, , Second Democracy, 466 - 405 B.C.
Following Heron's death, democracy was in 466 B.C. Similar to at Athens, the polis was governed by a council and popular assembly with an executive consisting of elected generals or strategoi. fought against Athens 427 - 424 B.C. and again 415 - 413 B.C.; ultimately was victorious. With further reforms by Diocles, the democratic nature of Syracuse's political structure was further strengthened. SH70877. Silver , 509 (V268/R362), 162 (same dies), VF, attractive Arethusa, die worn, edge flaw, 16.852 g, maximum 24.1 mm, 270o, mint, c. 460 - 450 B.C.; charioteer driving slow right, reins in both , flying right above crowning horses, ketos swimming right in ; ΣYPAKOΣON, diademed of Arethusa right, hair rolled and tucked under diadem, wearing earring and necklace, four dolphins swimming around clockwise; $1800.00 (€1566.00)
Himera, , 430 - 420 B.C.
The of the early coinage of Himera varied greatly. This coin has the most cartoon-like . describes the beveled as a "truncated ."SH68313. Bronze tetras, I p. 32, 18; 315; 181; 596; 467 (R1), VF, , 11.965 g, maximum 22.1 mm, 135o, Himera mint, 430 - 420 B.C.; facing with cartoon-like , protruding tongue, curly hair with no , almond eyes, and pellet nostrils; three pellets, within round ; ; $580.00 (€504.60)
, , Agathokles, 317 - 289 B.C.
With an army of mercenaries, through deceit, and after banishing or murdering some 10,000 citizens, Agathocles made himself master of and later most of . Machiavelli wrote of him, "It cannot be called prowess to kill fellow-citizens, to betray friends, to be treacherous, pitiless, and irreligious" and cited him as an example of "those who by their crimes come to be princes." According to the historian Justin, very early in life Agathocles parlayed his remarkable beauty into a career as a prostitute, first for men, and later, after puberty, for women, and then made a living by robbery before becoming a soldier and marrying a rich widow.SH62327. Silver , II p. 611, 9; 554 - 557, VF, 8.206 g, maximum 20.1 mm, 270o, mint, c. 317 - 305 B.C.; of (or Aphrodite) right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with , and necklace; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, Pegasos flying left, triskeles below; $440.00 (€382.80)
The Sileraioi, , c. 357 - 330 B.C.
Sileraioi was not a city. The Sileraians were Campanian mercenaries who took their name from their proximity to the river Silaros. These coins have been found at the site of their settlement, Cozzo Mususino, a natural strong-hold in central . The coins are often on coins from minted c. 375 - 345 B.C.SH68704. Bronze p. 301, 2; 1243 (R1); -; -; -; -, VF/F, rough, 7.521 g, maximum 20.6 mm, 90o, Sileraian mint, c. 340 - 330 B.C.; ΣI−ΛEPAIΩ−N (retrograde counterclockwise from 3:00), forepart charging right; SIL (retrograde, upward behind), warrior advancing right, spear in right hand, in left; ; $400.00 (€348.00)
Gela, , c. 430 - 425 B.C.
Gela, named after the river Gela, was founded around 688 BC by from Rhodos (Rhodes) and , 45 years after the founding of . In 424 B.C., the Congress of Gela established a platform of "Sicily for the Sicilians" and formed a league that pushed back the Athenian attempt to conquer the island.SH67849. Silver , 275, 52, 405, VF, 0.657 g, maximum 13.1 mm, 180o, Gela mint, 530 - 425 B.C.; bearded horseman helmeted and armed with and spear prancing left; CEΛAΣ, forepart of a right; $350.00 (€304.50)
, , Timoleon, 3rd Democracy, 344 - 336 B.C.
Timoleon installed a democracy in 345 B.C. After the long series of internal struggles had weakened Syracuse's power, Timoleon tried to remedy this, defeating the Carthaginians near the Krimisos river in 339 B.C. Unfortunately the struggle among the city's parties restarted after his death and ended with the rise of another tyrant, Agathocles, who seized power in 317 B.C.SH71353. Bronze dilitron, II p. 185, 80; 533 ff.; 717; 1159; 1456; p. 189, 311; 1439 (S) (S), gVF, some corrosion, 18.018 g, maximum 28.8 mm, 225o, mint, 344 - 336 B.C.; ZEYΣ EΛEYΘEPIOΣ, laureate of Zeus Eleutherios left; ΣYPA−K−OΣIO−N (clockwise from 11:00), free horse prancing left; $350.00 (€304.50)
Soloi, , c. 300 - 254 B.C.
SH57303. Bronze AE 15, I, p. 312, 16; 744, gVF, die break, 1.334 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 270o, Soloi mint, c. 300 - 254 B.C.; short-bearded male ( ?) right, wearing hoop earring; free horse galloping right; ; $320.00 (€278.40)
Tauromenion, , c. 357 - 315 B.C.
Taormina is between Messina and Catania, 250 m above the sea, on the steep slopes of Mt. Tauro. A necropolis proves Tauromenion was first a Sikel stronghold. The Greek city was founded in 358 B.C. by descendants of the Naxians, whose city on the below had been destroyed by Dionysios of in 403. Tauromenion flourished under Rome, especially after founded a colony in 30 B.C.GB72201. Bronze AE 25, III p. 211, 4 ( ); 1404; 1577 (R1), F, corrosion, open edge crack, scratches, 14.651 g, maximum 25.3 mm, 270o, Tauromenion (Taormina, ) mint, c. 357 - 315 B.C.; APXAΓETAΣ, laureate of Archagetas left; TAYΠOM/ENITAN, walking left, bunch of grapes on left below ; from the Nicholas Molinari Collection; very ; $300.00 (€261.00)
, , c. 405 B.C., of Kimon
The finest , perhaps by one of the greatest masters of numismatic art. The famous master-engravers of , who signed their in gold and silver, also signed some bronze coins. This die shares with the Kimon signed die. However, it has the addition of a necklace not seen on the Kimon signed die in , and it lacks the signature.
GI75167. Bronze hemilitron, II 45, 19 fr 1 (different dies but same and perhaps same hand); 1479; -; -; -; -, gVF, with a beautiful Arethusa, nice green , tight but , perfectly centered , some die wear, some encrustation, 3.800 g, maximum 14.9 mm, mint, c. 405 B.C.; of Arethusa left, hair bound with and , wearing hoop earring and wire necklace; wheel of four spokes, ΣY−PA in upper quarters divided by spoke, down and inward in each of the lower quarters; very ; $300.00 (€261.00)
, 209 - c. 26 December 211 A.D., Anchialus,
When the was abolished in 45 A.D., Anchialos (Pomorie, Bulgaria today) became of the Roman province of . It was formally proclaimed a city under . Anchialos thrived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries serving as the most important import and export station of and acquired the appearance of a Roman city under the Dynasty.RP68711. Bronze 4 assaria, 464 (R5), 555, -, -, -, aVF, glossy green , 14.534 g, maximum 30.7 mm, 45o, Anchialus (Pomorie, Bulgaria) mint, 209 - 212 A.D.; AY K Π CEΠ ΓETAC, laureate, draped and right, from behind; OYΛΠIANΩN AΓ−X−IAΛEΩN, Demeter standing left, reaching with right toward coiled around large torch before her, small torch cradled in her left, two small pellets over ∆ in center ; ; $270.00 (€234.90)
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