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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Personifications| ▸ |Roma||View Options:  |  |  |   

Roma on Ancient Coins

Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.

Roman Republic, C. Iunius C.f., 149 B.C.

|150-100| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |C.| |Iunius| |C.f.,| |149| |B.C.|, |denarius|
On the Italian peninsula, six temples dedicated to Roma have been proven - Latium built two, one of them privately funded. During the reign of Tiberius, Ostia built a grand municipal temple to Roma and Augustus. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
RR95249. Silver denarius, Crawford 210/1, Sydenham 392, RSC I Junia 1, BMCRR I Rome 660, RBW Collection 893, SRCV I 87, Choice gVF, attractive style, well centered, mild die wear, areas with slight porosity, weight 3.818 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 149 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet, crest with griffin head, peaked visor in three pieces, triple drop earring and necklace, X behind; reverse the Dioscuri riding right, CIVNICF below, ROMA in linear frame in exergue; ex Forum (2019); $300.00 SALE |PRICE| $270.00


Roman Republic, Marcus Furius L.f. Philus, c. 119 B.C.

|150-100| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |Marcus| |Furius| |L.f.| |Philus,| |c.| |119| |B.C.|, |denarius|
This type commemorates the victory by Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and Q. Fabius Maximus over the Allobrogoges and the Averni in Gaul in 121 B.C.
RR95252. Silver denarius, Crawford 281/1, Sydenham 529, BMCRR Italy 555, RSC I Furia 18, RBW Collection 1105, SRCV I 156, VF, toned, a few scratches, weight 3.861 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, c. 119 B.C.; obverse MFOVRILF, bearded, laureate head of Janus, I above center (a vestigial mark of value copied from Janus on the Roman as); reverse Roma standing left, helmeted and draped, transverse long scepter in left hand, with right hand placing wreath on trophy of captured Gallic arms with carnyx and shield on each side, star above, ROMA upward on right, PHILI (PHI ligate) in exergue; ex Forum (2012); $250.00 (225.00)


Marcus Aurelius, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.

|Marcus| |Aurelius|, |Marcus| |Aurelius,| |7| |March| |161| |-| |17| |March| |180| |A.D.|, |sestertius|
Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenized image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
RB91587. Orichalcum sestertius, BMCRE IV 1417, SRCV II 4976, RIC III 1033 var. (no drapery), Cohen III 281 var. (same), Hunter II 163 var. (same), MIR 18 232-6/30 var. (same), VF, nice portrait, green patina, tight flan, light marks, slight porosity, weight 23.418 g, maximum diameter 30.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, Dec 171 - Dec 172 A.D.; obverse M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVI, laureate head right, slight drapery on far shoulder; reverse IMP VI COS III (imperator 6 times, consul 3 times), Roma seated left on low seat, helmeted and draped, Victory in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, oval shield at side ornamented with head of Medusa, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field at center; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; $195.00 SALE |PRICE| $176.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.|, |sestertius|
To the ancient Romans, Rome was "Roma Aeterna" (The Eternal City) and "Caput Mundi" (Capital of the World). The empire is history but Rome is still today, the eternal city. Rome's influence on Western Civilization can hardly be overestimated; perhaps a greater influence than any other city on earth, making important contributions to politics, literature, culture, the arts, architecture, music, religion, education, fashion, cinema and cuisine.
RB92624. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV-1 RIC 272a, Cohen V 316, Hunter III 91, SRCV III 8736, gVF, excellent portrait, green patina, tight slightly irregularly shaped flan, slight double strike, spots of light corrosion, light marks, weight 18.352 g, maximum diameter 30.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 240 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse ROMAE AETERNAE (to eternal Rome), Roma seated left on shield (throne back also visible in background) holding Victory on globe and scepter, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $170.00 SALE |PRICE| $153.00


Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D.

|Trajan|, |Trajan,| |25| |January| |98| |-| |8| |or| |9| |August| |117| |A.D.|, |sestertius|
Dacia kneeling before Rome! After his defeat in 101 A.D., King Decebalus complied with Rome for a time but then incited the tribes to pillage Roman colonies across the Danube. Trajan marched into Dacia in 105 A.D. After defeating the surrounding mountain fortresses, in 106 A.D. Trajan besieged Sarmizegetusa, the Dacian capital. With the aid of a Dacian traitor, the Romans found and destroyed water pipes supplying the city. Running out of water and food the city fell and was burned to the ground. Decebalus fled but, followed by the Roman cavalry, committed suicide rather than face capture. The Romans found Decebalus' treasure, estimated at 165,500 kg of gold and 331,000 kg of silver, in the river of Sargesia.
RB92416. Orichalcum sestertius, Woytek 250c-1, RIC II 485, BMCRE III 774, Strack I 371, SRCV II 3194 var. (same), Hunter II 270 var. (same), F/aF, nice portrait, some legend weak, bumps and scratches, porosity, weight 23.760 g, maximum diameter 33.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 104 - 111 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right, aegis on far shoulder; reverse S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Roma standing slightly left, head left, wearing crested helmet and military dress, Victory in right hand, spear vertical behind in left hand; small Dacian at her feet on left, kneeling right and raising hand in supplication; S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; scarce; $160.00 SALE |PRICE| $144.00


