, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.
The refers to sacrifices made to prior to his departure for Gaul in 16 B.C. The abbreviates, "Vota Publica Suscepta Pro Salute et Reditu Iovi Maximo Sacrata," which means, "public sacrifices have been made to holy , the best and greatest, for the well-being and the [safe] return [of the Emperor]."SH84730. Silver , 150b (R4), 326, 438, 1242, 187 var. ( right), 1641 var. (same), Nice EF, light with luster in recesses, nice portrait, slightly off center, some die wear, 3.922 g, maximum 20.5 mm, 180o, (Cordoba, Spain) mint, c. Jul 17 - 16 B.C.; CAESARI AVGVSTO, left, linear ; VOT P SVSC PRO SAL ET RED SACR, standing left, helmeted, nude but for cloak on shoulders and left arm, vertical before him in right hand, sloped over left shoulder in left hand, linear ; this is the first ever example of this handled by , from the Marcelo Leal Collection; very ; $2500.00 (€2225.00)
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
The as is a for .SH66874. Copper as, 683, 527A, 313 (4 Fr), VF, 11.298 g, maximum 24.5 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 194 A.D.; L SEPT SEV IIII, laureate right; , walking right, nude but for helmet and cloak over shoulder flying behind, transverse spear in right hand, of captured arms in left over shoulder; very ; $200.00 (€178.00)
, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.
On 8 October 314, at the Battle of Cibalae, Constantine defeated Licinius near Cibalae (modern Vinkovci, Croatia). Licinius was forced to flee to , and lost all of the Balkans except for . The two initiated peace negotiations, but they failed and they would not make peace until 1 March 317.RL76327. , Unlisted variety of a very ; Ticinum 4 (R4) var. ( ), 15258 var. (same), 139, -, VF, , light contact marks and corrosion, 3.147 g, maximum 21.5 mm, 180o, 1st , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 313 A.D.; IMP LICINIVS , laureate, draped, and right, from front; , standing right, helmeted, in military dress, reversed spear in right hand, left hand resting on grounded , PT in ; $155.00 (€137.95)
Amisos, Pontos, c. 120 - 63 B.C.
Amisos was settled c. 760 - 750 B.C. by people from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. Amisos came under the rule of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire, and then the Kingdom of . The Romans took control in 47 B.C. and Amisos remained within the after the fall of Rome. In 1200, the city was captured by the Seljuks, to be later taken over by the Ilhanlilar. Amisos today is Samsun, a city of about half a million people on the coast of Turkey.GB77170. Bronze AE 20, 153; 1162 ( ); Stancomb 680 var. (same); p. 17, 48 ff. var. (same); SNG 64 var. (same); 241, VF, , adjustment marks, 7.960 g, maximum 19.7 mm, 0o, Amisos (Samsun, Turkey) mint, c. 120 - 63 B.C.; of Ares right in crested helmet; sword in sheath with strap to right, AMI−ΣOY divided across , within crescent with horns up upper left, upper right, lower left and lower right; $135.00 (€120.15)
Amisos, Pontos, c. 120 - 63 B.C.
Amisos was settled c. 760 - 750 B.C. by people from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. Amisos came under the rule of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire, and then the Kingdom of . The Romans took control in 47 B.C. and Amisos remained within the after the fall of Rome. In 1200, the city was captured by the Seljuks, to be later taken over by the Ilhanlilar. Amisos today is Samsun, a city of about half a million people on the coast of Turkey.GB77171. Bronze AE 19, 1161; 64; p. 17, 48; 679 var. ( ); 154 ff. var. (same); 3643; 241, VF, , coarse green , 8.417 g, maximum 19.4 mm, 0o, Amisos (Samsun, Turkey) mint, c. 120 - 63 B.C.; of Ares right in crested helmet; sword in sheath with strap, AMI−ΣOY divided across , within crescent with horns up upper left, IB upper right, lower left and right; $135.00 (€120.15)
, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.
was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian. He was the father of and , the legendary founders of Rome. In early Rome, he was second in importance only to , and the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin ), and in October, which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming.
RB84425. , 992, 1385, 18 206, 127, 4966, aF, nice portrait, , 28.977 g, maximum 32.6 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 171 A.D.; M ANTONINVS XXV, laureate right; (consul 3 times), advancing right, helmeted, nude but for cloak tied at waist and flying behind, spear in right hand, across left shoulder in left hand, ( ) flanking his knees; $130.00 (€115.70)
Roman Republic, Anonymous, 241 - 235 B.C.
In 235 B.C. in Rome, the consul Manlius Torquatus presided over the first ever closing of the gates of the , signifying peace. RR72276. Bronze , 25/3, 26, Romano-Campanian 64, 299, 204, F, rough, , 2.789 g, maximum 15.9 mm, 45o, Rome(?) mint, 241 - 235 B.C.; helmeted of beardless right; bridled horse's right, sickle behind, below; ; $125.00 (€111.25)
the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.
holds both the implements of war and the olive branch of peace. "Peace through strength" is an ancient phrase and concept implying that strength of arms is a necessary component of peace. The phrase has famously been used by many leaders from Roman Emperor in the first century A.D., to Ronald Reagan in the 1980s.RB78076. , 152, 146, 37, , VF, centered on a crowding off the top half of the and most of the , double struck, light marks and corrosion, 10.207 g, maximum 27.0 mm, 0o, 1st , Rome mint, 8th emission, 248 A.D.; IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped, and right, from behind; V P P, standing left in military garb, raising olive branch in right hand, right hand on grounded , inverted spear leaning on left shoulder, ( ) flanking across ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; ; $125.00 (€111.25)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). applied exclusively to a man's behavior in the public sphere, that is to the application of duty to the res publica in the cursus honorum. Private business was no place to earn , even when it involved courage or feats of arms or other qualities. There could be no virtue in exploiting one's manliness in the pursuit of personal wealth, for example. It was thus a frequently stated virtue of and was personified as the deity .RL84026. , , 2, 816; 12071 var. (...P F AVG); 894; -, EF, full , full circles centering, some flatly struck areas, 3.888 g, maximum 22.4 mm, 180o, 5th , (Sisak, Croatia) mint, emmision 5, 278 A.D.; IMP C PROBVS P AVG, left in consular robe, eagle-tipped in right hand; (the valor of Emperor ), walking right, helmeted, nude but for cloak tied in belt at waist and flying behind, transverse spear upward right in right hand, of captured arms over left shoulder in left hand, XXIV in ; $125.00 (€111.25)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
In 278 A.D., defeated the , expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the Roman defenses on the Rhine and resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces. He adopted the titles and .SH62614. , V 96, n° 79; RIC, 2, V 811 var. ( ), EF, , near full and centering, 3.665 g, maximum 22.7 mm, 180o, (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 278 A.D.; IMP C PROBVS AVG, , draped, and right, from behind; (the valor of Emperor ), walking right, nude but for cloak flying behind, transverse spear in right hand, over shoulder in left, XXIVI in ; $110.00 (€97.90)
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