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All the references given, except SNG Cop, include Orthagoreia in Macedonia. See Psoma Maroneia, pp. 193–204, for the redesignation of Orthagoreia from Macedon to Thrace.SH86789. Silver hemidrachm, SNG ANS 7.1 564 (same dies); SNG Cop 690; SNG Ashmolean V.2 2356; AMNG III-2, 3; BMC Macedonia p. 88, 5; HGC 3.1 600 (R1), Choice aEF, attractive style, well centered, nice toning, slight porosity, weight 2.571 g, maximum diameter 14.4 mm, die axis 15o, Orthagoreia mint, c. 350 - 330 B.C.; obverse facing head of Artemis, facing slightly left,, wearing triple-drop earring and pearl necklace, quiver on left shoulder; reverse OΠΘAΓO−ΠEΩN, facing ornate Macedonian helmet with cheek pieces, and star ornament crest; scarce; $700.00 (€595.00)
Athens, Attica, Greece, c. 454 - 404 B.C., Old StyleDrachm
Struck during Athens' Golden Age, a time when great thinkers, writers, and artists flourished in the city. Herodotus, the father of history, lived and wrote in Athens. Socrates, the father of philosophy, taught in the marketplace. Hippocrates, the father of medicine, practiced there. The sculptor Phidias created his great works for the Parthenon on the Acropolis and the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Democritus envisioned an atomic universe. Aeschylus, Euripedes, Aristophanes, and Sophocles wrote their famous plays and Pindar his Odes. This legacy would continue as, later, Plato would found his Academy outside the walls of Athens in 385 B.C. and, later, Aristotle would found his Lyceum in the city center.GS86581. Silver drachm, SNG Cop 41; Kroll 10; Dewing 1601; Svoronos pl. 11, 20; HGC 4 1631, VF, well centered and struck, die wear, porosity, weight 4.153 g, maximum diameter 14.5 mm, die axis 270o, Athens mint, c. 454 - 404 B.C.; obversehead of Athena right, almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves & floral scroll, wire necklace, round earring, hair across forehead in parallel curves; reverse owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, to left olive sprig and crescent, all within incuse square, AΘE downward on right; scarcer denomination; $450.00 (€382.50)
Syracuse, Sicily, Timoleon and the Third Democracy, c. 344 - 317 B.C.
Threatened by Carthage and dominated by Hiketas, the tyrant of Leontini, Syracusans sent an appeal for help to their mother city, Corinth. By a unanimous vote Corinth selected Timoleon to set sail for Sicily with a few leading citizens of Corinth and a small troop of Greek mercenaries. After defeating Hiketas, Timoleon put order to Syracuse' affairs and established a democratic government. He repelled Carthage in several wars, ending with a treaty which divided the island. Timoleon then retired without any title or office, though he remained practically supreme. He became blind before his death, but when important issues were under discussion he was carried to the assembly to give his opinion, which was usually accepted. When he died the citizens of Syracuse erected a monument to his memory, afterward surrounded with porticoes, and a gymnasium called Timoleonteum. GI86586. Silver dilitron, SNG ANS 518; SNG Cop 717; SNG München 1126; BMC Sicily p. 186, 283; Weber 1644; HGC 2 1373 (R2), VF, well centered, very dark toning, porosity, edge crack, weight 1.226 g, maximum diameter 14.3 mm, die axis 45o, Syracuse mint, c. 344 - 317 B.C.; obverse ΣYPAKOΣI-ΩN, laureate Janiform female head, two dolphins nose to nose on right; reverse horse galloping right, barley ear right above, N below; rare; $400.00 (€340.00)
Syracuse, Sicily, Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C.
References disagree on the date of this type. Dates range from the rule of Hieron II beginning in 275 B.C. to the end of the 5th Republic in 212 B.C.GS86619. Silver 2 1/2 litrae, SNG Cop 882, SNG ANS 903, SNG München 1439, HGC 2 420 (R2) corr., BMC Sicily -, VF, well centered, toned, light bumps and marks, ethnic weakly struck, weight 2.229 g, maximum diameter 15.2 mm, die axis 180o, Syracuse mint, 216 - 215 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo left; reverse ΣYPAKOΣIOI, Isis standing facing, looking up to heaven, veil billowing out behind around head, scroll in right hand, filleted palm frond in left hand, A upper right; very rare; $400.00 (€340.00)
Syracuse, Sicily, Dionysios I, c. 405 - 367 B.C.
Dionysius I was tyrant of Syracuse. He conquered several cities in Sicily and southern Italy, opposed Carthage's influence in Sicily and made Syracuse the most powerful of the Western Greek colonies. He was regarded by the ancients as an example of the worst kind of despot - cruel, suspicious and vindictive. GS86597. Silver hemilitron, SNG ANS 301; SNG Cop 669; SNG Lloyd 1379; BMC Sicily p. 182, 237; Boehringer Münzprägungen pl. II, 19; HGC 2 1392 (R2) , VF, dark toning, light marks and corrosion, tiny edge cracks, weight 0.434 g, maximum diameter 10.1 mm, die axis 0o, Syracuse mint, c. 405 - 395 B.C.; obversehead of nymph Arethusa left, wearing drop earring, hair bound in ampyx and sphendone, no control symbol or signature; reverse four-spoked wheel, SY-PA in upper quarters, two dolphins heads downward nose to nose in lower quarters; very rare; $340.00 (€289.00)
Thracians, Odrysian Kingdom, Kotys I 384 - 359 B.C.
