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Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of Apulia or Counts of Sicily & Calabria, c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs less then 1/3 the weight of the even the lightest official Class B Byzantineanonymous follisForum has handled. Attribution to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other Byzantine imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and Sicily.ME73353. Bronze follaro, apparently unpublished, imitative of Class B Byzantineanonymous follis (SBCV 1823, Constantinople, 1028 - 1041); MEC Italy III -, MIR -, et al. -, F, weight 2.163 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Italian mint, c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.; obverse facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium, and colobium, holding book of Gospels; reverse IS - XS / bAS-ILE / bAS-ILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings, mostly off flan), Cross on three steps, dividing legend; from a California collector; $195.00 (€173.55)
Danubian Celts, 2nd - 1st Century B.C., Imitative of Philip III of Macedonia
Sear describes the obverse of this type as, "Almost plain, though with very faint traces of the hd. of Herakles." CE76351. Silver tetradrachm, CCCBM 195, Lanz 920, Dembski 1479, SGCV I 212, F, toned, light marks, weight 15.118 g, maximum diameter 29.3 mm, tribal mint, 2nd - 1st century B.C.; obverse almost plain, highly degraded head of Herakles right in Nemean lion scalp headdress; reverse crude figure of Zeus seated left, feet on footstool, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, blundered imitation of a legend on right, I below throne; $140.00 (€124.60)
Crusaders(?), Imitative of Zangids of Syria, c. 1146 - 1200 A.D.,
This coin is a crude imitative of an Islamic fals of the Zangids of Syria, Nur al-Din Mahmud, struck at Halab (Aleppo, Syria), 1146 - 1173 (Spengler-Sayles 73, Album 1850). That type was itself also imitative, copying a Byzantinefollis of Constantine X, struck at Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), 1059 - 1067 (DOC III 8, SBCV 1853). The quality of the Zangids fals vary greatly and it can be difficult to distinguish between Halab mint issues and imitatives. This example is very crude and if any can be attributed to the crusaders, this is one.BZ77974. Bronze follis, Malloy Crusaders -; cf. Spengler-Sayles 73 (notes "barbaric" imitations), Album 1850 (notes imitations are perhaps struck by the Crusaders), F, desert patina, tight flan, weight 2.798 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain mint, c. 1150 - 1200 A.D.; obverse two Byzantinestyle imperial figures (Constantine X and Eudocia) standing facing, supporting between them labarum resting on three steps, EX downward on left, imitation of Kuficlegend inner left; reverse Christ standing facing, nimbate, book of Gospels in left hand, right hand on hip, IC - XC flanking head, blundered imitation of legend around; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $140.00 (€124.60)
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of Apulia or Counts of Sicily & Calabria, c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs about 1/3 the normal weight of an official Class J Byzantineanonymous follis. Attribution to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other Byzantine imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and Sicily.ME68381. Bronze follis, apparently unpublished, imitative of Byzantine class J follis (SBCV 1900, Constantinople, 1081 - 1118); MEC Italy III -, Biaggi -, Wroth Western -, aF, on a very small thin flan compared to Byzantine proto-types, weight 2.200 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain S. Italy mint, c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.; obversebust of Christ facing, cross behind, wears pallium and colbium, raising right in benediction, Gospels in left, crescents above, IC - XC flanking, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium, and colobium, holding book of Gospels; reverseCross with globule and two pellets at each extremity, large crescent below, four globules around each surrounded by pellets; from an American collection; very rare; $125.00 (€111.25)
Sasanian Empire, Khusro II, Occupation of Egypt, 618 - 628 A.D.
