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Dates of operation: c. 289 - 40 B.C. and 20 B.C. - 476 A.D. Mintmarks: R, RM, ROM, ROMA, ROMOB, VRB ROM, SMR.
Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.
This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.SH87932. Gold aureus, RIC II-1 28, BnF I 17, BMCRE II 23, Hunter I 13, Calico I 607, Cohen I -, SRCV I -, Choice aVF, well centered, traces of luster in recesses, weight 6.944 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. Jan - Jun 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS ITER TR POT, Pax seated left, extending olive branch in right hand, winged caduceus in left hand; $2520.00 (€2217.60)
Didius Julianus, 28 March - 2 June 193 A.D.
193 A.D. - The Year of Five Emperors. On 1 January, the Senate selected Pertinax, against his will, to succeed the late Commodus as Emperor. The Praetorian Guard assassinated him on 28 March and auctioned the throne to the highest bidder, Didius Julianus, who offered 300 million sesterces. Outraged by the Praetorians, legions in Illyricum select Septimius Severus as emperor; in Britannia the legions select their governor Clodius Albinus, and in Syria the legions select their governor Pescennius Niger. On 1 June Septimius Severus entered the capital, put Julianus put to death and replaced the Praetorian Guard with his own troops. Clodius Albinus allied with Severus and accepted the title of Caesar. Pescennius Niger was defeated, killed and his head displayed in RomeSH89752. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 14a; Woodward, Didius, p. 79 (dies 11/E); Banti 1, Nice F, excellent portrait, attractive dark brown patina, typical tight flan, weight 18.230 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 28 Mar - 2 Jun 193 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONCORD MILIT (harmony with the soldiers), Concordia Militum standing half left, head left, legionary aquila (eagle) standard in right hand, signum standard in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field below center; ex CNG e-auction 276 (21 Mar 2012), lot 420 (sold for $2520 including buyer's fees); rare; $2200.00 (€1936.00)
Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D.
Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a brilliant general and administrator, was adopted and proclaimed emperor by the aging Nerva in 98 A.D. Regarded as one of Rome's greatest emperors, Trajan was responsible for the annexation of Dacia, the invasion of Arabia and an extensive and lavish building program across the empire. Under Trajan, Rome reached its greatest extent. Shortly after the annexation of Mesopotamia and Armenia, Trajan was forced to withdraw from most of the new Arabian provinces. While returning to Rome to direct operations against the new threats, Trajan died at Selinus in Cilicia.RB88224. Orichalcum sestertius, Woytek 240q (same dies), BnF IV 512 (same dies), BMCRE III 771, Banti 117, Strack 398, RIC II 478 var. (bust), Cohen 367 var. (same), VF, well centered, rough, weight 21.340 g, maximum diameter 34.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 106 - 107 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate heroic bust left, full chest exposed, drapery on left shoulder; reverse S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Ceres standing half left, head left, holding grain over modius in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, S – C (senatus consulto) divided across field; extremely rare with this bust, struck with a superb obverse die!; $880.00 (€774.40)
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.
Of this type, the Dictionary of Roman Coins says, "This is a finely designed coin in first brass [a sestertius]. The equestrian group is in a spirited style of workmanship, both horse and man. The Augustus raises aloft his right hand, and with his left holds the bridle of his generous steed, as setting out on him on some journey, about that vague period, his third consulate."SH89464. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC II 645 (S), BMCRE III 1313, Hunter II 436, Cohen II 590 var. (bust), SRCV II 3594, Choice VF, mottled turquoise and brown patina, well centered, nice portrait, legends a little weak, edge crack, weight 24.967 g, maximum diameter 33.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 124 - 128 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse COS III, emperor on horseback prancing left, bare-headed, wearing military garb, cloak flying behind, raising right hand in salute, reins in left hand, S - C divided low across field, EXPED AVG in exergue; Numismatik Naumann auction 72 (2 Dec 2018), lot 458; scarce; $650.00 (€572.00)
Roman Republic, Julius Caesar, Posthumous, 42 B.C., Moneyer L. Livineius Regulus
L. Livineius Regulus had served with Caesar in North Africa.SH87936. Silver denarius, SRCV I 1425, Crawford 494/24, Sear CRI 115, Sydenham 1106, RSC I 27, BMCRR Rome 4274, F, iridescent rainbow toning, well centered, banker's mark, weight 3.462 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, posthumous, 42 B.C.; obverse wreathed head of Julius Caesar right, laurel branch behind, winged caduceus before; reverse L LIVINEIVS / REGVLVS, bull charging right; rare; $610.00 (€536.80)
Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.
Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under the condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. SH91317. Silver argenteus, RIC VI Rome 29b (R2), RSC V 219a, Hunter V 14, SRCV IV 14264, Choice VF, well centered, flow lines, nearly as struck but with die wear, weight 3.286 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 294 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS CAES, laureate head right; reverse VIRTVS MILITVM (courage of the soldiers), the four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod in front of gated enclosure with six turrets; rare; $600.00 (€528.00)
Agrippina Senior, b. 14 B.C., d. 33 A.D., Wife of Germanicus, Mother of Caligula and Agrippa Jr.
The carpentum was a type of state carriage, with two wheels, and commonly drawn by a pair of mules. The privilege of riding in a carpentum in public festivals was sometimes granted to females of the imperial family. Agrippina's, carriage on the reverse of this coin, was very richly adorned with painting or carving on the panels, and the cover was supported by caryatides on the corners. When Caligula instituted games and other solemnities in honor of his deceased mother Agrippina, her carpentum went in the procession (Suet. Calig. 13). RB91444. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I Gaius 55, BMCRE I Caligula 81, Cohen I 1, BnF II Caligula 128, Hunter I Gaius 36, SRCV I 1827, F, well centered, some obv. legend unstruck, rough, weight 24.658 g, maximum diameter 34.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, posthumous, 37 - 41 A.D.; obverse AGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI, draped bust right, her hair tied in queue in back and one lock falling down side of neck; reverse S P Q R / MEMORIAE / AGRIPPINAE, carpentum drawn by two mules left; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection, ex Pegasi Coins; $500.00 (€440.00)
Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.
RPC II notes the style of Domitian's cistophori is similar to that of the Rome mint and the die axis is always 6:00 like Rome and unlike Ephesus. It is likely they were struck at Rome. BMCRE notes the fineness is 85%.RS89459. Silver cistophorus, RPC II 866, RIC II-1 845, BMCRE II 225, SNG Cop 431, SNGvA 6581, RSC II Domitia and Domitian 2, F, toned, scratches and marks, some legend weak, weight 9.622 g, maximum diameter 25.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome (or uncertain Anatolian) mint, 82 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG P M COS VIII•, laureate head of Domitian right; reverse DOMITIA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Domitia right, hair massed in front and in long plait behind; rare; $450.00 (€396.00)
Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.
This type is from a very rare early issue of Titus as Augustus, not yet naming him P P (Pater Patriae - Father of the Country). Titus apparently accepted this title quite soon after the beginning of his ninth tribunician year on 1 July 79 and P P was quickly added to the end of the reverse legend. RS89741. Silver denarius, RIC II 6 (R2, same reverse die), BnF III 1 (same rev. die), RSC II 270a, BMCRE II -, Hunter I -, SRCV I -, Choice VF, excellent portrait, excellent centering, flow lines, weight 3.399 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 24 Jun - mid July 79 A.D.; obverse IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate head right; reverse TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII, Ceres seated left, grain stalks and poppy head in extended right hand, flaming torch in left hand; only two sales of this type recorded on Coin Archives in the last two decades; very rare; $450.00 (€396.00)
Didius Julianus, 28 March - 2 June 193 A.D.
Didius Julianus was born in 133 A.D. and followed a military career. He rose to the rank of legion commander, then Consul and Proconsul of Africa. After Pertinax was murdered, the Praetorian Guard (the emperor's personal bodyguard force) advertised that they were offering the throne to the highest bidder. If not the richest, Didius Julianus was one the richest men in Rome and offered 25,000 sestertii for each man! The Roman people were incensed by the auction and several provincial governors rose up against him. As Septimius Severus approached Rome, only 66 days into his reign, Didius Julianus was betrayed and beheaded by the Praetorians.RB91373. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 15 (R), BMCRE V 25, Hunter III 5, Cohen III 12, SRCV II 6076, F, nice portrait for the grade, nice dark patina, centered on a tight flan, weight 17.568 g, maximum diameter 29.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 28 Mar - 2 Jun 193 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right; reverse P M TR P COS, Fortuna standing half left, head left, rudder on globe held by tiller in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking low across field; rare; $450.00 (€396.00) ON RESERVE