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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Personifications ▸ RomaView Options:  |  |  |   

Roma on Ancient Coins

Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.


Maximus of Barcelona, Usurper in Hispania, 410 - 411 A.D.

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At the same time Honorius was clashing with the Visigothic King Alaric (who would sack Rome in 410), Picts invaded Britain, and Vandals, Alans and Suebi devastated Gaul. Honorius, in Ravenna, no longer even ruled the city of Rome; Visigoths had forced the Senate to appoint Priscus Attalus emperor. Out of desperation, the remnants of legions in the Britain elevated Constantine III and his son Constans II to the purple. Although Iberia was initially spared, in 409 Vandals and other barbarians laid waste to that land too. Constans II, who had been in Hispania, fled back to join his father in Gaul. Their general, Gerontius, remained in Spain, allied with the Vandals, and appointed Maximus as his own puppet emperor. Maximus was probably a senior staff officer, and may have also been a relative, possibly his son. Maximus was one of six men claiming to be Emperor in 410: Honorius (in Ravenna, the legitimate emperor of the West), Theodosius II (in Constantinople, the legitimate emperor of the East), Priscus Attalus (in Rome), Constantine III (in Arelatum), Constans II (in Vienne), and Maximus (in Barcino). Gerontius besieged, defeated and executed Constans II at Vienne. The general then besieged Constantine III at Arles, but the forces of Honorius joined the fight and defeated him. Gerontius was trapped and committed suicide. Maximus fled to his barbarian allies in Hispania who protected him until he was pardoned by Honorius. In 420, Maximus Tryannus rebelled in Hispania (it's uncertain that this was the same Maximus), but was quickly captured, taken to Ravenna, and executed by Honorius 422.
SL87405. Silver siliqua, RIC X 1601, RSC V 1b, Balaguer 1-37, King Fifth p. 291, Villaronga-Benages 4437, SRCV V 21081, NGC VG, strike 3/5, surface 2/5, clipped (4372590-001), weight 0.82 g, maximum diameter 13.5 mm, die axis 180o, Barcino (Barcelona, Spain) mint, 410 - 411 A.D.; obverse D N MAXIMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTOR-IA AVGGG, Roma seated left on cuirass, Victory offering wreath, holding palm and standing on globe in Roma's right hand, inverted spear in her left hand, SMBA in exergue; ex Ira & Larry Goldberg auction 103 (20 Feb 2018), lot 2225; ex Edgar L. Owen; ex Gerhard Hirsch auction 284/285 (26 - 29 Sep 2012), lot 3076; very rare - only about 50 coins known of this emperor!; $1600.00 (1360.00)


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
SH82657. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 330, Cohen I 271, BnF I 417, Mac Dowall WCN 163, Hunter I 100, SRCV I -, BMCRE I , gVF, excellent portrait, fine style, dark green and brown patina, some corrosion, gently smoothed, weight 24.425 g, maximum diameter 34.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 66 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P P P, laureate head left with light beard; reverse Roma seated left on cuirass, one round and one oblong shield behind, wearing crested helmet, right foot drawn back and resting on helmet, Victory offering wreath in Roma's extended right hand, her left hand rests on parazonium, ROMA in exergue, S - C (senatus consulto) at sides; Numismatica Ars Classica, auction 94 (6 October 2016), lot 127; ex Classical Numismatic Group 783132 ($1750); $1570.00 (1334.50)


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
SH83947. Silver denarius, RIC I 55 (R), BMCRE I 83; RSC II 257, Hunter I 19, BnF II 224, Mac Dowall WCN 59, SRCV I 1944, Nice VF, excellent portrait, attractive toning, light bumps and scratches, areas of mild porosity, weight 3.281 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 65 - 66 A.D.; obverse NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse Roma seated left on cuirass, shields and grieve, helmeted, right leg drawn back and right foot on helmet, Victory offering wreath in her right hand, left hand on parazonium, ROMA in exergue; ex Mnzen & Medaillen auction 46 (15 Feb 2018), lot 700; ex Forum (2017); $1000.00 (850.00)


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
RS87293. Silver denarius, RIC I 55 (R), BMCRE I 83; RSC II 257, Hunter I 19, BnF II 224, SRCV I 1944, VF, toned, bumps and scratches, graffito (star) reverse left field, edge cracks, weight 3.209 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 65 - 66 A.D.; obverse NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse Roma seated left on cuirass, shields and grieve, helmeted, right leg drawn back and right foot on helmet, Victory offering wreath in her right hand, left hand on parazonium at side, ROMA in exergue; ex Naville Numismatics, auction 41, lot 521; $480.00 (408.00)


Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 December 192 A.D.

