Athens, Attica, Greece, New Style Tetradrachm, c. 86 - 84 B.C., Issued by Sulla
After 1 March 86 B.C., Sulla was the master of Athens. He recovered from the Pontic king Mithradates, who had taken it by force. This issue was struck for Sulla, either at Athens or outside Athens during the siege, to pay his legions and expenses during the war against Mithradates. The silver was collected from Greeks who supported the Romans against Mithradates and requisitioned from the sacred temple treasuries at Epidaurus, Olympia and Delphi. The ancients admired these Roman-Athenian coins and called them "flats of Lucullan." The MARKOY monogram may refer to Marcus the brother of the Roman general and politician Lucullus.SH70948. Silver tetradrachm, cf. Thompson Athens 1293; Svoronos Athens pl. 78, 11; Dewing 1653; Boehringer AMUGS V, pp. 28-31 and pl. 9, 10; Kraay-Hirmer pl. 120, 366, gVF, attractive style, well struck, nicely toned, centered on a crowded slightly irregular shape flan, weight 16.581 g, maximum diameter 29.5 mm, die axis 0o, Athens mint, c. 86 - 84 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Athena Parthenos right, triple-crested helmet decorated with a griffin right above the raised earpiece, and protomes of horses above visor; reverse owl standing right on amphora on its side right, head facing, MARKOY monogram left, TAMIOY monogram right, A on amphora, all within olive wreath; ex John Jencek; rare;
Athens, Greece, Old Style Tetradrachm, c. 449 - 413 B.C.
The old-style tetradrachm of Athens is famous for its almond shaped eye, archaic smile and charming owl reverse. Around 480 B.C. a wreath of olive leaves and a decorative scroll were added to Athena's helmet. On the reverse a crescent moon was added.
During the period 449 - 413 B.C. huge quantities of tetradrachms were minted to finance grandiose building projects such as the Parthenon and to cover the costs of the Peloponnesian War.
GS73681. Silver tetradrachm, SNG Cop 31 ff., Kroll 8, SGCV I 2526, F, centered, obverse rough, test cuts, weight 16.302 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 45o, Athens mint, c. 449 - 413 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves; reverse AΘE right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square;
Persian Empire, Arabia, Gaza, Samaria or Judaea, c. 375 - 333 B.C., Imitative of Athens
A Persian Period imitation of Athenian types from the Middle East.JD66401. Silver obol, cf. Hendin 1011, Meshorer TJC 4 ff., SNG ANS 15 ff., VF, toned, weight 0.576 g, maximum diameter 8.1 mm, die axis 270o, obverse helmeted head of Athena right; reverse AΘE, owl standing right, wings closed, head facing, within incuse square;
Attica, Athens, Summer 32 B.C.
Kroll dates this issue to the summer of 32 B.C., when Antony and Cleopatra stayed in Athens. The head of Zeus is in the Ptolemaic style and represents Egypt, while Dionysos represents Antony. GB69775. Bronze AE 20, SNG Cop 311 (same dies); Kroll 144; Svoronos Athens pl. 25, 36 ff.; BMC Attica p. 86, 604; Lindgren-Kovacs 1544, F, weight 6.291 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 0o, Athens mint, summer 32 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus; reverse head of Dionysos, wearing ivy wreath, A−Θ/E flanking; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; very rare;
Athens, Attica, c. 120 - 150 A.D.
During its 500 years of Roman rule, Athens was made a free city and remained a center of learning and philosophy, patronized by emperors such as Nero and Hadrian. Hadrian constructed a library, a gymnasium, an aqueduct which is still in use, several temples and sanctuaries, a bridge and financed the completion of the Temple of Olympian Zeus.
GB72227. Bronze AE 24, BMC Attica p. 108, 789 & pl. XIX, 2 (same dies); Svoronos Athens pl. 97, 24 (=BMC 789); Kroll 183a; SNG Cop 345; SNG München 337, VF, rough, scratches, edge chip, weight 6.046 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 270o, Athens mint, pseudo-autonomous under Rome, c. 120 - 150 A.D.; obverse helmeted bust of Athena right, wearing aegis; reverse Themistokles standing right on galley, wearing military garb, wreath in his right hand, trophy of arms in left over shoulder; owl standing right on acrostolium, snake on ram, AΘ−H divided across field; very rare;
Athens, Attica, Greece, c. 125 - 175 A.D.
