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Adventus reverse types commemorate the emperor's arrival at Rome, either at the commencement of his reign or on his return from a distance. They may also refer to his arrival in some other city or province of the empire. At their accession, emperors were not conveyed in a chariot nor in any other vehicle, but went on horseback or on foot when they made their first public entry into the capital of the Roman world.RA76334. Billonantoninianus, RIC V-2 904 (S); Cohen VI 69; Pink VI-1, p. 43; Hunter IV 311 var. (1st officina); cf. SRCV III 11195 (Rome mint, etc.), gVF, green patina with some silvering remaining, weight 4.393 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, 2nd officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 2nd emission, end 276 - beginning 277 A.D.; obverseVIRTVS PROBI AVG (the valor of Emperor Probus), radiate, helmeted, and cuirassedbust left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, oval shield decorated with charging horseman on left arm; reverseADVENTVS PROBI AVG (the arrival of Emperor Probus), Probus on horseback left, raising right hand in salute, long scepter in left hand, horses' right foreleg raised over bound captive seated left, B in exergue; scarce; $180.00 (€153.00)
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
In 278, Probus defeated the Alamanni, expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the defenses on the Rhine, resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the Roman Empire, and adopted the titles of GothicusMaximus and GermanicusMaximus.RA76279. Silveredantoninianus, Pink VI-1, p. 63; RIC V-2 376 (S) var. (cuirass); Cohen VI 283 var. (same); Hunter IV 131 var. (same, and obv legend); SRCV III 11984 (same), Choice aEF, fantastic heroic bust, some mint luster, most silvering remains, light corrosion, weight 3.341 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 0o, 5th officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4 emission, 278 A.D.; obverseVIRTVS PROBI AVG (the valor of Emperor Probus), radiatebust left from behind, spear left in right hand, back bare but for balteus over right shoulder and rectangular Aegisshield with square corner in on left shoulder; reverse HERCVLI PACIF (to Hercules the pacifier), Hercules standing left, raising branch in extended right, club and Nemean Lion skin in left, VXXT in exergue; very rare; $165.00 (€140.25)
Termessos Major, Pisidia, 3rd Century A.D.
Alexander the Great likened Termessos, high in the Taurus Mountains, to an eagle's nest after he surrounded it but failed to conquer it in 333 B.C. An ally of Rome, Termessos was granted independent status by the Roman Senate in 71 B.C. Independence was maintained continuously for a long time, the only exception being an alliance with Amyntas king of Galatia (reigned 36 - 25 B.C.). This independence is documented also by the coins of Termessos, which bear the title "Autonomous." Termessos was abandoned after its aqueduct was destroyed by an earthquake (date unknown).GB83542. Bronze AE 38, SNGvA 5364; BMC Lycia p. 273, 41; SNG BnF -; SNG Cop -; SNG PfPs -; SNG Righetti -; SNG Tüb -, aVF, green patina, rough, pitting, corrosion, smoothing, edge chip, central cavities, weight 28.152 g, maximum diameter 37.8 mm, die axis 0o, Termessos Major mint, pseudo-autonomous, c. 238 - 268 A.D.; obverse TEPMHCCEΩN AVTONOMΩN, laureate and bearded head of Zeus right; reverse TΩN MEIZONΩN, Athena standing slightly left, head left, wearing helmet, long chiton, and peplos, holding Nike offering wreath in right hand, spear in left hand, shield at feet on far side of right leg, trophy of captured arms behind, Θ left; about twice the weight of the similar smaller and less rare coin with the same types (SNG BnF 2189, AE33, 14.06g); very rare; $160.00 (€136.00)
Marion, Cyprus, Stasiakos II, c. 330 - 312 B.C.
Stasiakos II, king of Marion, was deposed in 312 B.C. by Ptolemy I and the city of Marion was destroyed. This extremely raretype was apparently unpublished until 1998. Coin Archives lists only one sale of this type in the past two decades.GB87141. Bronze AE 20, Destrooper 16; Bank of Cyprus 10; Symeonides 63 ff., cf. Tziambazis 57 (AE16, lionhead facing), SNG Cop -, BMC Cyprus -, VF, rough, weight 7.634 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, Marion mint, c. 330 - 312 B.C.; obverse round shield ornamented with laurel wreath; reverse MAPIEYΣ (below), lionhead left; extremely rare; $155.00 (€131.75)
Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.
On 1 March 293, Diocletian and Maximian appointed Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy, known as the Quattuor Principes Mundi ("Four Rulers of the World"). The four Tetrarchs established their capitals close to the Roman frontiers: - Nicomedia (northwestern Asia Minor) became capital for Diocletian - Mediolanum (Milan, near the Alps) became the capital for Maximian - Augusta Treverorum (Trier, in Germany) became the capital for Constantius Chlorus - Sirmium (Serbia, on the Danube border) became the capital for Galerius RA85657. Billonantoninianus, Bastien Lyon XI 503 (15), SRCV IV 13154, RIC V-2 404 var. (officina), Cohen VI 427, Hunter IV - (p. clxxxvi), Choice gVF, well centered and struck, some silvering, some legend letters unstruck (filled die?), weight 4.063 g, maximum diameter 22.7 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, emission 10, 2nd series, 1 Mar 293 - 20 Nov 293; obverse IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, radiate, helmeted, cuirassedbust right; reversePAX AVGG (the peace of the two emperors), Minerva standing left, raising olive branch pointed upward in right hand, grounded spear and oval shield in left hand, A in exergue; scarce military bust; $125.00 (€106.25)
Roman Republic, Gaius Egnatuleius C.f., 97 B.C.
