, , Second Democracy, 466 - 405 B.C.
Following Heron's death, democracy was in 466 B.C. Similar to at Athens, the polis was governed by a council and popular assembly with an executive consisting of elected generals or strategoi. fought against Athens 427 - 424 B.C. and again 415 - 413 B.C.; ultimately was victorious. With further reforms by Diocles, the democratic nature of Syracuse's political structure was further strengthened. SH70877. Silver , 509 (V268/R362), 162 (same dies), VF, attractive Arethusa, die worn, edge flaw, 16.852 g, maximum 24.1 mm, 270o, mint, c. 460 - 450 B.C.; charioteer driving slow right, reins in both , flying right above crowning horses, ketos swimming right in ; ΣYPAKOΣON, diademed of Arethusa right, hair rolled and tucked under diadem, wearing earring and necklace, four dolphins swimming around clockwise; $1800.00 (€1584.00)
Herbessos, , c. 344 - 335 B.C.
The site of the native Sikel Herbessos is uncertain but it was probably located near Leontinoi. Like other Sikel towns, it supported against , however, in 396 B.C. Herbessos formed an with Dionysos I. In 310 B.C., Agathokles installed a garrison to hold it against . In 309 B.C., with the aid of , the city expelled the garrison and claimed its freedom. In the Punic Wars, Herbessos was repeatedly held by until taken by Rome. About 213 B.C., Herbesso became a decumana, paying 1/10th of its annual harvest to Rome. Although it probably continued to exist for centuries, it then disappears from history.GI72187. Bronze , series II, 1 (354- 344 B.C); III, p. 252, 4; 593; 1002; pl. LIX, 17; 411 (R2), VF, on , 32.639 g, maximum 33.1 mm, 270o, Herbessos mint, c. 344 - 335 B.C.; EPBEΣΣINΩN, of Sikelia right, hair adorned with myrtle olive wreath; forepart of right; big bronze!; ; $1200.00 (€1056.00)
Lipara, Islands off , c. 412 - 408 B.C.
This very should not be confused with the later, lighter, issue with the pellets arranged in two rows of three.SH73170. Bronze hemilitron, I p. 14, 16; p. 259, 33; -; -; -, VF, green , , light corrosion, 12.076 g, maximum 24.9 mm, 0o, Lipara mint, c. 412 - 408 B.C.; young Hephaistos seated right on draped chair, nude, hammer in right hand, in left; ΛIΠAPAIΩN, around a of six pellets; very ; $600.00 (€528.00)
The Sileraioi, , c. 357 - 330 B.C.
Sileraioi was not a city. The Sileraians were Campanian mercenaries who took their name from their proximity to the river Silaros. These coins have been found at the site of their settlement, Cozzo Mususino, a natural strong-hold in central . The coins are often on coins from minted c. 375 - 345 B.C.SH68704. Bronze p. 301, 2; 1243 (R1); -; -; -; -, VF/F, rough, 7.521 g, maximum 20.6 mm, 90o, Sileraian mint, c. 340 - 330 B.C.; ΣI−ΛEPAIΩ−N (retrograde counterclockwise from 3:00), forepart charging right; SIL (retrograde, upward behind), warrior advancing right, spear in right hand, in left; ; $400.00 (€352.00)
Piakos, , c. 425 - 400 B.C.
Struck with unsigned dies by the ?Maestro della Foglia.? was the first to suggest that this famed artist who magnificent masterpieces for Katane, was also the engraver for the dies of this Piakos coinage. Other experts have agreed. This particular might have been his very first . dates the to a possible period of transitory independence, 425 - 424 B.C., during the time of the first Carthaginian invasion of to shortly after Gela's conference. Other authorities date it as late as 400 B.C.SH71341. Bronze tetras, III p. 198, 2; pl. LX, 14; 1101 (R1); -; -; -; -, VF, 2.357 g, maximum 14.4 mm, 45o, Piakos mint, c. 425 - 400 B.C.; P•I•A•K (pellets are mark of value), laureate and horned of a young river-god left; hound right attacking fallen stag right, seizing her by the throat, barley kernel on left and another on right; ; $400.00 (€352.00)
, , Pyrrhus of , 278 - 276 B.C.
