, and , October 49 - 15 March 44 B.C.
The Roman numeral on the indicates Caesar's age (52) when this coin was minted, a unique occurrence in Roman numismatics.
SH85105. Silver , 1400, 3955, 18, 452/2, 1009, 11, EF, light tone on luster, tiny edge cracks, 3.716 g, maximum 19.3 mm, 90o, traveling military mint, late spring-early summer 48 B.C.; female ( ?) right, wearing oak , necklace, jewel before ear, and cruciform earring, hair in jeweled knot behind with falling locks, LII (52 = Caesar's age) behind; CAE-SAR flanking the base of a draped of Gallic arms ( decorated with , horned helmet, and ), axe topped by wolf on right; $1350.00 (€1201.50)
, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.
A legatus pro praetore (literally: "envoy of the emperor - acting praetor") was the official title of the governor of some imperial provinces of the Roman Empire during the Principate era, normally the larger ones or those where legions were based. Provinces were denoted imperial if their governor was selected by the emperor, in contrast to senatorial provinces, whose governors (called proconsuls) were elected by the Roman Senate.SH84735. Silver , 7b, 405, 282, Spain 115, 1048, -, -, Nice gVF, attractive portrait, bold strike, light with luster in recesses, of corrosion on edge 3:00 - 6:00, 3.758 g, maximum 18.9 mm, 315o, Augusta (Merida, Spain) mint, P. Carisius, c. 25 - 23 B.C.; IMP , left; P CARISIVS (P. Carisius Legatus [ ] pro Praetore), Celtiberian helmet decorated with and crest, short dagger pointing downward on left, (double-headed ax) slanting upward on right; this is the only example of this ever handled by , from the Marcelo Leal Collection; ; $1300.00 (€1157.00)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
Adventus types commemorate the emperor's arrival at , either at the commencement of his reign or on his return from a distance. They may also refer to his arrival in some other city or province of the empire. At their accession, emperors were not conveyed in a chariot nor in any other vehicle, but went on horseback or on foot when they made their first public entry into the capital of the Roman world.RA76334. , , 2, 904 (S); 69; , p. 43; 311 var. (1st ); cf. 11195 ( mint, etc.), gVF, green with some remaining, 4.393 g, maximum 23.0 mm, 2nd , Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 2nd emission, end 276 - beginning 277 A.D.; (the valor of Emperor ), , helmeted, and left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, oval decorated with charging horseman on left arm; PROBI AVG (the arrival of Emperor ), on horseback left, raising right hand in salute, long in left hand, horses' right foreleg raised over bound captive seated left, B in ; ; $280.00 (€249.20)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
In 278, defeated the , expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the defenses on the Rhine, resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the Roman Empire, and adopted the titles of and .RA76279. , , p. 63; RIC, 2, V 376 (S) var. ( ); 283 var. (same); 131 var. (same, and obv ); 11984 (same), aEF, some mint luster, most remains, fantastic heroic , light corrosion, 3.341 g, maximum 22.8 mm, 0o, 5th , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4 emission, 278 A.D.; (the valor of Emperor ), left from behind, spear left in right hand, back bare but for over right shoulder and rectangular with square corner in on left shoulder; HERCVLI PACIF (to the pacifier), standing left, raising branch in extended right, club and skin in left, in ; very ; $260.00 (€231.40)
Termessos Major, , c. 238 - 268 A.D.
Alexander the Great likened Termessos, high in the Mountains, to an eagle's nest after he surrounded it but failed to conquer it in 333 B.C. An ally of , Termessos was granted independent status by the Roman Senate in 71 B.C. Independence was maintained continuously for a long time, the only exception being an with Amyntas of (reigned 36-25 BC). This independence is documented also by the coins of Termessos, which bear the title "Autonomous." Termessos was abandoned after its aqueduct was destroyed by an earthquake (date unknown).GB83542. Bronze AE 38, 5364; p. 273, 41; -; -; -; -, aVF, green , rough, pitting, corrosion, , edge chip, , 28.152 g, maximum 37.8 mm, 0o, Termessos Major mint, pseudo-autonomous, c. 238 - 268 A.D.; TEPMHCCEΩN AVTONOMΩN, laureate and bearded of Zeus right; TΩN MEIZONΩN, standing slightly left, left, wearing helmet, long , and , holding offering in right hand, spear in left hand, at feet on far side of right leg, of captured arms behind, Θ left; about twice the of the similar smaller and less coin with the same types ( 2189, AE33, 14.06g); very ; $240.00 (€213.60)
Thebes, , , c. 480 - 456 B.C.
