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Vespasian the Younger, Caesar, 94 - 95 A.D., Smyrna, Ionia
In 94 A.D., because he had no heir, Domitian adopted his two young great-nephews. He renamed them Vespasian and Domitian. The next year he executed the boys' father, his cousin, Titus Flavius Clemens, and exiled the boys' mother, his niece, FlaviaDomitilla. They were charged with Atheism, a charge sometimes applied to condemn converts to Judaism or Christianity. The boys then disappeared from history and their fate is unknown. Smyrna was the only city to strike coins in the name of Vespasian the Younger. No coins were struck for his brother.
Some scholars connect Domitilla with a Roman Matron in the Talmud (Avodah Zarah 10b) and the Deuteronomy Rabbah 2.25. When the emperor had decreed that in 30 days, the Senate would confirm an edict to kill all Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire, the Roman matron convinced her husband to stand up for the Jews. If that identification is correct, her husband Flavius Clemens converted to Judaism, after having contact with the great sage Rabbi Akiva. FlaviaDomitilla is a saint in both the Greek Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Church.SH83453. Bronze AE 16, Klose p. 244, 3, pl. 31 (V1/R1); RPC II 1028; SNG Cop 1360; SNGvA 2208; BMC Ionia p. 276, 320, gF/F, weight 2.790 g, maximum diameter 16.3 mm, die axis 0o, Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey) mint, as caesar, 94 - 95 A.D.; obverse OYOCΠACIANOC NEΩTEPOC, bare head right; reverse ZMYPNAIΩN, Nike standing right, wreath in extended right hand, palm frond over left shoulder in left hand; ex Solidus Numismatik, auction 7, lot 200; rare; $950.00 (€807.50)
Arados, Phoenicia, Uncertain King, c. 400 - 384 B.C.
Early coins of Arados have the Aramaic letters mem aleph (read from right to left) above the galley, abbreviating Melech Arad (meaning King of Arados), sometimes followed by the king's initial, and sometimes by the Phoenician regnal year date.GS87352. Silver stater, Elayi-Elayi Arwad group III.2.1; HGC 10, 32 (R1), VF, typical compact flan, bumps and marks, weight 10.308 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 270o, Arados (Arwad, Syria) mint, c. 400 - 384 B.C.; obverse laureate head of bearded Ba'al Arwad right, with profile eye; reverse galley right, figure of Pataikos right on prow, row of shields on bulwark, Phoenician letters mem aleph (abbreviating Melech Arad - King of Arados) from right to left above, three waves below; ex CNG e-auction 424 (11 Jul 2018), lot 252; rare; $235.00 (€199.75)
Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Judaea Capta, Caesarea Maritima, Samaria
Judaea Capta issue minted at Caesarea, Judaea. After Herod's death, Caesarea was the seat of the Roman procurator and capital of Roman Palestine for about 500 years. A riot in 66 A.D. between Syrians and Jews in the city led to the First Jewish Revolt. Paul was delivered to Caesarea when his life was threatened in Jerusalem (Acts 9:30). From Caesarea, Paul departed to Tarsus, his birthplace. Paul met the church in Caesarea (Acts 18:22; 21:8,16). Finally, Paul was taken prisoner (Acts 23:23,33) and returned to Caesarea where he was tried before Festus and KingAgrippa (Acts 25:1-4; 24:6-13)RP86862. Bronze AE 26, Hendin 1454, Meshorer TJC 391, RPC II 2304, Sofaer 25, F, scratches, earthen encrustations, weight 16.331 g, maximum diameter 26.4 mm, die axis 0o, Caesarea Maritima mint, c. 83 A.D.; obverse IMP DOMITIANVS CAES AVG GERMANICVS, laureate head left; reverseMinerva standing right on galley with owl on prow, shield on left arm, brandishing spear downward in right hand, trophy of captured arms behind, palm frond right, no legend; $180.00 (€153.00)
Julia Maesa, Augusta 8 June 218 - 224 or 225 A.D., Neapolis, Samaria
