Lydian Kingdom, Kroisos, c. 561 - 546 B.C.
In Greek and Persian cultures the name of Croesus became a synonym for a wealthy man. Croesus' wealth remained proverbial beyond classical antiquity: in English, expressions such as "rich as Croesus" or "richer than Croesus" are used to indicate great wealth to this day. According to Herodotus, Croesus encountered the Greek sage Solon and, secure in his own wealth and happiness, asked Solon who was the happiest man in the world. He was disappointed by Solon's response that three had been happier than Croesus: Tellus, who died fighting for his country, and the brothers Kleobis and Biton who died peacefully in their sleep after their mother prayed for their perfect happiness because they had pulled her to a festival in an oxcart. Solon explained that Croesus cannot be the happiest man because the fickleness of fortune means that the happiness of a man's life cannot be judged until after his death. Sure enough, Croesus' hubristic happiness was reversed by the tragic death of his accidentally-killed son, his wife's suicide at the fall of , and his defeat at the of the Persians.SH85153. Silver , 1018; 455; 2873; p. 7, 37; II/1 407, pl. X, 7; 10; 662; 3419, aEF, and struck, etched surfaces, 10.047 g, maximum 18.5 mm, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 560 - 546 B.C.; on the left, forepart of a roaring right, , on the right, the forepart of a bull left, pellet above lion's ; two square punches, of unequal size, side by side; ex Art of Money (Portland, OR); $3000.00 (€2670.00)
, c. 600 - 550 B.C.
From die wear, we know that many of these early types from were struck in very large quantities. From the rarity of survivors, we know the vast majority of these earliest coins were melted down and recycled into later coins.SH84466. 1/24 , 122 - 123; 708 - 710, 142, -, I -, -, -, VF, dies quite worn, edge splits, 0.590 g, maximum 7.1 mm, , uncertain mint, c. 600 - 550 B.C.; of right, linear form; quadripartite square punch, pellet in center; $400.00 (€356.00)
Kingdom of , , 305 - 281 B.C.
Although the primary references do not specify the arrangement of the , most specimens of this issue have the have the royal title on the right and Lysimachos' name in the . This variant with the title in the and his name right is very and was first described in the referenced article by Nicholas A. , published in in June 1996.GS84487. Silver , , N. "An unpublished of Lysimachus" in 10.6 (June 1996), figs. 1-2; L12; 36; 25; -, gVF, lightly , minor marks, small flaw on edge, some minor edge flaking, 4.141 g, maximum 19.6 mm, 135o, , Lampsakos (Lapseki, Turkey) mint, 299 - 296 B.C.; of Herakles right, clad in scalp headdress tied at neck; ΛYΣIMAXOY, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on throne, in extended right hand, long vertical behind in left hand, left above forepart left (control ) on left, torch (control symbol) below throne; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection, ex CNG e-auction 296 (13 Feb 2013), lot 25; $380.00 (€338.20)
, , Agathokles, 317 - 289 B.C.
With an army of mercenaries, through deceit, and after banishing or murdering some 10,000 citizens, Agathocles made himself master of and later most of . Machiavelli wrote of him, "It cannot be called prowess to kill fellow-citizens, to betray friends, to be treacherous, pitiless, and irreligious" and cited him as an example of "those who by their crimes come to be princes." According to the historian Justin, very early in life Agathocles parlayed his remarkable beauty into a career as a prostitute, first for men, and later, after puberty, for women, and then made a living by robbery before becoming a soldier and marrying a rich widow.GI76945. Bronze , II p. 287, 150 Ds 14 Rs 63; p. 196, 391; 740; 767; 1465 var. (R1, 4th Democracy, different controls), aEF, dark sea-green , light marks, small spots of light corrosion, with ragged edge splits, 8.501 g, maximum 26.1 mm, 315o, mint, 305 - 295 B.C.; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, of young Herakles left, wearing , (control symbol) behind neck; walking right, right foreleg raised, club right above, arrow right (control symbol) in ; $300.00 (€267.00)
Elaios, Thracian Chersonesos, c. 350 - 281 B.C.
The city of Elaios in Thracian Chersonesos occupied a strategic position on what is now called the Gallipoli peninsula. In the ancient world, it was know for its sanctuary of the Trojan hero Protesilaos. Philostratos, of this sanctuary in the early third century A.D., speaks of a temple statue of Protesilaos standing on a base which was shaped like the prow of a boat. Of all the references listed in this coin's , is the only to list any coins of this city.