The largest city in , leader of the Boeotian confederacy, and rival of Athens, Thebes sided with during Xerxes' invasion in 480 B.C. Thebes ended Sparta's power at the Battle of Leuctra in 371. The Sacred Band of Thebes famously fell to at Chaeronea in 338. After a revolt in 335, Alexander the Great destroyed the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet .GS85055. Silver , 261, p. 69, 19, aVF, , 5.598 g, maximum 17.3 mm, Thebes mint, 379 - 338 B.C.; Boiotian ; within square; ex 2012; ; $225.00 (€200.25)
, 7 March 161 - February 169 A.D.
In 166, appointed his sons as caesars, while he and traveled to Germany.RB83531. Bronze as, MA1448 (S), 282, 1307, 18 129, 5416, VF, , nice green , marks and scratches, some light corrosion, 8.821 g, maximum 25.8 mm, 180o, mint, Dec 165 - summer 166 A.D.; L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate right; VI IMP IIII , standing facing, left, crowning a of arms with right hand, frond in left hand, ( ) flanking low across ; ; $225.00 (€200.25)
Aitna, , The Kampanoi Mercenaries, c. 354 - 344 B.C.
In 475 B.C. Hieron moved ten thousand settlers from and to Katane and renamed it Aetna. In 461, after Hieron's death, the new settlers were expelled. They moved to the southern slope of the and founded a new Aetna. In 403 B.C., Dionysius the Elder made himself master of Aetna, where he settled his discharged Campanian mercenaries, the Kampanoi. The Kampanoi retained possession of Aitna until 339 B.C., when Timoleon took the city and put them to the sword. Under , Aitna became a municipal town of considerable importance; its territory being one of the most fertile of all . The site of the city and time of its destruction are unknown today. GI76936. Bronze AE 14, III, p. 327, 2; 1608 (R1, Tauromenion); 877 (340 - 330 B.C.); p. 237, 4; -; -; -, VF, green , , 2.744 g, maximum 14.4 mm, 60o, Aitna (or Tauromenion?) mint, c. 354 - 344 B.C.; Phrygian helmet with cheek guards, ornamented with a , linear ; KAM (Kampanoi) in olive ; $195.00 (€173.55)
, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.
was a female deity who personified the city of and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the of and requested permission to as a living god. "Republican" despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for jointly with dea . In the city of itself, the earliest known state cult to dea was combined with at the Hadrianic Temple of and . This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's . The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea with a in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.SL84528. , 1037, 1420, 169, 284, 233, 4977, VF30 (4625585), mint, Dec 171 - Dec 172 A.D.; M ANTONINVS - XXVI, laureate right; IMP VI ( 6 times, consul 3 times), seated left on , helmeted and draped, transverse spear on far side in right hand, resting her left forearm on round stacked upon an oval and a hexagonal , S C ( ) flanking across fields; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection, certified (slabbed) by ; $195.00 (€173.55)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D., Series II of Ticinum, Q, SXXI
Ticinum mint series II - click to read the article, Coins of with Coded Markings of Embedded in the mint mark. The letter Q in the is the second letter of the . The letter S in the indicates this coin was struck by the second (mint workshop). The letters of the word are coded in the of coins from all the of the mint, with the specific letters of the assigned to each in order corresponding with their numbers. This probably refers to cavalry. It may be truncated because there were only six in operation.RA77126. , 488 (also with helmet); , 2, 492 (R); , p. 67/9; -, -, gVF, and struck, much , unusual , 3.366 g, maximum 22.9 mm, 180o, 2nd , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, emission 9, 281 A.D.; PROBI AVG, , helmeted and left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, on left arm; (the foresight of the Emperor), standing left holding globe in right hand, long transverse in left hand, Q in left , SXXI in ; ; $170.00 (€151.30)
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