After defeating Athens, King Minos of Crete demanded that, at seven-year intervals, seven Athenian boys and seven Athenian girls must be sent to Crete to be devoured by the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster that lived in the Labyrinth created by Daedalus. On the third occasion, Theseus volunteered to slay the monster and took the place of one of the youths. King Minos' daughter Ariadne, out of love for Theseus, gave him a ball of string so he could find his way out. Following Daedalus' instructions given to Ariadne; go forwards, always down and never left or right, Theseus came to the heart of the Labyrinth and upon the sleeping Minotaur. He overpowered the Minotaur and slit the beast's throat. He used the string to escape the Labyrinth and escaped with all of the young Athenians and Ariadne.GB73382. Bronze AE 11, Kroll 240; SNG Cop 378; BMC Attica p. 107, 779 - 781, aVF, weight 1.681 g, maximum diameter 11.3 mm, die axis 180o, Athens mint, c. 125 - 175 A.D.; obverse bare head of Theseus right, club over shoulder; reverse bucranium, AΘH counterclockwise starting above center; ex CNG e-auction 341, lot 166; ex Antioch Associates (30 May 1998); ex BCD collection; rare;
Persian Empire, Idumaea (Edomites in Judah), 4th Century B.C.
JD73559. Silver 1/4 Shekel, GTvA 34 - 39 (prominent dome-shaped motif); Hendin 1025; HGC 10 616 (R2), aVF, struck with worn dies as always for this type, weight 3.763 g, maximum diameter 12.5 mm, Idumaean mint, 4th century B.C.; obverse dome-like blank; reverse AQE, owl standing right, head facing, olive spray left; very rare;
Athens, Attica, Greece, c. 264 - 267 A.D.
Athens remained a center of learning and philosophy during its 500 years of Roman rule, patronized by emperors such as Nero and Hadrian. In 267, the city was sacked by the Heruli. All the public buildings were burned, the lower city was plundered and the Agora and Acropolis were damaged. After, the city to the north of the Acropolis was hastily refortified on a smaller scale, with the Agora left outside the walls.GB69774. Bronze AE 20, Svoronos Athens pl. 90, 8; cf. Kroll 378; SNG Cop 368; BMC Attica p. 99, 712, Lindgren-Kovacs 1561 (cf. refs bust and ethnic variations), F, weight 4.770 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 0o, Athens mint, time of Gallienus, c. 264 - 267 A.D.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet, and aegis(?); reverse olive tree, between amphora on left, and owl on right, AΘH in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; rare;
Athens, Attica, Greece, c. 87 - 86 B.C., Mithradatic War Issue
In 87 B.C., Mithridates moved his forces into Greece and established Aristion as a tyrant in Athens. Sulla landed in Epirus and marched through Boeotia into Attica. Most cities declared their allegiance to Rome, foremost among them Thebes. Athens, however, remained loyal to Mithridates. After a long and brutal siege, Sulla's rough battle hardened legions, veterans of the Social War, took Athens on the Kalends of March 86 B.C. They looted and burned temples and structures built in the city by various Hellenistic kings to honor themselves and gain prestige. Months later, only after they ran out of water, Aristion surrendered the Akropolis. Athens was looted and punished severely. Roman vengeance ensured Greece would remain docile during later civil wars and Mithridatic wars.GB69776. Bronze chalkous, SNG Cop 307, BMC Attica p. 81, 554; Kroll 97; Svoronos Athens pl. 84, 45 - 48, F, flan crack, weight 7.255 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 0o, Athens mint, Mithradates VI of Pontos & Aristion, 87 - 86 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; reverse Zeus advancing right, nude, hurling thunderbolt with right, left extended, A/Q-E flanking below arms, star between two crescents (one above and one below) in lower right field; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; scarce;
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