, , 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.
This with a is unlisted in but p. 379, 135, notes that recorded the in RIN 1921, p. 118; citing a specimen in the with a PT (first ), and another in the Collection with a TT (third ). The note goes on to say the should be expected since the other rulers have parallel types in the issue, one of which is . We know of eight total specimens of this , but the coin is the only other first example known to .RL84331. , RIN 1921, p. 118 (citing the ); Ticinum 134 var. (laureate , noted on p. 379), EF, excellent bold and well-centered strike, attractive green , a few light marks, 2.947 g, maximum 19.1 mm, 0o, 1st , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 320 A.D.; CRISPVS , right; DOMINORVM NOSTRORVM CAESS, VOT * V in two lines, the in center, all within tied at the bottom, PT in ; extremely ; $600.00 (€534.00)
, February or March 283 - October or November 284 A.D.
When ruled , he was not called emperor or , he was the Princeps, the "first of men." In the empire, the designated successors to the emperor were named and also given the title Princeps Juventutis, the "first of youths." This is the origin of the English word prince, meaning the son of a monarch.RB71623. , 8 (also 5th , unbroken leg.), , 2, 366; IV 418 (24 ex.); p. 24; 12219; 76, EF, excellent centering, much , some , 3.529 g, maximum 22.1 mm, 0o, 5th , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, as , Nov/Dec 282 - Feb/Mar 283 A.D.; NVMERIANVS , , draped, and right, from behind; (to the Prince of Youth), walking left, baton in right hand, long transverse in left hand, VXXI in ; $270.00 (€240.30)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
In 278, defeated the , expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the defenses on the Rhine, resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the Roman Empire, and adopted the titles of and .RA76279. , , p. 63; RIC, 2, V 376 (S) var. ( ); 283 var. (same); 131 var. (same, and ); 11984 (same), aEF, some mint luster, most remains, fantastic heroic , light corrosion, 3.341 g, maximum 22.8 mm, 0o, 5th , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4 emission, 278 A.D.; (the valor of Emperor ), left from behind, spear left in right hand, back bare but for over right shoulder and rectangular with square corner in on left shoulder; HERCVLI PACIF (to the pacifier), standing left, raising branch in extended right, club and skin in left, in ; very ; $235.00 (€209.15)
, Early September 282 - c. July or August 283 A.D.
An interesting inscribed "The Peace of the Army" and displaying the goddess Pax holding a military . The message was perhaps analogous to the renaming of the U.S. Department of War to the Department of Defense in 1949.RB71580. , 56; , p. 26; 75 var. (no drapery); 14 var. (slight drapery); 12175 var. ( ), aEF, near full , excellent centering and strike, unusual , a few small encrustations, very light corrosion, 3.312 g, maximum 23.0 mm, 0o, 1st , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, Oct - Dec 282; IMP CARVS , , draped, and right; PAX EXERCITI, Pax standing slightly left, left, raising olive branch in right hand, vertical behind in left hand, PXXI in ; variant; $180.00 (€160.20)
, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.
On 8 October 314, at the Battle of Cibalae, Constantine defeated Licinius near Cibalae (modern Vinkovci, Croatia). Licinius was forced to flee to and lost all of the Balkans except for . The two initiated peace negotiations, but they failed and they would not make peace until 1 March 317.RL76327. , Unlisted variety of a very ; Ticinum 4 (R4) var. ( ), 15258 var. (same), 139, -, VF, , light contact marks and corrosion, 3.147 g, maximum 21.5 mm, 180o, 1st , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 313 A.D.; IMP LICINIVS , laureate, draped, and right, from front; , standing right, helmeted, in military dress, reversed spear in right hand, left hand resting on grounded , PT in ; $155.00 (€137.95)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D., Series II of Ticinum, Q, SXXI
Ticinum mint series II - click to read the article, Coins of with Coded Markings of Embedded in the mint mark. The letter Q in the is the second letter of the . The letter S in the indicates this coin was struck by the second (mint workshop). The letters of the word are coded in the of coins from all the of the mint, with the specific letters of the assigned to each in order corresponding with their numbers. This probably refers to cavalry. It may be truncated because there were only six in operation.RA77126. , 488 (also with helmet); , 2, 492 (R); , p. 67/9; -, -, gVF, and struck, much , unusual , 3.366 g, maximum 22.9 mm, 180o, 2nd , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, emission 9, 281 A.D.; PROBI AVG, , helmeted and left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, on left arm; (the foresight of the Emperor), standing left holding globe in right hand, long transverse in left hand, Q in left , SXXI in ; ; $150.00 (€133.50)
, 25 September 275 - June 276 A.D.