Neapolis, Samaria, the biblical Shechemis, is now Nablus, Israel. It is the site of Joseph's Tomb and Jacob's well. Jesus spoke here to a Samaritan woman. The city was refounded as Flavia Neopolis after the suppression of the Jewish Revolt. Nablus is home to about half the remaining worldwide Samaritan population of 600.JD72682. Bronze AE 20, Sofaer pl. 53,122; Rosenberger 59; BMC Samaria p. 62, 111; Lindgren III 1510, gVF, nice green patina with earthen highlighting, typical tight flan, weight 7.492 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 0o, Neapolis mint, obverse IOYΛIA MAICA CEB, draped bust right wearing stephane; reverse ΦΛ NEAC-ΠOΛE •CVP•, Tyche standing facing, head left, holding rudder by tiller in right, cornucopia in left; rare; $150.00 (€127.50)
Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., Claudiconium (Iconium), Lycaonia
After Alexander's empire broke up, Iconium was ruled by Seleucus I Nicator and later the kings of Pergamon. Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon, bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman Republic. Under Claudius, the name was changed to Claudioconium, and under Hadrian to ColoniaAelia Hadriana. Paul and Barnabas preached in Iconium during their 1st Missionary Journey, c. 47 - 48 A.D., and Paul and Silas probably visited it again during Paul's 2nd Missionary Journey, c. 50 A.D. After non-believers in Iconium attempted to stone him, Paul fled to Lystra and Derbe. This is also mentioned in the Second Letter to Timothy. RP86549. Bronze AE 27, vA Lykaoniens 270; SNGvA 8647; BMC Lycaonia p. 4, 3; RPC I 3544; SNG Paris 2282; SNG Cop 4; SNG Fitzwilliam 5211, VF, toned, reverse slightly off center, light marks and scratches, weight 10.068 g, maximum diameter 26.9 mm, die axis 0o, Iconium (Konya, Turkey) mint, 62 - 65 A.D.; obverse NEPWN KAICAPCEBACTOC (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head right; reverse ΠOΠΠAIA CEBACTH KΛAY∆EIKO,NIEWN (counterclockwise from lower right, ending in exergue), Poppaea (as Kore) seated left on low throne, poppy in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand; from the David Cannon Collection, ex Beast Coins, ex CNG e-auction 110 (16 Mar 2005), lot 119; scarce; $140.00 (€119.00)
Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Judaea Capta, Caesarea, Judaea
This Judaea Capta type was minted at Caesarea Maritima, Judaea. Caesarea, built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 B.C., was named to flatter Augustus Caesar. It became the capital of Iudaea Province and the residence of the Roman procurators and governors including Pontius Pilatus, praefectus and Antonius Felix. In 66 A.D., the desecration of the local synagogue led to the disastrous Jewish revolt. After the revolt was suppressed, 2500 Jewish captives were slaughtered at Caesarea in Gladiatorial games held by Titus to celebrate his victory. Today, Caesarea's ruins lie on Israel's Mediterranean coast about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of Pyrgos Stratonos ("Straton's Tower").RP86864. Bronze AE 20, RPC II 2309, Hendin 1460, Meshorer TJC 390, SNG ANS 499, F, bumps and scratches, a little rough, weight 6.731 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 0o, Caesarea Maritima mint, c. 92 - 93 A.D.; obverse IMP DOMIT AVG GERM, laureate head right; reverseVICTOR AVG (the victory of the Emperor), trophy of captured arms; scarce; $140.00 (€119.00)
Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D., Thessalonica, Macedonia, AugustusReverse
Thessalonica was founded around 315 B.C. by Cassander, King of Macedonia, on or near the site of the ancient town of Therma. He named it after his wife Thessalonike, a daughter of Philip II and a half-sister of Alexander the Great. In 168 B.C. it became the capital of the Macedonia Secunda and in 146 B.C. it was made the capital of the whole Roman province of Macedonia. Due to its port and location at the intersection of two major Roman roads, Thessalonica grew to become the most important city in Macedonia. Thessalonica was important in the spread of Christianity; the First Epistle to the Thessalonians written by Paul the Apostle is the first written book of the New Testament. RP86553. Leaded bronze AE 22, Touratsoglou 18 (V6/R17), RPC I 1578 (8 spec.), Varbanov 4235 (R4), SNG ANS 842, BMC Macedonia -, SNG Cop -, aVF, dark green patina, tight flan, reverse slightly off center, bumps, scratches, light corrosion, weight 9.099 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 180o, Thessalonika (Salonika, Greece) mint, Emission 1, c. 41 A.D.; obverse TI KΛAY KAIΣAP ΣEBAΣTOΣ ΓEPM, laureate head of Claudius left, uncertain countermark; reverse ΘEOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΣ ΘEΣΣAΛONEIKEΩN, radiatehead of Augustus right; from the David Cannon Collection, ex Beast Coins; $130.00 (€110.50)
