Tutere (Tudor), , Italy, 280 - 240 B.C.
Todi was founded by the ancient people of the Umbri, in the 8th - 7th century BC, with the name of Tutere. The name means "border," it being the city located on the frontier with the Etruscan dominions. It was conquered by the Romans in 217 BC. According to Silius Italicus, it had a double line of walls that stopped Hannibal himself after his at the Trasimeno. Christianity spread to Todi very early, through the efforts of St. Terentianus. St. Fortunatus became the saint of the city for his heroic defense of it during the siege. In Lombard times, Todi was of the Duchy of Spoleto.SH73969. Bronze
, , Roman Rule, c. 212 - 133 B.C.
Apollo's most famous attribute is the tripod, the symbol of his prophetic powers. It was in the guise of a that brought priests from to , explaining Apollo's cult title "Delphinios" and the name of the town. He dedicated a bronze tripod to the sanctuary and bestowed divine powers on one of the priestesses, and she became known as the "Pythia." It was she who inhaled the hallucinating vapors from the fissure in the temple floor, while she sat on a tripod chewing laurel leaves. After she mumbled her answer, a male priest would translate it for the supplicant.GI76347. Bronze AE 13,
Vibo (Hipponion), , Italy, c. 192 - 89 B.C.
Vibo was originally the Greek colony of Hipponion. It was founded, probably around the late 7th century B.C., by inhabitants of Locri, a city south of Vibo on the Sea. In 388 B.C., the city was taken by Dionysius the Elder, tyrant of , who deported the entire population. The population came back in 378 B.C., with the of the Carthaginians. In the following years Hipponion came under the dominion of the Bruttii. The town fell to and became a Roman colony in 194 B.C. with the name of Vibo . After a phase of prosperity during the late Republic and early Empire, the town was almost completely abandoned after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.GI76947. Bronze
Panormos, , Roman Rule, c. 241 - 50 B.C.
The was a plebeian family, which claimed descent from Calpus, the son of , the second of . The first of the to obtain the consulship was Gaius in 180 B.C., but from this time their consulships were very frequent, and the family of the Pisones became one of the most illustrious in the Roman state. Two important pieces of Republican legislation, the lex of 149 B.C. and lex of 67 B.C. were passed by members of the .GI76937. Bronze AE 23,
Menaion, , c. 204 - 190 B.C.
In the foothills of the Hyblaei Mountains of , an indigenous settlement on a high peak under the name of Menai, flourished until 453 B.C. when its inhabitants were moved to nearby Paliké near the well-known sanctuary of the Palici. No traces of life survive from between the second half of the 5th c. B.C. and the end of the 4th c. B.C. The city, under the name of Menainon, began once more to flourish in the Hellenistic period, as attested by its rich necropolis. After the Roman conquest the city minted its own coinage. Its existence during the Roman period is attested by (Verr. 3.22.55; 3.43.102) and Pliny (HN 3.91). The site continued to be inhabited until the Arab Conquest and again during the following centuries.GI76345. Bronze trias,
Katane, , Roman Rule, c. 212 - 50 B.C.
As observed by Strabo the location of Katane at the foot of Mount Etna on the east coast of was both a source of benefits and of evils. On the one hand, the violent outbursts of the from time to time desolated great parts of the city's territory. On the other, the volcanic ashes produced fertile soil, especially suitable for the growth of vines. ( . vi. p. 269.).GI76962. Bronze as, cf.
, , Roman Rule, c. 212 - 133 B.C.
Overcoming formidable resistance and the ingenious devices of Archimedes, the Roman General Marcellus took in the summer of 212 B.C. Archimedes was killed during the attack. The plundered artworks taken back to from lit the initial spark of Greek influence on Roman culture.GB76368. Bronze AE 15,
as Hispani, , c. Late 2nd - Early 1st Century B.C.
In 214, during the Second Punic War, switched its allegiance from to . remained autonomous until 211, when it became the last Sicilian town to be captured by the Romans. It was given as payment by to a group of Spanish mercenaries, who issued coins with the HISPANORVM.
Erim and Jaunzems note that all coins of this were "struck from the same die. There is probably no other instance in all of the ancient coinages of the survival of so many pieces from a single die...In spite of the number of specimens, however, not a single piece allows us to examine this die in a fresh state, for invariably either the coin is in condition or die breaks are evident -- usually both. Particularly noticeable is a flaw that extends across the figure's and into the at the level of the nose. It is visible to some extent on almost all specimens."GB72288. Bronze AE 23,
Menaion, , Roman Rule, c. 200 - 150 B.C.
Mineo, (ancient Menaion) is inland about 64 km southwest of Catania. It was a Sikel city, founded around 458 B.C. by Douketios. In 396 B.C. it was captured by Dionysios I of . Under Roman rule mentions Menaion among the "civitatis decumanae," cities that pay one tenth of their annual harvest to . Today it has about 5,600 residents.GI73159. Bronze pentonkion,
, , Roman Rule, 212 - c. 189 B.C.
A is a sculpture of a person or a god, sometimes without detail forming only a vague semblance.GI74374. Bronze AE 27,
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