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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Gods, Non-Olympian| ▸ |Sol||View Options:  |  |  |   

Sol

Sol sometimes called Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the solar deity in Ancient Roman religion. Worship of Sol began early but seems to have become more significant from the reign of Aurelian until the abolition of paganism under Theodosius I.

Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.

|Constantine| |II|, |reduced| |follis|
Constantine II was the son of Constantine I, the eldest with his second wife, Fausta. He was made Caesar before he was a year old. Upon his father's death, Constantine II inherited the Western empire. After quarreling with his brother, Constans, he invaded his territory, only to be killed in an ambush near Aquileia.
RL89939. Billon reduced follis, RIC VII Siscia 37 (R3), SRCV IV 17110, Cohen VII 50, Hunter V -, Choice aEF, excellent centering, attractive green patina, flow lines, weight 3.201 g, maximum diameter 20.35 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, as caesar, 317 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAES, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLARITAS REIPVBLICAE (the renown of the Republic), Sol standing facing, head left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding sunrise, globe in left hand, ΓSIS in exergue; scarce; $100.00 SALE |PRICE| $90.00
 


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |follis|
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO AVGVSTI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Augusti, the Emperors. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
RT92754. Billon follis, RIC VI Antiochia 164b, SRCV IV 14840, Cohen VII 21, Hunter V 91, Choice aEF, well centered, dark patina, traces of silvering, slightest porosity, weight 4.715 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 0o, 6th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGVSTI (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor), Genio standing left, nude but for paludamentum over shoulders and left arm, radiate head of Sol in extended right hand, cornucopia in left, * in left field, S in right field, ANT in exergue; $90.00 SALE |PRICE| $81.00
 


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

|Constantine| |the| |Great|, |follis|
In 316, Constantine I sent his half-brother Julius Constantius to Licinius at Sirmium (Pannonia), with a proposal to make Bassianus caesar with power over Italy. Licinius refused, elevated Valerius Valens to augustus, mobilized an army against Constantine, and executed Bassianus. Constantine I defeated Licinius and Valerius Valens at the Battle of Mardia (near Harmanli, Bulgaria).
RL92324. Billon follis, RIC VII Trier 105, SRCV IV 16063, Cohen VII 525, Hunter V -, Choice EF, well centered, traces of silvering, some letters not fully struck, edge cracks, weight 3.196 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 316 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand turned outward, T - F divided across fields, ATR in exergue; $85.00 SALE |PRICE| $76.50
 


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

|Constantine| |the| |Great|, |follis|
In 316, Constantine I sent his half-brother Julius Constantius to Licinius at Sirmium (Pannonia), with a proposal to make Bassianus caesar with power over Italy. Licinius refused, elevated Valerius Valens to augustus, mobilized an army against Constantine, and executed Bassianus. Constantine I defeated Licinius and Valerius Valens at the Battle of Mardia (near Harmanli, Bulgaria).
RL88036. Billon follis, RIC VII Trier 162 (R4), SRCV IV 16064, Cohen VII 525, Hunter V -, Choice gVF, excellent centering, flow lines, black tone with some coppery high spots, tiny edge cracks, weight 3.271 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 317 - 318 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand turned outward, F - T divided across fields, •ATR in exergue; rare; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
 


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

|Constantine| |the| |Great|, |follis|
In 310 A.D. Maximian, supposedly retired, attempted to make himself emperor again at Arles. When Constantine the Great marched with his army, Maximian fled but was captured at Marseille. Constantine encouraged his suicide and Maximian, age 60, hung himself.
RL93238. Billon follis, RIC VI Londinium 121a, SRCV IV 16046, Cohen VII 536, Hunter V 4, VF, dark patina, small deposits, broad flan ragged with edge splits, weight 2.829 g, maximum diameter 27.0 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Londinium (London, England) mint, 310 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, T left, F right, PLN in exergue; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
 


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

|Severus| |Alexander|, |as|
Severus Alexander was promoted from Caesar to Augustus after his cousin Elagabalus was murdered. He was dominated by his mother, but his reign brought economic prosperity and military success against the barbarians. Mutinous soldiers led by Maximinus I murdered him and his mother.
RB94231. Copper as, RIC IV 530, Cohen IV 431, BMCRE VI 860, SRCV II 8088, Hunter III -, F, well centered, dark brown tone with highlighting earthen deposits, scratches, scrapes, spots of corrosion, weight 9.578 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 232 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse P M TR P XI COS III P P (high priest, holder of tribunitian power 11 years, consul 3 times, father of the country), Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) across fields; this is the first specimen of this type handled by FORVM; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
 


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

|Constantine| |the| |Great|, |follis|
On 8 October 314, Constantine the Great defeated Licinius in the Battle of Cibalae, near Colonia Aurelia Cibalae (modern Vinkovci, Croatia). Licinius lost all of the Balkans except for Thrace and fled to Sirmium. Peace negotiations were initiated, but unsuccessful.
RL92852. Billon follis, Hunter V 179 (also 1st officina), RIC VII Rome 19, SRCV IV 16096, Cohen VII 536, Choice VF, well centered and struck, light marks and scratches, light deposits, weight 2.873 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Rome mint, 314 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, R - F flanking at sides, R*P in exergue; $70.00 SALE |PRICE| $63.00
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |antoninianus|
The reverse legend is a Latin abbreviation for Pontifex Maximus, Tribunitia Potestate IIII, Consul III, Pater Patriae - High priest, holder of tribunitian power four years, consul three times, father of the country.
RS93266. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 59p, RIC V-1 J119, RSC IV 806, Cunetio 568, SRCV III 10316, VF, toned, broad flan, flow lines, porosity, a few small shallow pits on reverse, edge cracks (one long), weight 4.001 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse P M TR P IIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left hand; $70.00 SALE |PRICE| $63.00
 


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |follis|
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the official sun god of the late Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274, Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. Scholars disagree whether the new deity was a re-foundation of the ancient Latin cult of Sol, a revival of the cult of Elagabalus, or completely new. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 A.D. and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.
RL93197. Billon follis, Hunter V 106 (also 1st officina), RIC VI Antiochia 167b, SRCV IV 14894, Cohen VII 161, F/aF, porous, spots of encrustation, parts of legends weak, weight 3.669 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse SOLI INVICTO (to the invincible sun god), Sol standing facing, head left, radiate, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, head of Serapis wearing kalathos in left hand, A left, star right, ANT in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $70.00 SALE |PRICE| $63.00
 


Licinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.

|Licinius| |I|, |follis|
A footnote in RIC identifies this reverse legend break for officina S and T, but not for P (prima or first) officina. This coin appears to be the same reverse legend variety for the first officina.
RL93206. Billon follis, Hunter V 40 (also 3rd officina), RIC VII Rome 23, SRCV IV 15301, Cohen VII 163, VF, brown patina with thin green deposits, broad flan, small edge crack, remnants of pre-strike casting sprues, weight 3.161 g, maximum diameter 21.5 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, 314 A.D.; obverse IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse SOLI IN-VI-CTO COMITI, Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, R - F across fields, R*T in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $70.00 SALE |PRICE| $63.00
 




  



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