holds both the implements of war and the olive branch of peace. "Peace through strength" is an ancient phrase and concept implying that strength of arms is a necessary component of peace. The phrase has famously been used by many leaders from Roman Emperor in the first century A.D., to Ronald Reagan in the 1980s.RA84987. , 3408 (96 spec.), 145, 1681, 1565 - 1604, 727, 785, Kunsthalle 1573, VF, , , some light corrosion, 4.335 g, maximum 22.3 mm, 180o, 2nd , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, issue 2, early ? June 276; IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, , draped, and right; PACIF (to the peacemaker), advancing left, wearing crested helmet and military dress, olive branch raised in right hand, transverse spear and oval in left hand, S in ; $140.00 (€124.60)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
The T in the serves both as the I in a mark of value (XXI = 20 parts bronze to 1 silver, about 4.5% silver) and to indicate the mint (T = Ticinum).RA76988. , 132; , 2, 387; 310; p. 63-64/4; cf. 11988 ( leg, ), gVF, some , nice portrait, nice green , , 3.186 g, maximum 20.8 mm, 180o, 5th , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, emission 4, 278 A.D.; IMP C PROBVS , and right; (to the protector), (on left) standing right, wearing military garb, eagle-tipped in left hand, receiving with right hand globe form , (on right) standing left, nude but for cloak over shoulders, globe in right hand, long vertical behind in left hand, in ; $120.00 (€106.80)
, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.
Ticinum was a municipality and an important military site (a castrum) under the Roman Empire. In 476, Odoacer defeated Flavius Orestes at Ticinum after a long siege. To punish the city for helping his rival, Odoacer destroyed it completely. After the Lombard's conquest, Pavia became the capital of their kingdom, 568 - 774.RA70549. , 1550, 634, 78Ab3, 152, 5548 - 5609, 63, 183, 11587, gVF, perfect centering, some , light scratches, a few letters unstruck ( ), 4.655 g, maximum 22.4 mm, 0o, 3rd , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4th emission, late 274 A.D.; IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, and right; (the foresight of the gods), on left holding in each hand, facing Sol, standing left, raising his right hand commanding the sun to rise and holding globe in left hand, TXXT in ; $110.00 (€97.90)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.; EQVITI Series II of Ticinum, E, PXXI
Ticinum mint series II - click "EQVITI" to read the article, "Coins of with Coded Markings of Embedded in the mint mark." The letter "E" in the is the first letter of the . The letter "P" in the indicates this coin was struck by the first (mint workshop). The letters of the word are coded in the of coins from all the of the mint, with the specific letters of the assigned to each in order corresponding with their numbers. This probably refers to cavalry. It may be truncated because there were only six in operation. RA83456. , , 2, 480; VI/1 p. 67; 121; 11965 var., VF, full circles strike, traces of , 4.463 g, maximum 23.1 mm, 0o, 1st , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, emission 9, 281 A.D.; IMP C PROBVS AVG, and mantled left, holding an eagle-tipped ; (harmony with the soldiers), standing slightly, left, flanked by two standards, one in each hand, E left, PXXI in ; $90.00 (€80.10)
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