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Kallatis was founded on the Black Sea by Heraclea Pontica in the 6th century B.C. In Greek Kallatis means "the beautiful." Its first silver coinage was minted approximately 350 B.C. In 72 B.C., Kallatis was conquered by the Roman general Lucullus and was included in the Roman province of Moesia Inferior. Throughout the 2nd century A.D., the city built defensive fortifications. Kallatis suffered multiple invasions in the 3rd century A.D. but recovered in the 4th century A.D. to regain its status as an important trade hub and port city. Today Kallatis is called Mangalia, the oldest city in Romania.RP92865. Bronze AE 20, CN Online Kallatis CN_15950 (same dies); SNG Cop 182 (same dies); RPC online 4308 (8 spec.); AMNG I p. 110, 289 & pl. II, 11; BMC Thrace p. 22, 8, Choice aVF, full border centering, brown toned brassy surfaces, bumps and marks, edge crack, central depressions, weight 6.892 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, Kallatis (Mangalia, Romania) mint, c. 100 - 299 A.D.; obverse laureate, bearded head of Herakles right; reverse KAΛΛATIANΩN, Tyche seated left, wearing mural crown, Nike standing left in her extended right hand, left arm resting on back of throne; Savoca Numismatik auction 32 (14 Apr 2019), lot 174; $95.00 SALE |PRICE| $85.50
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Nikopolis ad Istrum
There are peculiarities about these Roman crescent and star reverse types that are difficult to understand. First, the crescents are almost always depicted with the horns up. The moon is never seen this way in the sky. Also, in the sky stars are never visible within the horns of the crescent moon because there they would be behind the shadowed yet solid and opaque orb. The crescent with horns up may represent a solar eclipse.RP92881. Bronze assarion, H-H-J Nikopolis 184.108.40.206 (R2), Varbanov I 2474 var. (obv. leg.), AMNG I/I 1432, Moushmov 986, gVF, green patina, slightly off center, scratches, spot of corrosion on reverse, weight 2.928 g, maximum diameter 16.6 mm, die axis 180o, Nicopolis ad Istrum (Nikyup, Bulgaria) mint, 9 Apr 193 - 4 Feb 211 A.D.; obverse AY K Λ CEVHPOC, laureate head right; reverse NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC IC, five stars above and within crescent with horns upward; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior
A star or stars within a crescent with horns up probably represent a solar eclipse.RP89583. Bronze assarion, H-H-J Nikopolis 220.127.116.11 (R2), Varbanov I 2999 (R3), AMNG I/I 1513.2, Moushmov 1118, aF, edge cracks, weight 2.055 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 180o, Nicopolis ad Istrum (Nikyup, Bulgaria) mint, as caesar, 195 - 28 Jan 198; obverse M AV KA ANTΩNIN, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC IC, six-pointed star above and within crescent with horns up; $16.00 SALE |PRICE| $14.40