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Edward VI's reign was marked by economic problems, military withdrawal from Scotland and Boulogne-sur-Mer, and social unrest that in 1549 erupted into riot and rebellion. It also saw the transformation of the Anglican Church into a recognizably Protestant body. UK86153. Silver shilling, SCBC 2466B, North 1917/2 (S), VF, toned, marks and scratches, underweight, weight 30.2 g, maximum diameter 3.737 mm, die axis 0o, Y mintmark, Southwark mint, second issue, 1549; obverse EDWARD VI D G ANGL FRA Z HIB REX (Edward VI by the Grace of God King of England, France and Ireland), crowned bust right, tall narrow bust with small crown; reverseTIMOR DOMINI FONS VITE M D XLIX (Fear of the Lord is the fountain of life, 1549), shield with heavy curved garniture, E - R (Edwardus Rex) at sides; scarce; $495.00 (€420.75)
Anglo-Gallic, Henry VI de Lancastre, King of France and England, 1422 - 1453
On 12 December 1422, each mint was assigned a mint-mark to be placed at the beginning of the obverse and reverse legends. The omission of the pellet beside the root mint-mark was ordered 17 July 1432.
In 1422, the year old king of England inherited the French throne through his mad grandfather Charles VI of France; the iconography of this type represents the unification of the two nations. Ten years later Joan of Arc would make an appearance which would eventually loosen the English grip on France until by 1436 only Normandy and part of Maine remained in Henry's control. UK86158. Silver grand blanc aux écus, Elias 285 (R), Ciani 602, Duplessy 445, Lafaurie 449, SCBC-SSI 8166; root with pellet left mintmark, F, toned, reverse double struck, weight 2.876 g, maximum diameter 28.5 mm, die axis 90o, Lemans mint, 12 Dec 1422 - 17 Jul 1432; obverse (pellet and root) FRANCORVm: ET: ANGLIE: REX (King of France and England), shields of France (on left) and England (on right), side by side, hERICVS above; reverse (pellet root) SIT: nOmEN: DnI: BENEDICV (Blessed be the name of the Lord), Latin cross, fleur-de-lis to left, leopard left on right, hERICVS below; rare; $395.00 (€335.75)
England, Edward I Longshanks, 1272 - 1307
Elias notes, "In my experience for every 30 or 40 deniers with the EDWARD' FILI' legend only one with the EDWARDVS REX occurs."
Known as Edward Longshanks for his height of 6 ft. 2 in., and sometimes as the "Hammer of the Scots." Edward was ruthless in pursuing his aims and crushing those who opposed him. He conquered large parts of Wales and almost succeeding in doing the same to Scotland. UK86321. Silver denier au lion, Elias 15 (RR), SCBC-SSI 8016, Duplessy 1039, Poey d'Avant 2790, aVF, toned, scratches, earthen deposits, small edge crack, weight 0.736 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 180o, Aquitaine mint, 1272 - 1307; obverse + EDWARDVS REX (King Edward, S on its side), lionpassant left within inner circle; reverse + DVX AqVITANIE (Duke of Aquitaine), cross pattée within inner circle; very rare; $395.00 (€335.75)
Anglo-Gallic, Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Aquitaine, 1362 - 1372
Edward of Woodstock (15 June 1330 - 8 June 1376), called the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, and the father of King Richard II of England. He was the first Duke of Cornwall (from 1337), the Prince of Wales (from 1343) and the Prince of Aquitaine (1362-72). He was an exceptional military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular in England during his lifetime. Edward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become King of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II, a minor, upon the death of Edward III. UK86152. Silver demi-gros, Elias 178d, SCBC-SSI 8131, Duplessy Féodales 1124A, Boudeau 510, VF, clashed dies, slightly grainy porous areas, weight 2.314 g, maximum diameter 24.7 mm, die axis 0o, Limoges mint, second issue; obverse + : ED PO GnS REGIS A P L (Edwardus Primo Genetis Regis Anglie Princeps, Limoges, double rosette stops), half-length figure of Edward right, wearing floral wreath. sword in right hand over right shoulder, raising left hand in benediction; reverse outer legend: : GLIA In XCELCIS DEO ET IN TRA PAX (Glory to God in the highest and on earth peace, pellet stops), inner legend: PRI-CPS - AQV-TAE (Prince of Aquitaine, no stops); long cross pattée dividing legends, trefoil of three pellets in each quarter; $295.00 (€250.75)
England, Charles I, 1625 - 1649
Charles I attempted to reign as an absolute monarch and rule without Parliament. Civil war broke out, the forces of the King lost, and Charles was beheaded. Parliament took control of the Tower mint in 1642. UK86154. Silver crown, SCBC 2761, North 2198 (R); sun mint mark, F, toned, surface cracking, small edge cracks, weight 29.861 g, maximum diameter 44.0 mm, die axis 270o, Tower mint, under Parliment, 1645 - 1646; obverse (sun) CAROLVS • D • G • MAG • BRI • FRA • ET • HIB • REX (Charles, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland), king on horseback left, holding upright sword in right hand, "foreshortened" horse with tail between its legs and mane visible before chest, no ground; reverse (sun) CRISTO • AVSPICE • REGNO • (I reign under the auspices of Christ), oval garnished shield with royal coat-of-arms (lion, fleur de lis, harp) within ornate oval frame; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; rare; $295.00 (€250.75)
Anglo-Gallic, Edward III, 1372 - 1377
This type and similar billonAnglo-Gallic coins looked silver when issued, but after some use turned black, hence their nickname, "black money." They were usually hastily and poorly struck, heavily circulated and worn, and seldom hoarded. Surviving examples are now rare and mostly low grade.WO86745. Billon denier au leopard, Elias 95 (RR), Duplessy Féodales 1095A, SCBC-SSI 8090, Poey d'Avant 2793 (Edward I), Boudeau -, aVF, well centered on a tight flan, uneven strike with parts of legend weak, areas of light corrosion, weight 0.683 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, 2nd type; obverse + EDVARDVS : REX (King Edward), leopard passant left above AnGL' between lines, rosette below, all within inner circle, double pellet stops; reverse + DVX : AQITAnIE (Duke of Aquitaine), cross pattée, within inner circle, double pellet stops; very rare; $250.00 (€212.50)
Anglo-Gallic, Richard I the Lionhearted, Count of Poitou and King of England 1189 - 1199
The only coins of Richard struck in his own name are those of his French possessions; English issues attributed to Richard are all in the name and types of his father, Henry II.
