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Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.
All the references list this type with the reverse legend ending CAES, but our coin's reverse legend ends CAESAR. RIC lists only officina Z and Θ. Most of the officina number is off flan, but our coin does not appear to be either. There is possibly a pellet at the beginning of the mintmark, a possibility is not in the references. We are uncertain if the this is a variation of the referenced types or if the references are in error. We could not locate even one plate or online photo of another specimen of this type to compare. There are three auctions of this type on recorded on Coin Archives, but all of them are for this exact same coin.SH89742. Silver siliqua, RIC VII Constantinople 127 var. (CAES), RSC V 72 var. (same), SRCV V 17087 var. (same), Hunter V -, gVF, attractive youthful portrait with eyes to God, toned, light marks, weight 2.622 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 0o, 9th Officina(?), Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, as caesar, 336 A.D.; obverse Constantine diademed right, looking up to God, no inscription; reverse CONSTANTINVS CAESAR, Victory walking left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand, CONS[...] in exergue; ex Heritage auction 271848 (2 Dec 2018), lot 36228; ex CNG sale 84 (5 May 2010), lot 1531; ex CNG Triton XIII (5 Jan 2010), lot 1523; ex White Mountain Collection; extremely rare; $1000.00 (€880.00)
Vetranio, 1 March - 25 December 350 A.D.
In 312 A.D., Constantine the Great dreamed he saw a Christogram in the sky and heard the words IN HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, meaning in Latin, "In this sign, you will be the victor." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions standards and shields. He won a great victory and later became the first Christian Roman Emperor.RL92012. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Siscia 287 (S), LRBC II 1174, Voetter 9, SRCV V 18905, Cohen VIII 4 (25 Fr.), EF, one of the finest Vetranio bronzes we have ever seen, weight 4.857 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 1 Mar - 25 Dec 350 A.D.; obverse D N VETRANIO P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, A behind, star before; reverse HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Vetranio standing left in military dress, labarum (Christogram standard) in right hand, scepter in left hand, crowned by Victory behind, A left, •ASIS• (A resembling H) in exergue; ex FORVM (2009); ex Scott Collection; ex H.D. Rauch auction 75 (6 May 2005), lot 923; scarce; $750.00 (€660.00)
Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.
After arriving at Antioch, Jovian decided to rush to Constantinople to consolidate his political position there. While en route, he was found dead in bed in his tent at Dadastana, halfway between Ancyra and Nicaea. His death has been attributed to either a surfeit of mushrooms or the poisonous carbon monoxide fumes of a charcoal warming fire. Jovian was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. SH91547. Silver reduced siliqua, RIC VIII Arles 331 (R2), RSC V 33Ab, SRCV V 19207, VF, toned, tight flan, light marks, die wear, weight 1.601 g, maximum diameter 16.64 mm, die axis 0o, Arelatum (Arles, France) mint mint, 27 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIA-NVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VOT / V / MVLT / X in four lines within laurel within wreath, [P?]CONST in exergue; rare; $240.00 (€211.20)
Fausta, Augusta, 8 November 324 - Autumn 326 A.D., Second Wife of Constantine the Great
Fausta is depicted as Spes, the Roman personification of hope. She holds her infant children, Constantine II and Constantius II, her hopeful promise for the future of the "Republic."RL89946. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Thessalonica p. 519, 161 (R3); LRBC I 827; SRCV IV 16571; Cohen VII 17, aEF, slightly rough green patina, small encrustations, weight 2.687 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 326 - 328 A.D.; obverse FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, draped bust right, no diadem or stephane, hair waved, bun at back, wearing pearl necklace; reverse SPES REIPVBLICAE, Fausta standing facing, looking left, veiled and draped, holding infants Constantine II and Constantius II, SMTSA in exergue; scarce; $150.00 (€132.00)
Germanic Tribes, Pseudo-Imperial Coinage, Mid 4th - Early 5th Century A.D.
