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection. The Roman's believed as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored emperors and kings, those in positions of authority similar to his own.
RA94174. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 641a, RIC V-1 S214, RSC IV 382a, Hunter IV S85, SRCV III 10244, aF, well centered, ragged edge, weight 2.174 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 315o, 11th officina, Rome mint, 264 - 266 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse IOVI PROPVGNAT (Jupiter the defender), Jupiter advancing left left, head right, nude but for cloak flying out behind, brandishing thunderbolt in right, XI left; $36.00 SALE |PRICE| $32.40


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|
The name Ultor was given to Jove because he was believed to be the avenger of wicked men's impieties.
RA94175. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 348e, RIC V-1 S221, RSC IV 402, Hunter IV S12, SRCV III 10247 var. (obv. leg.), VF, centered on a tight flan cutting off part of legends, some silvering, weight 3.394 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Rome mint, 260 - 261 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse IOVI VLTORI (to Jupiter the avenger), Jupiter advancing left, head turned back right, nude but for cloak billowing out behind, brandishing thunderbolt in raised right hand, S in left field; $60.00 SALE |PRICE| $54.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|
Security was only wishful thinking when this coin was struck. There were so many invasions in the next few years that they confused the ancient sources and much of the history is lost. In 267, the Goths sacked several cities in southern Greece including Athens, Corinth, Argos and Sparta. Gallienus defeated them, but the Alamanni would come the year after.
RA94176. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 595a, RSC IV 961a, RIC V-1 S280, SRCV III 10359, Hunter IV S77, VF, encrustations, tight ragged flan, parts of legends weak/off flan, weight 2.619 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, 8th officina, Rome mint, 264 - 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse SECVRIT PERPET (everlasting security), Securitas standing slightly left, legs crossed, head left, long scepter in right hand, leaning with left arm on column, H right; ; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|
One of the last rulers of Rome to be called "Princeps" or First Citizen, Gallienus' shrewd self-promotion paved the way for later emperors who would be addressed with the words "Dominus et Deus" (Lord and God).
RA94177. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1643a, RSC IV 634, RIC V-1 S617, SRCV III 10291, Hunter IV - (p. lxix), aEF/F, choice obverse, reverse also well centered but stuck with a very worn die, weight 4.171 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 266 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse MINERVA AVG, Minerva standing left, resting right on shield at feet, spear vertical in left, VIIC (=COS VII) in exergue; $60.00 SALE |PRICE| $54.00




  







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