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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Personifications| ▸ |Peace||View Options:  |  |  | 

Peace (Pax the Goddess of Peace)

Ancient rulers often used coins to send their messages to the people. In the late Roman Empire, particularly when threats were most ominous, coins frequently boasted of the peace and security brought by Rome, the army and the emperor. From our vantage we can see these coins as propaganda and lies, and as failed promises and doomed dreams.

Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

|Nero|, |Nero,| |13| |October| |54| |-| |9| |June| |68| |A.D.||sestertius|
The reverse legend translates, "The gates of Janus' temple are closed because peace of the Roman people is set on both land and sea." On the rare occasions when Rome was not at war the doors of the 'Twin Janus' were ceremonially closed, an event Nero commemorated extensively on the coinage of 65 - 67 A.D. -- Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. 1 by David R. Sear
SL96449. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 583, Mac Dowall WCN 475, BMCRE I -, Cohen I -, Hunter I -, SRCV I -, NGC AU, strike 5/5, surface 2/5, scuff (5745271-004), weight 30.31 g, maximum diameter 35.0 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 66 - 67 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head right, globe at the point of the bust; reverse PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, view of the Temple of Janus from the front left corner, temple front on the right with garland over closed doors within arch, the left side of the temple to the left with long latticed window, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; ex Heritage NYINC Sale 3081 (12 Jan 2020), lot 30178; ex Roma e-auction 4 (29 Nov 2018), lot 733; ex Private European Collection; NGC| Lookup; $2340.00 (2152.80)


Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.

|Hadrian|, |Hadrian,| |11| |August| |117| |-| |10| |July| |138| |A.D.||denarius|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RS94568. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 124, RSC II 1015a, BMCRE III 78, Strack II 38, Hunter II 28, SRCV II 3511, gF, light marks, die wear, edge crack, obverse slightly off center on an oval flan, weight 3.133 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 240o, Rome mint, 118 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse P M TR P COS II, Pax standing slightly left, head left, olive branch downward in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, PAX in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $120.00 (110.40)


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

|Maximian|, |Maximian,| |286| |-| |305,| |306| |-| |308,| |and| |310| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA92322. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 399, bust type H (S); Bastien VII 387, pl. XXVIII (46 spec.); Cohen VI 442; Compas Collection 235, Choice aEF, much silvering, well centered, light marks, edge cracks, weight 3.606 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 7th emission, spring 290 - 291 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, radiate consular bust left, wearing imperial mantle, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand; reverse PAX AVGG (the peace of the two emperors), Pax standing left, Victory on globe in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, B in exergue; scarce; $110.00 (101.20)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Colchester (Camulodunum) and its wall were rebuilt by the Romans after Queen Boudica led a rebellion in A.D. 60 and destroyed the town. Balkerne Gate in Colchester is the largest Roman arch in Britain. Balkerne Gate Colchester
RA73495. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 391; RIC V-2 335 (S); Cohen VII 240; SRCV IV 13666; Hunter IV 143 var. (...P F IN AVG), VF, green patina, well centered, areas of corrosion, weight 3.604 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 180o, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, c. mid 292 - early summer 293 A.D.; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, tetrarchic portrait type; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing half left, head left, raising olive-branch in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, S - P flanking across field, C in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; very scarce; $90.00 (82.80)


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Colchester (Camulodunum) and its wall were rebuilt by the Romans after Queen Boudica led a rebellion in A.D. 60 and destroyed the town. Balkerne Gate in Colchester is the largest Roman arch in Britain. Balkerne Gate Colchester
RA73507. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 336 (S), Webb Carausius 389, Bourne Carausius 79, Linchmere 402B, Burton Latimer 46 var. (...P F AVG), SRCV IV 13666 var. (same), F, well centered, green portrait, reverse a weak, scratches, earthen deposits, weight 3.544 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 180o, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, c. mid 292 - early summer 293; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right, late reign tetrarchic portrait; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, S - P across field, C in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; scarce; $90.00 (82.80)


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

|Maximian|, |Maximian,| |286| |-| |305,| |306| |-| |308,| |and| |310| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA93173. Billon antoninianus, Bastien 380, Hunter IV 31, RIC V-2 399, Cohen VI 438, SRCV IV 13155, Choice VF, well centered, silvering, flow lines, porosity, tiny edge crack, weight 4.228 g, maximum diameter 23.5 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 290 - 294 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse PAX AVGG (the peace of the two emperors), Pax standing slightly left, head left, Victory on globe in right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand, B in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $85.00 (78.20)


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

|Maximian|, |Maximian,| |286| |-| |305,| |306| |-| |308,| |and| |310| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA84973. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 399; Bastien VII 387, pl. XXVIII (46 spec.); Cohen VI 442; Compas Collection 235, EF/VF, choice obverse with much silvering, reverse slightly off center with light corrosion, weight 3.476 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 7th emission, 290 - 291 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, radiate consular bust left, wearing imperial mantle, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand; reverse PAX AVGG (the peace of the two emperors), Pax standing left, Victory on globe in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, B in exergue; scarce; $70.00 (64.40)


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

|Maximian|, |Maximian,| |286| |-| |305,| |306| |-| |308,| |and| |310| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA87258. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 Lugdunum 408 (S), Bastien Lyon XI 613 pl. XLIII (5 ex.), Cohen VI 436 var. (helmeted), Hunter IV - (p. clxxxvii), SRCV IV -, gVF, well centered and struck, traces if silvering, porous, weight 3.497 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, emission 12, series 2, 294 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVGG (the peace of the two emperors), Pax standing left, olive branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, A in exergue; scarce; $70.00 (64.40)







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