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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ The Tetrarchy ▸ GaleriusView Options:  |  |  | 

Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.

Galerius was caesar and a tetrarch under Maximianus. His capital was Sirmium (modern Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia). Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after.


Roman Provincial Egypt, Terracotta "Coin Mold," c. 316 - 320 A.D.

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Some call these counterfeiter's molds. However, Malloy notes on his tag for this specimen, "Originally thought to be molds for producing coins, now it is thought that these terracotta impressions themselves were used as a crude medium of exchange."
RX85456. Unofficial pseudo coin used for small change, VF, maximum diameter 27.3 mm, c. 316 - 320 A.D.; obverse retrograde impression of: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head of Galerius right (obverse of Galerius follis, c. 308 A.D.); reverse retrograde impression of: IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing facing, head left, Victory on globe in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, eagle left at feet on left, K above eagle on left, wreath over X over A right in right field, ALE in exergue (reverse of Alexandria mint follis, 316 - 317 A.D., RIC VII Alexandria 17 - 19); $300.00 (€267.00)
 


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In 295, Galerius, caesar in the Balkans, was dispatched to Egypt to fight against the rebellious cities Busiris and Coptos.
RT77118. Silvered follis, RIC VI Siscia 90b (R2), SRCV IV 14365, Cohen VII 56, EF, most silvering remaining, nice portrait, weight 8.863 g, maximum diameter 27.7 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, c. 295 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (to the guardian spirit of the Roman People), Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, pouring libation from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, Γ right, *SIS in exergue; $120.00 (€106.80)
 


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In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO IMPERATORIS dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Imperators, the Commanders-in-Chief of the Army. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
RL74451. Billon follis, RIC VI Heraclea 37a, SRCV IV 14513, Cohen VII 48, gVF, excellent centering, some porosity and corrosion, weight 6.554 g, maximum diameter 27.4 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, c. 308 - 309 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO IMPERATORIS (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor as Commander in Chief), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, •HTΓ• in exergue; ex William B. Porter Collection; $75.00 (€66.75)
 


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In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Emperor, etc. The legend GENIO POPVLI ROMANI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Roman People. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
RT79897. Billon follis, RIC VI Heraclea 20b, SRCV IV 14372, Cohen VII 78, Choice VF, well centered, much silvering, weight 9.238 g, maximum diameter 27.8 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 297 - 298 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head (larger head) right; reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (to the guardian spirit of the Roman People), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, HTΓ in exergue; $70.00 (€62.30)
 


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In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Emperor, etc. The legend GENIO POPVLI ROMANI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Roman People. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
RT84383. Billon follis, RIC VI Heraclea 20b, SRCV IV 14372, Cohen VII 78, VF, well centered and struck, much silvering, light corrosion, weight 10.504 g, maximum diameter 27.0 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 297 - 298 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head (larger head) right; reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (to the guardian spirit of the Roman People), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, HTΓ in exergue; $60.00 (€53.40)
 


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In 297, Galerius defeated the Carpi, Bastarni and Goths on the Lower Danube, but was then defeated by the Sassanid Persians between Carrhae and Callinicum.
RT90733. Copper post-reform radiate, RIC VI Rome 88b (S), Cohen VII 246, SRCV IV 14423, F, well centered on a tight flan, green patina, corrosion, weight 2.213 g, maximum diameter 18.37 mm, die axis 0o, 9th officina, Rome mint, as caesar, 297 - 298 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; reverse VOT / XX in two lines, Θ below, all within laurel wreath; although not rare, this is the first ever example of this type handled by Forum; scarce; $36.00 (€32.04)
 


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Virtus was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). Virtus applied exclusively to a man's behavior in the public sphere, that is to the application of duty to the res publica in the cursus honorum. Private business was no place to earn virtus, even when it involved courage or feats of arms or other good qualities. There could be no virtue in exploiting one's manliness in the pursuit of personal wealth, for example. It was thus a frequently stated virtue of Roman emperors and was personified as the deity Virtus.
RT77920. Billon follis, RIC VI Alexandria 75, Hunter V 73, SRCV IV 14567 Cohen VII 224, F, green patina, well centered, some light pitting, red earthen deposits, weight 5.284 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Alexandria mint, 308 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse VIRTVS EXERCITVS (the courage of army), Virtus advancing right, transverse spear in right hand, trophy over left shoulder in left hand, shield on left arm, cloak around right arm and flying behind, Γ right, P - R flanking low across field, ALE in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; scarce; $36.00 (€32.04)
 


Click for a larger photo
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO AVGVSTI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Augusti, the Emperors. The figure depicted is the statue of the Spirit of the Roman People which was then in the Roman Forum (it is now lost). The act of pouring the libation to the emperor illustrates what the Christians were required to do in order not to be persecuted.
BB77925. Billon follis, RIC VI Cyzicus 42, SRCV IV 14509, Cohen VII 40, VF, dark patina, scratches, weight 5.945 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, c. 308 - 309 A.D.; obverse GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGVSTI (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor), Genius standing left, nude but for kalathos on head and chlamys over shoulders and left arm, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left, A left, MVK in exergue; $26.00 (€23.14)
 







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OBVERSE LEGENDS

DIVOGALVALMAXIMIANO
DIVOMAXIMIANOMAXIMINVSAVGFIL
GALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
GALVALMAXIMIANVSNOBC
GALVALMAXIMIANVSNOBCAES
IMPCGALVALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCGALVMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPMAXENTIVSDIVOMAXIMIANOSOCERO
IMPMAXIMIANVSPFAVGMAXIMIANVSCAESAR
MAXIMIANVSAVG
MAXIMIANVSCAES
MAXIMIANVSNC
MAXIMIANVSNOBC
MAXIMIANVSNOBCAES
MAXIMIANVSPFAVG


REFERENCES

Bastien, P. Le monnayage de I'atelier de Lyon, Diocletien et ses coregents avant la reforme monetaire (285 - 294). Numismatique Romaine VII. (Wetteren, 1972).
Bastien, P. Le Monnayage de l'Atelier de Lyon, De la Réforme Monétaire de Dioclétien à la fermeture temporaire de l'Atelier en 316 (294 - 316). Numismatique Romaine XI. (Wetteren, 1980).
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 7: Carausius to Constantine & sons. (Paris, 1888).
Depeyrot, G. Les monnaies d'or de Diocletien à Constantin I (284-337). Moneta 1. (Wetteren, 1995).
Gnecchi, F. I Medaglioni Romani. (Milan, 1912).
Jelocnik, A. The Sisak Hoard of Argentei of the Early Tetrarchy. (Ljubljana, 1961).
King, C.E. & D.R. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume V, Carausius to Romulus Augustus. (London, 1987).
Mattingly, H., E.A. Sydenham & P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, Part II, Probus to Amandus. (London, 1933).
Paolucci, R. & A. Zub. La monetazione di Aquileia Romana. (Padova, 2000).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. V. Diocletian (Reform) to Zeno. (Oxford, 1982).
Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. IV: The Tetrarchies and the Rise of the House of Constantine...Diocletian To Constantine I, AD 284 - 337. (London, 211).
Sutherland, R.A.C. & C.H.V. Carson. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol VI, From Diocletian's reform to the death of Maximinus. (London, 1967).

Catalog current as of Friday, September 22, 2017.
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Roman Coins of Galerius