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Philippi was established by Philip II of Macedonia on the site of the Thasian colony of Krinides. It was founded to take control of the neighboring gold mines and control the route between Amphipolis and Neapolis. Philip constructed fortifications to control the passage, sent colonists, and established a mint in the city. Philippi preserved its autonomy until it was fully integrated into the Macedonian Kingdom under Philip V. Mark Antony and Octavian defeated the assassins of Caesar, Marcus Junius Brutus and Cassius, at the Battle of Philippi in the plain to the west of the city in October 42 B.C. They released some of their veteran soldiers, probably from legion XXVIII, to colonize the city, which was refounded as Colonia Victrix Philippensium. In 30 B.C., Octavian reorganized the colony, and established more settlers there, veterans possibly from the Praetorian Guard and other Italians. The city was renamed Colonia Iulia Philippensis, and then Colonia Augusta Iulia Philippensis after January, 27 B.C., when Octavian received the title Augustus from the Roman Senate.