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This coin was struck during a three week period after Commodus changed from TR P VII to TR P VIII on 10 Dec. 182, and before he became COS IIII on 1 Jan. 183. It is an extremely rare coin, missing from most references and collections. RSC II and BMCRE IV both reference only the one single specimen in the Reka-Devnia Hoard. There are no sales of the type in the last two decades recorded on Coin Archives, but we do know of several additional examples.
RS85053. Silver denarius, Reka-Devnia p. 91, pl. III, 40 (1 spec.!); RSC II 854b; Szaivert MIR 559-4/30; BMCRE IV p. 705, †; RIC III -; Cohen III -; Hunter -; SRCV II -, F, nice portrait, well centered obverse, reverse a little off center, light bumps and marks, edge cracks, weight 2.525 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 10 Dec 182 - 1 Jan 183; obverse M COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse TR P VIII IMP V COS IIII P P, Roma seated left, helmeted and draped, Victory in right hand, spear vertical behind in left hand, shield at side; extremely rare; $200.00 (170.00)


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

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In 278, Probus defeated the Alamanni, expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the Roman defenses on the Rhine and resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces. He adopted the titles Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus.
RA76944. Silvered antoninianus, Hunter IV 32 (also 3rd officina); RIC V-2 185; Cohen VI 530; Pink VI-1, p. 56-57/4; SRCV III -, Choice EF, near full silvering, superb portrait, light marks, weight 4.097 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, emission 4, 279 A.D.; obverse IMP PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse ROMAE AETER (eternal Rome), statue of Roma seated facing inside a hexastyle temple, head left, Victory in right, long scepter in left hand, R pellet in crescent with horns up Γ in exergue; $160.00 (136.00)


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

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In 62 A.D., Lucan wrote a history of the conflict between Julius Caesar and Pompey.
RX86146. Bronze obol, RPC I 5263; Dattari 278/279; Geissen 149; BMC Alexandria 179/180; Milne 207; Kampmann-Ganschow 14.67, F, old scratch on obverse, reverse rough, edge cracks, weight 5.661 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 61 - 62 A.D.; obverse NER KLAY KAI CEB GEP, laureate head right; reverse AYTO KPAT, Roma standing half left, patera in right hand, shield and spear in left hand, LH (year 8) lower left; rare; $160.00 (136.00)


Roman Republic, Cn. Egnatius Cn.f. Cn.n. Maxsumus, 75 B.C.

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In 75 B.C., young Julius Caesar traveled to Rhodes to study under Apollonius Molon. On his way across the Aegean Sea, he was kidnapped by Cilician pirates and held prisoner in the Dodecanese islet of Pharmacusa. Caesar was held for a ransom of twenty talents, he insisted they ask for fifty. After his release Caesar raised a fleet at Miletus, the pursued and crucified the pirates in Pergamon.
RR87412. Silver denarius, Crawford 391/3, Sydenham 787 (S), RSC I Egnatia 2, RBW Collection 1429, BMCRR I 3285, SRCV I 326, gVF, nice toning, tight flan, weight 3.702 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 76 B.C.; obverse diademed and draped bust of Libertas right, wearing triple pendant earring and necklace, MAXSVMVS downward and pileus behind; reverse Roma, on the left, standing facing, left foot on wolf's head, staff in her right hand; Venus, on the right, standing facing, staff right hand, cupid alighting on her shoulder; rudder standing on prow flanking on both sides, control letter left, CNN upward on right, CEGNATIVSCNF in exergue; ex Nomos Obolos 10, lot 339; rare; $150.00 (127.50)


Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.

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193 A.D. was the Year of Five Emperors, with Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Septimius Severus and Clodius Albinus, and Pescennius Niger all claiming the throne.

This bust is a very rare early type with straight hair, struck before the mint had an accurate portrait of the new emperor.
RS87223. Silver denarius, RIC IV 22; RSC III 682; BMCRE V p. 24, 30; Hunter III 7; SRCV II 6369, VF, toned, tight flan, small edge cracks, weight 2.916 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 30o, Rome mint, c. Jun - Dec 193 A.D.; obverse IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right; reverse VICT AVG TR P COS, Victory walking left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand; $140.00 (119.00)


Amisos, Pontos, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D.

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Amisos was settled c. 760 - 750 B.C. by people from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. Amisos came under the rule of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire, and then the Kingdom of Pontus. The Romans took control in 47 B.C. and Amisos remained within the Byzantine Empire after the fall of Rome. In 1200, the city was captured by the Seljuks, to be later taken over by the Ilhanlilar. Amisos today is Samsun, a city of about half a million people on the north coast of Turkey.
SH90327. Bronze AE 26, RPC I 2144; cf. Rec Gen 47 ff. (various monograms); SNGvA 6732 - 6733; SNG Stancomb 1042; SNG BM -; SNG Cop -, Choice aVF, very thick flan, attractive style, weight 19.462 g, maximum diameter 25.5 mm, die axis 0o, Amisos (Samsun, Turkey) mint, time of Augustus, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D.; obverse diademed head of Apollo right, uncertain monogram below neck; reverse Amisos (on left) and Roma standing confronted, Amisos holding bridal(?) in right; Roma extending patera in right, shield on left shoulder, spear against her right side; AMIΣHNΩN in exergue; ex Frascatius Ancient Coins; rare; $125.00 (106.25)




  



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Catalog current as of Friday, August 17, 2018.
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