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Apamea, Phrygia
Apamea is mentioned in the Talmud (Ber. 62a, Niddah, 30b and Yeb. 115b). Christianity was very likely established early in the city. Saint Paul probably visited the place when he went throughout Phrygia. GB87135. Bronze AE 20, RPC I 3127 (7 spec.); SNGvA 3486; Imhoof-Blumer KM p. 209, 13a; Waddington 5700, VF, dark patina, some corrosion, light earthen deposits, obverse a little off center, weight 7.090 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 0o, Phrygia, Apameia (Dinar, Turkey) mint, magistrates Dionysios Apolloniou & Meliton, 5 B.C.; obverse ΣEBAΣTOΣ, laureate head right, aphlaston to right; reverse ∆IONYΣIOΣ AΠOΛΛΩNIOY MEΛITΩN AΠAMEΩN, facing cult statue of Artemis (with arm supports), meander pattern below; $110.00 (€93.50)
Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 December 192 A.D., Philadelphia, Decapolis, Syria
In Greek mythology, Asteria (Greek: "Aστερια, "of the stars, starry one") is the Titan goddess of nocturnal oracles and falling stars. She is the daughter of the Titans Coeus (Polus) and Phoebe and the sister of Leto. Asteria is the mother of Hecate, the goddess of witchcraft and, in one account, the mother of Heracles. Asteria lived on Olympus, and like her sister Leto was beloved by Zeus. When Zeus pursued her in the form of an eagle, to escape his amorous advances, she transformed herself into a quail (ortux), flung herself into the Aegean Sea, and metamorphosed into the island Ortygia (quail island). In another version, after Asteria jumped into the sea, Poseidon pursued her. To escape him she transformed herself into the desert island of Delos. RP86849. Bronze AE 19, RPC IV online 6648.3 (same dies, 6 spec.); SNG ANS 1395 (same dies); Sofaer 34 (same dies); Rosenberger IV 35; BMC Arabia, p. 40, 17; Spijkerman 32, VF, centered on a tight flan, a little rough, porous, edge cracks, weight 7.549 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 180o, Philadelphia (Amman, Jordan) mint, as caesar, c. 175 A.D.; obverse Λ AYP KOMMO∆OC KAIC, bare headed and draped bust right; reverse ΦIΛ K CY ΘEA ACTEPIA, draped and veiled bust of Asteria, star above; ; rare; $100.00 (€85.00)
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, 175 - 164 B.C.
Antiochus IV took the name "Epiphanes," meaning "Select of God." His subjects made a pun on his name, calling him "Epimanes" or "madman." In 168 B.C., Antiochus IV ordered the Jews to worship Greek gods. The Temple in Jerusalem was seized and dedicated to Zeus. The Jews revolted and after three years of fighting, Judah Maccabee defeated the Seleukid army. Hanukkah, the Festival of Lights, commemorates the rededication of the Temple in 165 B.C. According to the Talmud, there was only enough consecrated olive oil to fuel the eternal flame in the Temple for one day. Miraculously, the oil burned for eight days, enough time to prepare and consecrate fresh oil.GY87387. Bronze AE 21, Houghton-Lorber 1453d; BMC Seleucid p. 39, 51; Rouvier, JIAN V, p. 122, 1208; Hoover Seleukid 665 (R1), F, well centered, light corrosion, weight 5.456 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 0o, Quasi-municipal, Sidon (Saida, Lebanon) mint, c. 168 - 164 B.C.; obverse diademed and radiatehead of Antiochos IV right, ∆ (control) behind; reverse galley left, BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ANTIOXOY in two lines above, ΣI∆ΩNIΩN over Phoenician script (of the Sidonians) below; rare; $100.00 (€85.00)