Magnentius, usurper of the western provinces, made his brother Decentius caesar, to oversee the defense of Gaul and the Rhine frontier. After Magnentius was defeated at the Battle of Mons Seleucus by Constantius II and committed suicide, Decentius, who was leading reinforcements, hanged himself at Senonae.RB91842. Billon maiorina, for prototype cf. RIC VIII Lyons 122 (Roman, Decentius, caesar, usurper in Gaul, 351 - 353 A.D., Lugdunum mint), Choice gVF, slightly crude, tight flan, encrustations, weight 3.504 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 180o, tribal mint, 350 - early 5th century A.D.; obverse D N DECENTIVS NOB CAE (or similar, blundered), bare-headed and cuirassed bust of Decentius right; reverse VICTORIAE DD NN AVG ET C (or similar, blundered), two Victories standing confronted, together holding between them a wreath resting on a short column, IOT / HVL / X (blundered VOT V MVLT X) in three lines, SLG in exergue; $150.00 (€132.00)
Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D., Issued by Vetranio
In 312 A.D., Constantine dreamed he saw a Christogram in the sky and heard the words IN HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, meaning in Latin "In this sign, you will be the victor." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions standards and shields. He won a great victory and later became the first Christian Roman Emperor.RL90728. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Siscia 284 (S), LRBC II 1171, Voetter 48, SRCV V 18903, Cohen VII 3, gVF, oval flan, encrustation, flan split, weight 5.040 g, maximum diameter 23.2 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, issued by Vetranio, 1 Mar - 25 Dec 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, A behind, star in front; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM (harmony with the soldiers), Constantius standing half-left, in military dress, labarum (Chi-Rho standard) in each hand, A left, star above, •ΓSIS• in exergue; scarce; $140.00 (€123.20)
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
Constantine is most famous for leading the Empire to Christianity. Before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, he saw "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) on the sun around a Chi Rho ligature. With the symbol of Christ on his army's shields, he was victorious. He moved the capital to Constantinople.RL89036. Billon follis, RIC VI 117, SRCV IV 15507, Cohen VII 80, Hunter IV-, aEF, dark brown patina, lighter green highlights, weight 5.900 g, maximum diameter 25.9 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Aquileia mint, as caesar, late summer 307 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; reverse CONSERV VRB SVAE (Guardian of the city traditions), Roma seated facing on throne, head left, globe in right hand, scepter vertical in left, grounded shield at right side, all within hexastyle temple decorated with knobs as acroteria and wreath in pediment, AQΓ in exergue; ex CNG e-auction 233 (26 May 2010), lot 421 (realized $130 plus fees); $140.00 (€123.20)
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. The date 25 December was selected for Christmas to replace the popular Roman festival Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."RL89581. Billon follis, RIC VI Treveri 893, Hunter V 45, SRCV IV 16125, Cohen VII 514, gVF, well centered, dark green patina, lighter highlights, minor encrustations, weight 4.247 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 180o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 310 - 313 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right seen from behind, no mintmark mark; ex CNG e-auction 233 (26 May 2010), lot 428; $140.00 (€123.20)
Magnentius, 18 January 350 - 10 August 353 A.D.
Magnus Magnentius was proclaimed emperor on 18 January 350 at Autun (Gaul) with support of the army on the Rhine frontier. Constans fled to Spain, where he was assassinated at Castrum Helenae. In the spring 351, Constans' brother Constantius marched West with 60,000 men to remove Magnus Magnentius but it would take more than two years to defeat him. In 352, Constantius II invaded northern Italy in pursuit of the usurper Magnus Magnentius, who withdrew with his army to Gaul. Constantius declared an amnesty for Magnentius' soldiers, many of whom deserted to him. By the end of the year Constantius entered Milan.RL87846. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Lyons 7 (R), LRBC II 7, Bastien MM 107, SRCV V 18815, Cohen VII 70, VF, brown tone, small crowded flan, edge cracks, uneven strike with weak areas, weight 4.310 g, maximum diameter 24.7 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Ambianum (Amiens, France) mint, 351 - 352 A.D.; obverse D N MAGNENTIVS P F AVG, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, A behind; reverse VICTORIAE DD NN AVG ET CAE (victories of our lords, Emperor and Caesar), two Victories flanking and holding wreath resting on column, containing VOT V MVLT X, AMB followed by a branch exergue; rare; $135.00 (€118.80)
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
Soon after the Feast of Easter 337, Constantine fell seriously ill. He left Constantinople for the hot baths near his mother's city of Helenopolis. There, in a church his mother built in honor of Lucian the Apostle, he prayed, and there he realized that he was dying. He attempted to return to Constantinople, making it only as far as a suburb of Nicomedia. He summoned the bishops, and told them of his hope to be baptized in the River Jordan, where Christ was written to have been baptized. He requested the baptism right away, promising to live a more Christian life should he live through his illness. The bishops, Eusebius records, "performed the sacred ceremonies according to custom." It has been thought that Constantine put off baptism as long as he did so as to be absolved from as much of his sin as possible. Constantine died soon after at a suburban villa called Achyron, on 22 May 337.RL88038. Billon reduced centenionalis, RIC VIII Antioch 39; LRBC I 1374; SRCV V 17488; Voetter 34; Cohen VII 760; Hunter V p. 283, 4 ff. var. (officina), EF, attractive highlighting desert patina, light marks, tight flan, weight 1.705 g, maximum diameter 15.2 mm, die axis 0o, 9th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, posthumous, Sep 337 - 340 A.D.; obverse DV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG, veiled bust right; reverse Constantine in quadriga right, veiled, the hand of God reaches down to take him to heaven, star above, SMANΘ in exergue; $130.00 (€114.40)
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