Soon after he became king, Kotys allied with Athens and married his daughter to the Athenian general Iphicrates, who became his second in command. With the help of Iphicrates, Kotys expanded his kingdom, but his success led to increasing tensions with Athens. The Second Athenian Confederacy was founded as a safeguard against Kotys. In 365 B.C., Kotys went to war with the Athenians for the Thracian Chersonese. Around this time, Kotys' treasurer Miltokythes rebelled. Iphicrates and Kotys' mercenary commander Charidemus bribed the Athenian commanders to help suppress the rebellion. In 361 B.C., Charidemus returned to Athens with a treaty from Kotys, proclaiming him an ally. By 360 B.C., Kotys controlled the whole Chersonese peninsula. Late Sep. 360 B.C., Kotys was murdered by two of Plato’s students, Python and Heraclides. Advisers to the King, they murdered him under the pretext that he had wronged their father. In Athens, they were proclaimed honorary citizens and rewarded with gold wreaths.
Kypsela, Thrace, was located in the region between the river Nestos to the river Hebros.GS86792. Silver diobol, Winzer 31.3; SNG Ashmolean 3719; Topalov 96; Peter p. 114 var. (KO/T-Y and no ivy leaf), gVF, toned, light marks, slightly grainy/porous, weight .0793 g, maximum diameter 11.3 mm, die axis 0o, Kypsela mint, 384 - 359 B.C.; obversebare head left, with beard and moustache; reverse two-handled vessel (Odrysian dynastic symbol?), KO above, ivy leaf right; very rare; $300.00 (€255.00)
Anatolia (Lycia?), 5th Century B.C.
Although unlisted in the major references, a similar hemidrachmtype was first published by 1897. Six obols of this type, including this coin, are listed on Coin Archives having been offered at auction in the last two decades.
The chimera was, according to Greek mythology, a monstrous fire-breathing creature of Lycia, composed of the parts of three animals - a lion, a snake, and a goat or stag. Usually depicted as a lion, with the head of a goat arising from its back, and a tail that ending with a snake's head, the Chimera was one of the offspring of Typhon and Echidna and a sibling of such monsters as Cerberus and the Lernaean Hydra. The term chimera has come to describe any mythical or fictional animal with parts taken from various animals, or to describe anything perceived as wildly imaginative or implausible. GS87477. Silver obol, 6 specimens known from auctions, otherwise unpublished; cf. Boston MFA 2325 (hemidrachm), Greenwell 1897, p. 281, 2 (= Boston MFA 2325), VF, well centered, toned, lightly etched surfaces, bumps and scratches, die wear, weight 0.662 g, maximum diameter 7.8 mm, die axis 270o, uncertain (Lycian?) mint, 5th century B.C.; obversechimera standing (right?) with heads of a lion (in center with looking left), stag, and serpent, joined on one quadruped body at the center and radiating outward; reversegorgoneion (facing head of Medusa), snaky locks, tongue protruding, within incuse square; ex Numismatic Naumann, auction 62 (4 Feb 2018), lot 127; extremely rare; $280.00 (€238.00)
Athens, Attica, Greece, c. 393 - 297 B.C.
GS86848. Silver obol, cf. Svoronos Athens pl. 22, 1 ff.; HGC 4 1666 (R1); Kroll -; SNG Cop -, gVF, toned, tight flan, weight 0.695 g, maximum diameter 8.7 mm, die axis 270o, Athens mint, c. 393 - 297 B.C.; obversehead of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl, hair in parallel curves, eye in profile; reverse owl standing right, head facing, sprig of one olive and one large leaf behind, all in incuse square, AΘE downward on right; ex Beast Coins; rare; $240.00 (€204.00)
Phaselis, Lycia, 500 - 466 B.C.
Partial brockageobverse. The obverse was re-struck off-center over a brockage of the reverse, leaving two clear impressions.GA83588. Silver tetrobol, SNGvA 4396, SNG Berry 1200 var. (ΦA above galley, Σ below), SNG Cop -, SNG Fitzwilliam -, VF, toned, tight flan, die wear, die cracks, partial brockage, weight 3.507 g, maximum diameter 15.0 mm, die axis 90o, Phaselis mint, 500 - 440 B.C.; obverse prow of war galley right in the form of a boar's forepart, partial brockage with incuse letters ΦA visible on obverse; reverse stern right, ΦAΣ above, all in incuse square; ex Roma Numismatics, e-sale 21 (31 Oct 2015), 368; $180.00 (€153.00)
Maroneia, Thrace, c. 398 - 385 B.C.
Maroneia was on the Aegean coast about midway between the mouths of the Hebrus and the Nestus rivers. The city was named after Maron, sometimes identified as a son of Dionysos, who in the Odyssey gives Odysseus the wine with which he intoxicates Polyphemos. Maroneia was famous for its wine, which was esteemed everywhere and was said to possess the odor of nectar.GB85193. Silver triobol, Schönert-Geiss Maroneia 236 ff.; SNG Cop 616; SNG Delepierre 797; BMC Thrace p. 234, 30a, gF/VF, tight flan, edge cracks, weight 2.624 g, maximum diameter 14.6 mm, die axis 90o, Maroneia (Maroneia-Sapes, Greece) mint, c. 398 - 385 B.C.; obverse forepart of prancing horse left, dotted body truncation, A-N flanking at neck, Θ below; reverse bunch of grapes on a vine, M - A flanking low across the field, all in a dotted linear square border within a square incuse; $180.00 (€153.00)