Gallic Celts, Sequani, c. 58 - 50 B.C., Time of Caesar's Gallic Wars

|Celtic| |&| |Tribal|, |Gallic| |Celts,| |Sequani,| |c.| |58| |-| |50| |B.C.,| |Time| |of| |Caesar's| |Gallic| |Wars|, |quinarius|
In 71 B.C., the Sequani hired the Germanic Suebi under Ariovistus to cross the Rhine and help them defeat the Aedui. The Sequani were worse off after their victory - Ariovistus deprived them of a third of their territory, threatened to take another third, and subjugated them into semi-slavery. The Sequani appealed to Caesar, who drove back the Germanic tribesmen in 58 B.C., but at the same time obliged the Sequani to surrender all that they had gained from the Aedui. This so exasperated the Sequani that they joined in the revolt of Vercingetorix in 52 B.C. and shared in the defeat at Alesia. The Sequani refused to join the Gallic revolt against Rome in 69 A.D. and drove out rebels who invaded their territory. In recognition for their loyal service, Vesontio (Besancon) was made a Roman colony.Gaul
CE89066. Silver quinarius, CCBM II 346, Delestre-Tache 3245, De la Tour 5405, Forrer 204, VF, toned, strike a bit flat, typical tight flan, weight 1.895 g, maximum diameter 14.1 mm, die axis 105o, Vesontio (Besancon, France) mint, c. 58 - 50 B.C.; obverse helmeted head left (Roma?), Q DOCI (Quintus Docirix) before counterclockwise; reverse bridled horse galloping left, Q DO[CI] (Quintus Docirix) above, [SAM F] (Samulali Filius, AM ligate) below; ex Frascatius Ancient Coins; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00


Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.

|Hadrian|, |Hadrian,| |11| |August| |117| |-| |10| |July| |138| |A.D.|, |denarius|
Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
RS92422. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 544, BMCRE III 141, RSC II 1103a, Strack II 121, SRCV II 3519, VF, well centered, old collection toning, flow lines, scratches and bumps, weight 3.239 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 123 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right; reverse P M TR P COS III, Roma seated left on cuirass, shield at her side behind, Victory in right hand, vertical spear in left hand; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
The reverse depicts the double temple of Venus and Roma, designed by Hadrian, the largest and most splendid temple in Rome, finished by Antoninus Pius. Damaged by fire in 307, the temple was restored "in magnificent manner" by Maxentius. When Constantius visited Rome fifty years later, the "Temple of the City" was one of the sights he most admired. In 625, Pope Honorius received a special dispensation from Heraclius to strip the gilded bronze roof tiles for the repair of St. Peter's. During a twelve-day visit to Rome in 663, Constans II stripped it of its remaining bronze ornaments. It was damaged by an earthquake in 847. Later a church was built in the ruins.
RA76944. Silvered antoninianus, Hunter IV 32 (also 3rd officina); RIC V-2 185; Cohen VI 530; Pink VI-1, p. 56-57/4; SRCV III -, Choice EF, near full silvering, superb portrait, light marks, weight 4.097 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, emission 4, 279 A.D.; obverse IMP PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse ROMAE AETER (eternal Rome), statue of Roma seated facing inside a hexastyle temple, head left, Victory in right, long scepter in left hand, R pellet in crescent with horns up Γ in exergue; $110.00 SALE |PRICE| $99.00


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
The reverse depicts the double temple of Venus and Roma, designed by Hadrian, the largest and most splendid temple in Rome, finished by Antoninus Pius. Damaged by fire in 307, the temple was restored "in magnificent manner" by Maxentius. When Constantius visited Rome fifty years later, the "Temple of the City" was one of the sights he most admired. In 625, Pope Honorius received a special dispensation from Heraclius to strip the gilded bronze roof tiles for the repair of St. Peter's. During a twelve-day visit to Rome in 663, Constans II stripped it of its remaining bronze ornaments. It was damaged by an earthquake in 847. Later a church was built in the ruins.
RA91617. Silvered antoninianus, Hunter IV 32 (also 3rd officina); RIC V-2 185; Cohen VI 530; Pink VI-1, p. 56-57/4; SRCV III -, Choice gVF, excellent centering, traces of silvering, center high points a little weak, weight 4.076 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, emission 4, 279 A.D.; obverse IMP PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; reverse ROMAE AETER (eternal Rome), statue of Roma seated facing inside a hexastyle temple, head left, Victory in right hand, long scepter in left hand, R pellet in crescent with horns up Γ in exergue; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection, ex Munzen und Medaillen (Basil, Switzerland); $90.00 SALE |PRICE| $81.00


Marcus Aurelius, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.

|Marcus| |Aurelius|, |Marcus| |Aurelius,| |7| |March| |161| |-| |17| |March| |180| |A.D.|, |denarius|
In 171, the Germanic Marcomanni were evicted from Roman territory. Aurelius signed a treaty with the Germanic Quadi and the Sarmatian Iazyges. The Vandal Hasdingi and the Germanic Lacringi became Roman allies. The Costoboci, probably Celtic or Dacian, crossed the Danube and ravaged Thrace. They reached Eleusis, near Athens, and destroyed the temple of the Eleusinian Mysteries. The Vandal Hasdingi, Rome's new allies, defeated the Costoboci, who then disappeared from history.
RS94661. Silver denarius, RIC III 233, RSC II 133, BMCRE IV 537 corr. (foot on helmet), Szaivert MIR 18 208, SRCV II 4887, Hunter II -, aVF, toned, flow lines, die wear, light corrosion, edge cracks, weight 2.940 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Dec 170 - Dec 171 A.D.; obverse M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXV, laureate head right; reverse COS III, Roma seated left on cuirass, helmeted and draped, Victory in extended right hand, spear vertical behind in left, left foot on footstool; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00




  



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