Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.
Hercules' 11th labor was to steal three of Hera's immortality-giving golden apples from the Garden of the Hesperides, guarded by Ladon, a never-sleeping, hundred-headed dragon. Hercules asked Atlas to steal the apples, agreeing to hold up the world so Atlas could complete the task. Atlas returned but refused take back his burden. Hercules, pretending to enjoy the task, convinced Atlas to hold the world while he made a pad of the lion skin. Hercules then ran away and never took back the task.RB69194. Silvered follis, RIC VI Alexandria 40, SRCV IV 14078, Cohen VII 150, VF, weight 7.382 g, maximum diameter 27.3 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Alexandria mint, c. 304 - May 305 A.D.; obverse FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; reverse HERCVLI VICTORI, Hercules standing facing, looking left, leaning on club with right, holding apples of Hesperides in left, Nemean lion skin hanging from left elbow, S - P (sacra pecunia?) above arm and B below arm on right, ALE in exergue;
$155.00 SALE PRICE $140.00 Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D.
The reverse may advertise the resettlement and protection of Christian Goths in 348. Persecuted by the Gothic chieftain Athanaric, Wulfila obtained permission from Constantius II to migrate with his flock of converts to Moesia. They settled near Nicopolis ad Istrum.RL76990. Billon light maiorina, RIC VIII Alexandria 60, LRBC I 2820, Voetter 12, SRCV V 18701, Cohen VII 18, Hunter V -, aEF, well centered on a tight flan, weight 4.832 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Alexandria mint, 348 - 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust left, celestial globe in right hand; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), Soldier advancing right, looking back, leading barbarian from hut under tree with right hand, spear in left, ALEA in exergue;
$150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00 Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
Bonus Eventus, the God of good outcomes, was originally worshiped by the Romans as a deity especially presiding over agriculture and successful harvests. During the Imperial era, he was associated with other types of success.RS84448. Silver denarius, RIC IV 347 (R); BMCRE V p. 83, 321; RSC III 66; cf. SRCV 6267 (Emesa), VF, toned, porous, edge cracks, edge split, weight 2.509 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, Feb - Aug 194 A.D.; obverse IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right; reverse BONI EVENTVS, Bonus Eventus standing left, basket of fruit in right, stalks of grain downward at side in left; rare;
$110.00 SALE PRICE $99.00 Licinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.
On 3 July 324, at Adrianople, Constantine defeated Licinius forcing him to retreat to Byzantium. Crispus destroyed Licinius' fleet at the Battle of Hellespont in the Dardanelles, allowing his father to cross over the Bosporus and besiege Licinius. On 18 September, Constantine I decisively defeated Licinius at the Battle of Chrysopolis and became sole emperor.RL71430. Billon follis, RIC VII Alexandria 28 (R1), SRCV IV 15226, Cohen VII 74, gVF, bold, green patina, centered on a tight flan, cleaning scratches, weight 3.378 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Alexandria mint, 321 - 18 Sep 324 A.D.; obverse IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI (to Jupiter the protector), Jupiter standing left, Victory on globe presenting wreath in right hand, long eagle topped scepter vertical behind in left, at feet captive right and eagle with wreath in beak left, X/IIΓ right, SMALB in exergue;
$75.00 SALE PRICE $67.50 Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.
In 194, Septimius Severus marched with his army of 12 legions to Cilicia and defeated Pescennius Niger, governor of Syria, at the Battle of Issus. Pescennius retreated to Antioch where he was executed by Severus' troops.RS77483. Silver denarius, RIC IV S610, RSC III 144, BMCRE V S329, F, dark toning, scratches, edge cracks, weight 2.407 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 194 A.D.; obverse IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right; reverse MONETA AVG, Moneta standing slightly left, head left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; rare;
$70.00 SALE PRICE $63.00 Licinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.