GB85370. Bronze AE 13, 898 (also same ); -, Corpus Nummorum Thracorum -, -, -, -, -, VF, , highlighting earthen deposits, some marks, some corrosion, slightly flattened by counter marking, 2.392 g, maximum 13.3 mm, 0o, Elaios mint, c. 350 - 281 B.C.; veiled female (Demeter?) right (wreathed in grain?); : forepart right in an round punch; bee upward, seen from above, EΛAIOY/ΣIΩN flanking in two upward lines first on left, ΠA below; extremely ; $250.00 (€222.50)
, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.
This indicates Severus granted a special favor to . The water may indicate that he improved the water supply, possibly construction of an aqueduct.RS79924. Silver , 130a; 97; p. 208, 280; 38; 6806, VF, nice youth portrait, excellent centering, edge cracks, 3.228 g, maximum 19.6 mm, 0o, mint, 201 - 206 A.D.; ANTONINVS AVG, laureate and draped right, from behind; INDVLGENTIA IN CARTH, Dea Caelestis riding right over water gushing from rock, thunderbolt in right hand, in left hand; $225.00 (€200.25)
Rhegion, , Italy, c. 415 - 387 B.C.
Rhegion reached great artistic and cultural heights. It was to academies, such as the Pythagorean School, and to well-known poets, historians and sculptors such Ibycus, Ippy, and Pythagoras. It was an important ally of the Roman Republic. Rhegium flourished during the Imperial Age but was devastated by several major earthquakes and tsunami. St. Paul passed through Rhegium on his final voyage to (Acts XXVIII:13).GS79976. Silver , 1936; 70; 1588; 536; 2495; p. 376, 30, VF, , nice , uneven , light corrosion, 0.722 g, maximum 10.2 mm, 90o, Rhegion mint, c. 415 - 387 B.C.; facing scalp mask; olive sprig with two olives, PH between the leaves; $180.00 (€160.20)
Akanthos, , c. 525 - 470 B.C.
Akanthos was on the Athos peninsula of Chalcidice, near modern Ierissos. The name Akanthos (derived from the bush) may refer to the thorny nature of the town's foundation. According to Thucydides, in the 7th century B.C., from Andros and arrived on the near at the same time. The frightened natives fled. When the realized the town was empty, each group sent a runner to take the town first. The Chalcidian was the fastest but the Andrian, seeing he was losing, stopped and threw his spear in the city's gate before his opponent arrived. A court case followed, which was won by the Andrians because they had "taken over" the city first.GA85066. Silver tetrobol, 7; 18; 4; II 1875, p. 33, 10; III/2 13; 84, VF, , tiny edge cracks, 2.317 g, maximum 15.3 mm, Akanthos (Ierissos, ) mint, c. 525 - 470 B.C.; forepart of right, turned so the top of the is seen, floral ornament ( ?) above, dotted line at truncation, dotted ground line; quadripartite square; ex & Mosch auction 245, of lot 1906; $180.00 (€160.20)
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
Severus was born in (Khoms, ) in the Roman province of . This was struck to commemorate the emperor's visit to his native in 207. See on .RS79618. Silver , 207 (S); 493; p. 263, 531; 6341, aEF, slightly off-center, 3.395 g, maximum 19.4 mm, mint, 207 A.D.; SEVERVS AVG, laureate right; XV P P, standing half right, wearing skin headdress, with right holding out drapery with fruits in the fold, at her feet right; ; $160.00 (€142.40)
Persian Empire, , , Ba'Alshillem II, c. 401 - 366 B.C.
, named for the "first-born" of Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Genesis 10:15, 19), is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isaiah 23:2, 4, 12; Jeremiah 25:22; 27:3; 47:4; Ezekiel 27:8; 28:21, 22; 32:30; Joel 3:4). The Sidonians long oppressed Israel (Judges 10:12) but Solomon entered into a matrimonial with them, and thus their form of idolatrous worship found a place in the land of Israel (1 Kings 11:1, 33). Jesus visited the "coasts" of Tyre and (Matthew 15:21; Mark 7:24) where many came to hear him preach (Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17). After leaving Caesarea, Paul's ship put in at , before finally sailing for (Acts 27:3, 4).GS70326. Silver 1/16 , 851 ff.; 240; 27 (Abd'astart, Straton I); p 146, 36 (same); 197 ff. (same), VF, , tiny edge cuts, banker's mark, , bumps and marks, 0.648 g, maximum 9.5 mm, 90o, (Saida, Lebanon) mint, c. 371 - 370 B.C.; war galley left, Phoenician letter beth above, banker's mark or above galley; of (to left) standing right, slaying erect to right, Phoenician letter ayin between them; $160.00 (€142.40)
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