During his temporary domination of Egypt, 618 - 628 A.D., Khusru allowed the Alexandria mint to continue issuing the normal Byzantine coinage, but substituted his portrait for the Byzantine emperor's. The sun and moon replaced the obverselegend, just as on contemporarySasanian coinage. It may seem strange that a Persian king would wear a crown surmounted by a cross; however, his wife Sira was a Christian, he was a benefactor of the church of St. Sergius in Edessa, he honored the Virgin, and he sometimes wore a robe embroidered with a cross which he had received as a gift from the Emperor Maurice Tiberius. The Byzantine emperors resumed the imperial coinage of Alexandria after their recapture of Egypt in 628 A.D.WA77071. Bronze 12 nummi, DOC II, part 1, 191; Hahn MIB 202b; Wroth BMC 277; Tolstoi 109; Ratto 1316; Morrisson BnF 10/Al/AE/32; SBCV 855; Sommer 11.92, aVF, as-found slightly rough near black patina, well centered, weight 10.428 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Alexandria mint, 618 - 628 A.D.; obversebust of the Sassanid King Khusru II wearing a crown with pendilia and surmounted by a cross, star left, crescent moon right; reverse large I B with cross potent on globe between, AΛEZ in exergue; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, Caesarea Maritima surface find; $120.00 (€106.80)
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Iberian(?) Barbaric Imitative
RB70583. Copper as, cf. SRCV I 1685, RIC I 431, BMCRE 226, Cohen I 515, BnF I 687 (official, Rome mint, 7 B.C.), F, interesting crude style, nice green patina, edge cracks, scratches, pits on reverses, weight 10.390 g, maximum diameter 25.7 mm, die axis 225o, Iberian(?) unofficial mint, obversebare head right; reverse large S C; $100.00 (€89.00)
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Barbaric Imitative
Tribal peoples outside the Empire struck coinage imitative of Roman types beginning in the second century B.C. and continued to strike imitative types even after the Western Empire ceased to exist. Several official issues used this reversetype, but the style is exotic and crude. These legends were never used on any official issues.RS90386. Silver denarius, for possible prototype: cf. RIC IV 516, RSC III 719, BMCRE V 678 (Roman official, Laodicea ad Mare mint, 198 - 202 A.D.), gVF, fantastic unofficial style, frosty surfaces, weight 2.520 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 180o, tribal mint, c. 198 - 210 A.D.; obverse S VERVS - AVGVSTVS P, laureate head right; reverse TR - PO CO VIII VICTO AVG, Victory ascending left, open wreath in both hands, round shield on a low base at feet on left; $100.00 (€89.00)
Geto-Dacian, Roman Republic Imitative, 106 B.C. - 1st Century A.D.
CE76909. Silver denarius, cf. Davis A/II M14 (possibly same prototype but not very similar), cf. possible prototype: Crawford 313/1 (Rome mint, L. Memmius Galeria, 106 B.C.), F, scratches, uneven strike with some areas unstruck, weight 3.596 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 45o, obversestylizedhead of Saturn(?) right; reversebiga right, MEΛΛIVS (or similar) in exergue; $100.00 (€89.00)
Thracian or Germanic Tribes, Pseudo-Imperial Coinage, Mid 4th - Early 5th Century A.D.
This type was minted by and used as currency by tribes outside the Roman Empire in Thrace. It copied a Roman votive type issued under Constantine the Great. The inscriptions are made up of illiterate imitations of letters. CE76987. Bronze AE 18, Imitative of Crispus types, for prototypes see RIC VII p. 379 ff. (official Roman, Ticinum mint, c. 320 - 325 A.D.), Choice VF, nice green patina, weight 2.047 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, tribal mint, mid 4th - early 5th century A.D.; obverse laureate bust left, illiterate blundered imitation of a legend; reverse blundered VOT X within wreath, illiterate blundered limitation of a legend around, ST in exergue; $100.00 (€89.00)
Celtic imitative of a rare Macedonian issue struck under Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C. The choice was appropriate for the SerdiCelts as the river Strymon runs through the Serdi region. CE46714. Bronze AE 20, Malloy Danubian Celtstype C3A; imitative of a Macedonian Kingdom (Philip V or Perseus) type, 187 - 168 B.C., SNG Cop 1299, gF, centered on a tight flan, green patina, patina chips and edge chips, overstruck, weight 6.035 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 0o, obverse reed-wreathed head of the river god Strymon right; remnant of helmeted head of Athena right from undertype; reverse trident head, stylizeddolphin ornaments between the prongs, blundered illiterate imitation of an inscription, remnant of ΠEΛΛHΣ legend over grazing cow from undertype; overstruck on a Pella, Macedonia bronze, SNG Cop 266 ff., after 187 B.C.; scarce; $90.00 (€80.10)
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