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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Personifications ▸ PeaceView Options:  |  |  |   

Peace (Pax the Goddess of Peace)

Ancient rulers often used coins to send their messages to the people. In the late Roman Empire, particularly when threats were most ominous, coins frequently boasted of the peace and security brought by Rome, the army and the emperor. From our vantage we can see these coins as propaganda and lies, and as failed promises and doomed dreams.


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

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This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
SH87932. Gold aureus, RIC II-1 28, BnF I 17, BMCRE II 23, Hunter I 13, Calico I 607, Cohen I -, SRCV I -, Choice aVF, well centered, traces of luster in recesses, weight 6.944 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. Jan - Jun 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS ITER TR POT, Pax seated left, extending olive branch in right hand, winged caduceus in left hand; $2800.00 (2380.00)


Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-21

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Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible
SH87939. Silver denarius, Giard Lyon, group 1, 144; RIC I 26 (C); BMCRE I 34; SRCV I 1762; RSC II 16; SRCV I 1763, VF, centered on a compact flan, nice portrait, light rose toning, small punch under chin, light bumps and marks, weight 3.612 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 330o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, early 'plain' fine style, c. 15 - 18 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with plain legs set on base, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, no footstool; $720.00 (612.00)


Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D.

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In 36 A.D., Herod Antipas suffered major losses in a war with Aretas IV of Nabataea, provoked partly by Antipas' divorce of Aretas' daughter. According to Josephus, Herod's defeat was popularly believed to be divine punishment for his execution of John the Baptist. Tiberius ordered Vitellius, the governor of Syria, to capture or kill Aretas, but Vitellius was reluctant to support Herod and abandoned his campaign upon Tiberius' death in 37.
SL87773. Silver denarius, Giard Lyon, group 6, 154; RIC I 30 (C); BMCRE I 60; RSC II 16a; SRCV I 1763, NGC Ch XF, strike 4/5, surface 3/5 (2490382-004), weight 3.443 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 270o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 36 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right, laurel wreath ties fall stiffly, Tiberius features are older and have become caricatures; reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with decorated legs, a single line below, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, feet on footstool; photos taken before certification, now in an NGC holder; $700.00 (595.00)


Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-21

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Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
SH82708. Silver denarius, Giard Lyon, group 4, 150; RIC I 30 (C); BMCRE I 48; RSC II 16a; SRCV I 1763, VF, bold high relief portrait, toned, a little off center, die wear, scratches, weight 3.679 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 270o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 18 - 35 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with decorated legs, a single line below, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, feet on footstool; $390.00 (331.50)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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The quantity of PAX coinage issued by Carausius probably exceeded the entire output of all his other types combined. The type was an appeal by the usurper Carausius for peace with the "official" emperors. Diocletian and Maximian did not recognize Carausius as emperor, nor did they reciprocate his desire for peace.
RA73492. Billon RIC V-2 141 (R), Webb Carausius 164, Bourne Carausius 16, Burton Latimer 22, Hunter IV 51 var. (transverse scepter), SRCV IV -, VF/F, dark green patina, nice portrait, bumps, scratches, weight 4.571 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, die axis 180o, Londinium (London, England) mint, c. early 293 - mid 293; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right, late reign tetrarchic portrait; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter in left hand, S - P across fields, MLXXI in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; rare; $160.00 (136.00)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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Colchester (Camulodunum) and its wall were rebuilt by the Romans after Queen Boudica led a rebellion in A.D. 60 and destroyed the town. Balkerne Gate in Colchester is the largest Roman arch in Britain. Balkerne Gate Colchester

RA73495. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 391; RIC V-2 335 (S); Cohen VII 240; SRCV IV 13666; Hunter IV 143 var. (...P F IN AVG), VF, green patina, well centered, areas of corrosion, weight 3.604 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 180o, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, c. 292 - mid 293 A.D.; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, tetrarchic portrait type; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing half left, head left, raising olive-branch in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, S - P flanking across field, C in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; very scarce; $125.00 (106.25)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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The quantity of PAX coinage issued by Carausius probably exceeded the entire output of all his other types combined. The type was an appeal by the usurper Carausius for peace with the "official" emperors. Diocletian and Maximian did not recognize Carausius as emperor, nor did they reciprocate his desire for peace.
RA73500. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 167; RIC V-2 141 (R); SRCV IV 13665; Cohen VII 241; Hunter IV 50 var. (scepter transverse), VF, attractive green patina with earthen highlighting, light marks, weight 2.846 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 45o, Londinium (London, England) mint, c. 292 - early 293; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, tetrarchic portrait type; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing half left, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, S - P flanking across field, MLXXI in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; rare; $125.00 (106.25)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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Colchester (Camulodunum) and its wall were rebuilt by the Romans after Queen Boudica led a rebellion in A.D. 60 and destroyed the town. Balkerne Gate in Colchester is the largest Roman arch in Britain. Balkerne Gate Colchester

RA73507. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 336 (S), Webb Carausius 389, Bourne Carausius 79, Linchmere 402B, Burton Latimer 46 var. (...P F AVG), SRCV IV 13666 var. (same), F, well centered, green portrait, reverse a weak, scratches, earthen deposits, weight 3.544 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 180o, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, c. mid 292 - mid 293; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right, late reign tetrarchic portrait; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, S - P across field, C in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; scarce; $125.00 (106.25)


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

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On 1 March 293, Diocletian and Maximian appointed Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy, known as the Quattuor Principes Mundi ("Four Rulers of the World"). The four Tetrarchs established their capitals close to the Roman frontiers:
- Nicomedia (northwestern Asia Minor) became capital for Diocletian
- Mediolanum (Milan, near the Alps) became the capital for Maximian
- Augusta Treverorum (Trier, in Germany) became the capital for Constantius Chlorus
- Sirmium (Serbia, on the Danube border) became the capital for Galerius
RA85657. Billon antoninianus, Bastien Lyon XI 503 (15), SRCV IV 13154, RIC V-2 404 var. (officina), Cohen VI 427, Hunter IV - (p. clxxxvi), Choice gVF, well centered and struck, some silvering, some legend letters unstruck (filled die?), weight 4.063 g, maximum diameter 22.7 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, emission 10, 2nd series, 1 Mar 293 - 20 Nov 293; obverse IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVGG (the peace of the two emperors), Minerva standing left, raising olive branch pointed upward in right hand, grounded spear and oval shield in left hand, A in exergue; scarce military bust; $125.00 (106.25)


Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.

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Tranquillitas was the goddess of tranquility, security, calmness, and peace. The capricorn had a goat-like forequarter and a hindquarter terminating in a fish tail. The capricorn alludes to the maritime transportation of Egypts grain harvest across the Mediterranean to Rome, which was critical to maintaining tranquility within the empire.
RB87545. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 156 (S), Cohen V 224, Banti 58, Hunter III 103, SRCV III 9019, VF, centered on a crowded squared flan, light bumps and marks, porosity, edge cracks, weight 15.120 g, maximum diameter 28.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 248 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse TRANQVILLITAS AVGG (to tranquility of [caused by] the two emperors), Tranquillitas standing facing, head left, capricorn in extended right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; scarce; $120.00 (102.00)




  



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Peace