In early in December 316, to ensure his loyalty, Licinius elevated Aurelius Valerius Valens, the dux limitis (duke of the frontier) in Dacia, to the rank of Augustus. According to Petrus Patricius, when Constantine learned of this "The emperor made clear the extent of his rage by his facial expression and by the contortion of his body. Almost unable to speak, he said, 'We have not come to this present state of affairs, nor have we fought and triumphed from the ocean till where we have now arrived, just so that we should refuse to have our own brother-in-law as joint ruler because of his abominable behavior, and so that we should deny his close kinship, but accept that vile slave [Valens] with him into imperial college.'" The treaty between Constantine and Licinius was concluded at Serdica on 1 March, 317. Whether it was part of that agreement is unknown, but Licinius had Valens executed.RL71429. Billon follis, RIC VII Alexandria 18, SRCV IV 15248, Cohen VII 108, VF, weight 3.965 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 225o, 2nd officina, Alexandria mint, 316 - 317 A.D.; obverse IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG (to Jupiter the protector of the two emperors), Jupiter standing left, nude but for chlamys over left shoulder, Victory on globe offering wreath in right hand, long scepter in left hand, eagle with wreath in beak at feet left, K left, wreath / X / B right, ALE in exergue; scarce (R1);
$65.00 SALE PRICE $58.50 Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D.
The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus described a tsunami hitting Alexandria and other places in the early hours of 21 July 365: "Slightly after daybreak, and heralded by a thick succession of fiercely shaken thunderbolts, the solidity of the whole earth was made to shake and shudder, and the sea was driven away, its waves were rolled back, and it disappeared, so that the abyss of the depths was uncovered and many-shaped varieties of sea-creatures were seen stuck in the slime; the great wastes of those valleys and mountains, which the very creation had dismissed beneath the vast whirlpools, at that moment, as it was given to be believed, looked up at the sun's rays. Many ships, then, were stranded as if on dry land, and people wandered at will about the paltry remains of the waters to collect fish and the like in their hands; then the roaring sea as if insulted by its repulse rises back in turn, and through the teeming shoals dashed itself violently on islands and extensive tracts of the mainland, and flattened innumerable buildings in towns or wherever they were found. Thus in the raging conflict of the elements, the face of the earth was changed to reveal wondrous sights. For the mass of waters returning when least expected killed many thousands by drowning, and with the tides whipped up to a height as they rushed back, some ships, after the anger of the watery element had grown old, were seen to have sunk, and the bodies of people killed in shipwrecks lay there, faces up or down. Other huge ships, thrust out by the mad blasts, perched on the roofs of houses, as happened at Alexandria, and others were hurled nearly two miles from the shore, like the Laconian vessel near the town of Methone which I saw when I passed by, yawning apart from long decay." The tsunami was so devastating that anniversary was still commemorated annually at the end of the 6th century in Alexandria as a "day of horror." Valentinian I sent an investigator to assess the impact on taxes.RL79902. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IX Alexandria 2(a)1 (S), LRBC II 2856, SRCV V 19483, Cohen VII 21, Hunter V -, Nice VF, well centered and struck, nice green patina with reddish earthen highlighting, weight 2.897 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 90o, 1st officina, Alexandria mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse RESTITVTOR REIP, emperor standing facing, head right, vexillum with X on banner in right hand, Victory on globe offering wreath in his left hand, ALEA in exergue; scarce;
$60.00 SALE PRICE $54.00 Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D.
RIC IX Alexandria 3(a) and 5(a) are indistinguishable. RIC IX Alexandria 3(a) is dated 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367. RIC IX Alexandria 5(a) is dated 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375. It is possible that the type was not continued into the later emission. All examples may actually be RIC IX Alexandria 3(a).RL76371. Billon centenionalis, RIC IX Alexandria 3(a) and 5a, LRBC II 2860 and 2862, Cohen VIII 37, SRCV V 19527, Hunter -, Choice VF, well centered, nice patina, weight 1.870 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Alexandria mint, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 (or until 17 Nov 375); obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE (security of the Republic), Victory walking left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand, ALE∆ in exergue;
$45.00 SALE PRICE $40.50 Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.
Virtus was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). Virtus applied exclusively to a man's behavior in the public sphere, that is to the application of duty to the res publica in the cursus honorum. Private business was no place to earn virtus, even when it involved courage or feats of arms or other good qualities. There could be no virtue in exploiting one's manliness in the pursuit of personal wealth, for example. It was thus a frequently stated virtue of Roman emperors and was personified as the deity Virtus.RT77920. Billon follis, RIC VI Alexandria 75, Hunter V 73, SRCV IV 14567 Cohen VII 224, F, green patina, well centered, some light pitting, red earthen deposits, weight 5.284 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Alexandria mint, 308 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse VIRTVS EXERCITVS (the courage of army), Virtus advancing right, transverse spear in right hand, trophy over left shoulder in left hand, shield on left arm, cloak around right arm and flying behind, Γ right, P - R flanking low across field, ALE in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; scarce;
$36.00 SALE PRICE $32.40
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