France, Provincial, Duchy of Normandie, William the Conqueror, 1035 - 1087, In the Name of William Rufus(?)
There are two varieties of this denier, one with RICAR above the ( 336) and the other with two W's ( 337, and list only one specimen, in the Brussels Coin Cabinet). These two types were struck in the reign of William the Conqueror, after 1070. The RICAR issue may have been struck in the name of his son Richard (1057- c. 1081), Duke of Bernay; and the W's may refer to his son William Rufus (1056 - 1100), of the English.ME79660. Silver denier,
Normans, Kingdom of , William II, 1166 - 1189 A.D.
Secluded and pleasure-loving, William II, the , seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign was marked by an ambitious foreign policy and vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa.SH71138.
quarter tercenario, 423, 1777 (R), 442 (R2), 115, VF, frosty surfaces, 0.412 g, maximum 12.0 mm, 0o, Palermo mint, second silver coinage; Arabic : duriba bi-madinat Siquilliyyah hama-ha Allah (struck at Palermo, may God protect her), small within a linear ; qVART/A TERCE/NARII• in three lines within linear ; very ;
France, Provincial, Duchy of Normandie, William the Conqueror, 1035 - 1087
William I (c. 1028 - 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. The descendant of Viking raiders, he had been Duke of Normandy since 1035. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son.ME77512. Silver denier,
4815; pl. XIX, 18; 333; 132, VF, usual crude dies, , and , 0.921 g, maximum 18.8 mm, Rouen mint, 1035 - 1087; + ROTOMAGVS, , pellets in each quarter, within linear inner ; with pellet within annulet at the end of each arm, a small in a in the center; in each quarter: a triangular temple with pellet in center; very ;
, County of Tripoli, II, 1137-1152 A.D.
II considered the Syrian Christians of Tripoli responsible for treachery which led to his father's defeat and death in a battle with . After the battle, he took many of them prisoner, and as William of Tyre wrote, "he visited upon them diverse tortures in the presence of the people, and, in just proportion to the enormity of the crime which they had committed, he caused them to suffer death in its most cruel forms." This act was praised by the Latin Christians as "the first proofs of valor which were given by the young count, whereby he won the affection of all his people and universal approval." In 1142 donated Krak des Chevaliers, an enormous fortress on the road from Homs to the Mediterranean, as well as other smaller castles, to the Knights Hospitallers. The Hospitallers were virtually independent in the county, for which they protected Tripoli's borders from frequent raids by the forces of and Zanki, the Turkish atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo.ME76426. Bronze fraction,
Normans, Kingdom of , Roger II, 1105 - 1154 A.D.
Roger II was of , son of Roger I of and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of in 1105, became Duke of and in 1127, and then of in 1130. Roger II is remembered for having united all of the Norman conquests in Italy under one strong central government. He was also the grandfather of Frederick II.ME70465. Bronze follaro,
Kingdom of Naples and , Charles I of Anjou, 1266 - 1285 A.D.
Charles I of Anjou was the of by conquest from 1266, though he had received it as a papal grant in 1262. He was expelled from the island in the aftermath of the Sicilian Vespers of 1282.ME73117.
denaro, 354 (R4), 1297 (NC), -, F, green , legends weak and partially off , 0.500 g, maximum 15.8 mm, 0o, Brindisi mint, 1266 - 1278 A.D.; + AROL•DEI•GRACIA, K with to right; + REX SICILIE, , pellet in each quarter; very ;
Kingdom of Naples, Charles V (HRE), 1516 - 1554
Though always at war, Charles was a lover of peace. "Not greedy of territory," wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1536, "but most greedy of peace and quiet." Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. It was during Charles reign that Spain conquered the Aztecs of Mexico and Incas of Peru, and then extended its control across much of South and Central America. Charles provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan whose voyage was the first circumnavigation of the Earth. He retired in 1556. The Habsburg Monarchy passed to his younger brother Ferdinand, and the Spanish Empire was inherited by his son . The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century. Charles was only 54 when he retired, but after 34 years of energetic rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery where he died aged 58. Charles' motto, Plus Ultra ('Further Beyond'), became the national motto of Spain.ME66323. Bronze 2 cavalli,
Kingdom of Naples and , Charles I of Anjou, 1266 - 1285
Charles I of Anjou was the of by conquest from 1266, though he had received it as a papal grant in 1262. He was expelled from the island in the aftermath of the Sicilian Vespers of 1282.ME66338.
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs about 1/3 the normal of an official Class J . to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME68381. Bronze
Kingdom of , VI (HRE), 1194 - 1197
VI was of Germany from 1190 - 1197, Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 - 1197, and of from 1194 - 1197. In 1197, his German soldiers mercilessly suppressed a revolt in Italy, especially in southern . In this same year, prepared for a Crusade, but, on 28 September, he died of malaria (or he may have been poisoned) in Messina. His son, Frederick II, inherited both the Kingdom of and the Imperial crown.ME72172.
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