Southern , c. Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
The earliest imitations of tetradrachms are very similar to the Macedonian originals. It isn't always completely clear if a coin is a imitative or an oddly Macedonian original. Fairly quickly the imitative inscriptions were shortened and then blundered. Over time the of Zeus was increasingly "Celticized" and eventually both the of Zeus and the horseman devolved into barely recognizable abstract forms. This coin is similar to the original but, with a rather exotic of Zeus, could never be confused with the Macedonian prototype. SH66569. Silver , cf. I 6 (Λ vice thunderbolt), 360 (same), 14/5 (thunderbolt but other different), 1215 (same), VF, some corrosion, 14.207 g, maximum 26.8 mm, 0o, tribal mint, c. late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; Celticized laureate of Zeus right, dot ; ΦIΛIΠΠ−OY, naked youth on horse pacing right holding frond, thunderbolt over torch below, below raised foreleg, dot ; derived from the tetradrachms of ; $400.00 (€356.00)
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs less then 1/3 the of the even the lightest official Class B has handled. to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME73353. Bronze follaro, apparently unpublished, imitative of Class B ( 1823, Constantinople, 1028 - 1041); -, MIR -, -, F, 2.163 g, maximum 23.3 mm, 180o, uncertain Italian mint, c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.; facing of Christ, wearing , , and , holding book of Gospels; IS - XS / bAS-ILE / bAS-ILE (Jesus Christ of Kings, mostly off ), on three steps, dividing ; from a California collector; $240.00 (€213.60)
Danube , The Skordoski in Syrmia, Imitative of Philip of , "Kugelwange" , 2nd Century B.C.
This was struck by the Skordoski tribe in Syrmia. Syrmia is a fertile region of the Pannonian Plain, between the middle-lower Danube and Sava rivers. It is divided between Serbia in the east and Croatia in the .CE76360. Silver , "Kugelwange" (ball cheek) , imitative of of ; 507, 205, I S134, 1121, gVF, on a , 1.518 g, maximum 12.9 mm, 0o, Syrmia mint, 2nd phase (no ), 2nd century B.C.; laureate and bearded of Zeus right with ball cheek (Kugelwange); horse prancing left, pellet-in-annulet above, no ; $200.00 (€178.00)
(?), Imitative of Zangids of , c. 1146 - 1200 A.D.,
This coin is a crude imitative of an Islamic fals of the Zangids of , Nur al-Din Mahmud, struck at Halab (Aleppo, ), 1146 - 1173 ( 73, 1850). That was itself also imitative, copying a of Constantine X, struck at Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), 1059 - 1067 ( 8, 1853). The quality of the Zangids fals vary greatly and it can be difficult to distinguish between Halab mint issues and imitatives. This example is very crude and if any can be attributed to the , this is one.BZ77974. Bronze , -; cf. 73 (notes "barbaric" imitations), 1850 (notes imitations are perhaps struck by the ), F, desert , , 2.798 g, maximum 22.0 mm, 180o, uncertain mint, c. 1150 - 1200 A.D.; two imperial figures (Constantine X and ) standing facing, supporting between them resting on three steps, EX downward on left, imitation of inner left; Christ standing facing, , book of Gospels in left hand, right hand on hip, flanking , blundered imitation of around; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $180.00 (€160.20)
, 2nd - 1st Century B.C., Imitative of Philip III of
describes the of this as, "Almost plain, though with very faint traces of the hd. of Herakles."CE76351. Silver , 195, 920, 1479, 212, F, , light marks, 15.118 g, maximum 29.3 mm, tribal mint, 2nd - 1st century B.C.; almost plain, highly degraded of Herakles right in scalp headdress; crude figure of Zeus seated left, feet on footstool, in extended right hand, long vertical behind in left hand, blundered imitation of a on right, I below throne; $160.00 (€142.40)
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs about 1/3 the normal of an official Class J . to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME68381. Bronze , apparently unpublished, imitative of class J ( 1900, Constantinople, 1081 - 1118); -, -, -, aF, on a very small thin compared to proto-types, 2.200 g, maximum 21.0 mm, 180o, uncertain S. Italy mint, c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.; of Christ facing, behind, wears and colbium, raising right in , Gospels in left, crescents above, flanking, facing of Christ, wearing , , and , holding book of Gospels; with globule and two pellets at each extremity, large crescent below, four globules around each surrounded by pellets; from an American collection; $140.00 (€124.60)
Empire, Khusro II, Occupation of , 618 - 628 A.D.
During his temporary domination of , 618 - 628 A.D., Khusru allowed the mint to continue issuing the normal coinage, but substituted his portrait for the emperor's. The sun and moon replaced the , just as on coinage. It may seem strange that a Persian would wear a crown surmounted by a ; however, his wife Sira was a Christian, he was a benefactor of the of St. Sergius in Edessa, he honored the Virgin, and he sometimes wore a robe embroidered with a which he had received as a gift from the Emperor . The emperors resumed the imperial coinage of after their recapture of in 628 A.D.WA77071. Bronze 12 nummi,
, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Iberian(?) Barbaric Imitative
RB70583. Copper as, cf. 1685, 431, 226, 515, 687 (official, Rome mint, 7 B.C.), F, interesting crude , nice green , edge cracks, scratches, pits on reverses, 10.390 g, maximum 25.7 mm, 225o, Iberian(?) unofficial mint, right; large S C; $130.00 (€115.70)
Thracian or Germanic Tribes, Pseudo-Imperial Coinage, Mid 4th - Early 5th Century A.D.
This was minted by and used as currency by tribes outside the Roman empire in . It copied a Roman votive issued under Constantine the Great. The inscriptions are made up of illiterate imitations of letters.CE76987. Bronze AE 18, Imitative of types, for prototypes see p. 379 ff. (official Roman, Ticinum mint, c. 320 - 325 A.D.), VF, nice green , 2.047 g, maximum 17.7 mm, tribal mint, mid 4th - early 5th century A.D.; laureate left, illiterate blundered imitation of a ; blundered within , illiterate blundered limitation of a around, ST in ; $125.00 (€111.25)
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Barbaric Imitative
Tribal peoples outside the Empire struck coinage imitative of Roman types beginning in the second century B.C. and continued to strike imitative types even after the Western Empire ceased to exist. Several official issues used this , but the is exotic and crude. These legends were never used on any official issues.RS90386. Silver , for possible prototype: cf. 516, 719, 678 (Roman official, ad Mare mint, 198 - 202 A.D.), gVF, fantastic unofficial , frosty surfaces, 2.520 g, maximum 17.9 mm, 180o, tribal mint, c. 198 - 210 A.D.; S VERVS - P, laureate right; TR - PO CO VICTO AVG, ascending left, open in both , round on a low base at feet on left; $120.00 (€106.80)
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