This reverse refers to Marius' victories over the Teutones and Ambrones at Aquae Sextiae in 102 B.C. and the Cimbri at Vercellae in 101 B.C. Crawford believes this issue financed settlement of Marius' veterans, partly in Cisalpine Gaul. -- Roman Republican Coinage by Michael H. CrawfordRR88382. Silver quinarius, Crawford 333/1, Sydenham 588, RSC IEgnatuleia 1, BMCRR I Rome 1076, Russo RBW 1193, SRCV I 213, VF, attractive light toning, reverse a little off center, small edge splits, weight 1.664 g, maximum diameter 16.8 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, 97 B.C.; obverse C·EGNATVLEI·C·F (NAT and VL ligate) downward behind, laureate head of Apollo right, Q (mark of value) below; reverseVictory standing left inscribing shield attached to trophy, trophy topped with a helmet ornamented with bull horns, carnyx (Gallic war trumpet) at base of trophy, Q (mark of value) in center, ROMA in exergue; $120.00 (€102.00)
Roman Republic, C. Poblicius Malleolus, A. Postumius Albinus & L. Caecilius Metellus, 96 B.C.
C. Poblicius Malleolus, A. Postumius Albinus, and L. Caecilius Metellus, were moneyers during 96 B.C., magistrates responsible for the production of the Roman coinage. Magistrates were not simple mint workers, they were officials who controlled the process, including the design on the coins themselves. During the Roman Republic, moneyers were called tresviri aere argento auro flando feriundo, literally "three men for casting [and] striking bronze, silver, [and] gold [coins]."RR88383. Silver denarius, Crawford 335/1a, BMCRR II Italy 724, RSC ICaecilia 46a, RBW Collection 1200, Sydenham 611, SRCV 220 (refs. for no control symbol), VF, dark toning, banker's marks, scratches, crowded flan, weight 3.838 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 96 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, hair in ringlets, A·ALB·S·F upward before, L·METEL downward behind, no control symbol; reverseRoma seated left on a pile of shields, spear vertical in right hand, crowned with wreath by Victory standing left behind her, C·MALL (AL ligate) downward on left, ROMA in exergue; ex FORVM (2002); $110.00 (€93.50)
Tisna, Aeolis, c. 350 - 300 B.C.
GB68074. Bronze AE 10, Traité II 2074, pl. CLVII, 22; Klein 345 var. (head right); SNG Cop -; SNGvA -, SNG München -, BMC Troas -, Lindgren -, VF, weight 1.214 g, maximum diameter 10.3 mm, die axis 225o, Tisna mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; obverse youthful head of river-god Tisnaios left; reverse sword in scabbard with strap, TIΣNA/ON (in two lines, one above, one below); very rare; $105.00 (€89.25)
Mylasa, Caria, Eupolemos, Strategos for Kassander, 315 - 314 B.C.
In 314, Kassander sent Eupolemus to invade Caria, but he was surprised and captured by Ptolemy, a strategos (general) for Antigonus. He must have been soon freed, as the next year he was commanding the forces Kassander left behind in Greece, when he moved north against Antigonus.GY87396. Bronze AE 19, SNG Keckman 223; SNG Cop (Macedonia) 1168; BMC Caria p. 128, 4; Lindgren-Kovacs 653; SNGvA -; SNG München -; SNG Tübingen -, gVF, green patina with red earthen highlighting, bumps and marks, obverse a little off center, weight 4.399 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, Mylasa (Milas, Turkey) mint, 295 - 280 B.C.; obverse three Macedonian shields leaning together, spear heads in bosses; reverse EYΠO−ΛEMOY, sword in sheath, with strap, (complex monogram) outer left; $105.00 (€89.25)
Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander IV, c. 323 - 311 B.C.
Struck during the reign the child king Alexander IV, Alexander's son with the Bactrian princess Roxana. He and Philip III, Alexander's brother, were made joint kings by Alexander's generals who intended to use them as pawns. Philip III was imprisoned upon his return to Macedonia, and was executed in 317 B.C. under orders from Olympias. Alexander IV and his mother Roxana were executed by his regent, Kassander, in 311 B.C.GB87747. Bronze 1/2 unit, Price 2805, HGC 3.1 962 (S), SNG Cop 1132 var. (grain on left), SNG Alpha Bank 849 var. (1/4 unit), Müller Alexander -, VF, dark patina, well centered, corrosion, closed edge crack, weight 4.146 g, maximum diameter 16.1 mm, die axis 0o, Western Asia Minor mint, c. 323 - 311 B.C.; obverse Macedonian shield with five double crescents and five groups of pellets around, bust of Herakles at center, facing slightly right, wearing Nemean lion skin tied at neck; reverse crested helmet, B - A (BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY - King Alexander) flanking across field, grain ear right below on right; scarce; $100.00 (€85.00)