This combination of control is not listed in the references examined. The control symbol is normally paired with a (thunderbolt) on the . The vertical trident control symbol is normally paired with a club on the .SH73164. Bronze AE 26, II p. 325, 177 Ds 69 var. (club vice cornucompia); 810 var.; 844 ff. var.; SNG Munchen 1333 ff. var.; 1450 (S), VF, nice , nice , broad , edge split, 11.274 g, maximum 26.0 mm, 90o, mint, 278 - 276 B.C.; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, of left, clad in lion-skin head-dress, (control symbol) behind; Promachos advancing right, helmeted and draped, hurling javelin with raised right hand, in left hand, no , vertical trident upward (control symbol) behind; variety; $400.00 (€352.00)
, , 450 - 440 B.C.
Located on a plateau overlooking Sicily's southern coast, was founded c. 582 B.C. by from Gela. It grew rapidly, becoming second only to in importance on , but was sacked by in 406 B.C. and never fully recovered. It was renamed after it fell to Rome in 210 B.C.
GI76829. Cast bronze trias, I, p. 143, 1; pl. I, 1; 61; 1015; 832; 126 (R1);, VF, green , earthen deposits, some light corrosion, 16.186 g, mint, 450 - 440 B.C.; cast near tooth-shaped flattened form, four pellets on flat top, sea-eagle standing left on one side, crab opposite; ; $400.00 (€352.00)
Gela, , c. 339 - 310 B.C.
Demeter in Greek mythology is the goddess of grain and fertility, the pure; nourisher of the youth and the green earth, the health-giving cycle of life and death; and preserver of marriage and the sacred law. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, dated to about the seventh century B.C. she is invoked as the "bringer of ," a subtle sign that she was worshipped long before she was made one of the . She and her daughter were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries that also predated the Olympian . SH71027. Bronze tetras, , group XII, 549; III p. 29, 59; p. 74, 77; 287; SNG Müchen 324; 123; 388 (R1), VF, , green , corrosion, 2.921 g, maximum 14.5 mm, 135o, Gela mint, c. 339 - 310 B.C.; ΓEΛΩI−ΩN (beginning upward on left), of Demeter facing slightly right, wreathed with barley, wearing earrings and necklace; bearded of river-god Gela left, short horn over forehead, bull's ear, wreathed with barley (or reeds?); ; $350.00 (€308.00)
, , Timoleon, 3rd Democracy, 344 - 336 B.C.
Timoleon installed a democracy in 345 B.C. After the long series of internal struggles had weakened Syracuse's power, Timoleon tried to remedy this, defeating the Carthaginians near the Krimisos river in 339 B.C. Unfortunately the struggle among the city's parties restarted after his death and ended with the rise of another tyrant, Agathocles, who seized power in 317 B.C.SH71353. Bronze dilitron, II p. 185, 80; 533 ff.; 717; 1159; 1456; p. 189, 311; 1439 (S) (S), gVF, some corrosion, 18.018 g, maximum 28.8 mm, 225o, mint, 344 - 336 B.C.; ZEYΣ EΛEYΘEPIOΣ, laureate of Zeus Eleutherios left; ΣYPA−K−OΣIO−N (clockwise from 11:00), free horse prancing left; $350.00 (€308.00)
Gela, , 420 - 405 B.C.
Gela, named after the river Gela, was founded by from Rhodos and around 688 B.C. In 424 B.C., the Congress of Gela established a "Sicily for the Sicilians" platform and formed a league that pushed back the Athenian attempt to conquer the island. The city had a history of internal strife between its plebs and aristocrats. When the Carthaginians arrived in 311 BC, they easily captured the Gela with the of its elites. In 282 B.C., Phintias of Agrigento ruthlessly destroyed Gela to crush its power forever. In Roman times it was only a small settlement.SH71354. Bronze tetras, 516; III p. 17, 32; 115; 283; 314; , p. 73, 66; 379 (S), VF/gVF, green , 3.301 g, maximum 16.4 mm, 315o, Gela mint, 420 - 405 B.C.; bull standing left, lowered and turned slightly facing, barley kernel over ΓEΛAΣ above, three pellets in ; horned of beardless young river-god Gela right, no diadem, floating hair, barley kernel behind; ; $350.00 (€308.00)
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