Richard I is known as Richard Coeur de Lion or Richard the Lionhearted for his bravery in battle. He was born and spent his childhood in England. By the age of 16, Richard had command of his own army and put down rebellions against his father in Poitou. As king, he was off on Crusade, in captivity, or defending his lands in France, spending as little as 6 months of his 10-year reign in England. He spoke French and Occitan, but never learned English. Rather than regarding his kingdom as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, it seems he saw it primarily as a source of revenue to support his armies. As the leader of the Third Crusade after the departure of Philip II of France, he won considerable victories against Saladin, but did not retake Jerusalem. He was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and is one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number, and is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France. Robin Hood lived in Sherwood Forest during Richard's reign. UK86156. Silver denier, Elias 8L (S); Duplessy Feodales 924; Poey d'Avant pl. LIV, 21; SCBC-SSI 8008, aVF, weight 0.961 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, Melle (Deux-Sèvres) mint, 1189 - 1199; obverse + RICARDVS REX (King Richard), cross pattée within inner dot border; reverse PIC/TAVIE/NSIS ([County of] Poitou) in three lines across field, wedge pointing right below; scarce variety; $225.00 (€191.25)
Anglo-Gallic, Henry VI de Lancastre, King of France and England, 1422 - 1453
In 1422, the year old king of England inherited the French throne through his mad grandfather Charles VI of France; the iconography of this type represents the unification of the two nations. Ten years later Joan of Arc would make an appearance which would eventually loosen the English grip on France until by 1436 only Normandy and part of Maine remained in Henry's control. UK86155. Silver grand blanc aux écus, Elias 287, SCBC-SSI 8166, Ciani 602, Duplessy 445, Lafaurie 449; leopard mint mark, VF, toned, tight flan, parts of legend weak, weight 3.171 g, maximum diameter 27.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rouen mint, 23 Nov 1422 - 1449; obverse (leopard) FRANCORVm: ET: ANGLIE: REX (King of France and England), shields of France (on left) and England (on right), side by side, hERICVS above; reverse (leopard) SIT: nOmEN: DnI: BENEDICV (Blessed be the name of the Lord), Latin cross, fleur-de-lis to left, leopard left on right, hERICVS below; $200.00 (€170.00)
United Kingdom, Victoria, 20 June 1837 - 22 January 1901
Queen Victoria inherited the throne at 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The UK was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon and was identified with strict standards of personal morality. Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. UK85859. Silver shilling, SCBC 3926, Uncirculated, toned, weight 5.637 g, maximum diameter 23.4 mm, die axis 0o, Tower mint, 1887; obverseVICTORIA DEI GRATIA BRITT REGINA F: D: (Victoria, by the grace of God, Queen of the British Territories, Defender of the Faith), small head, Jubilee bust left, crowned, veiled and draped; reverse crowned shield with arms in garter inscribed HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE (shamed be he who thinks evil of it), 18-87 below; ex Moneta Numismatic Services; $100.00 (€85.00)
Coins of Scotland Ireland and the Islands - Pre-decimal Issues 2003
Second edition of the standard catalogue of British pre-decimal issue coins for Scotland, Ireland and the Islands (Jersey, Guernsey, Man and Lundy)BK12925. Coins of Scotland Ireland and the Islands - Pre-decimal Issues, Spink, 2003, 219 pages, color illustrated, hardcover, new; $13.00 (€11.05)
Borden D. & I. Brown. "The Milled Coinage of Elizabeth I" in BNJ vol 53. (1983). pp. 108 - 132.
Brown, I., C. Comber, & W. Wilkinson. The Hammered Silver Coins Produced at the Tower Mint During the Reign of Elizabeth I. (Llanfyllin, 2012).
Bull, M. English Silver Coinage Since 1649. (London, 2015).
Davies, P. British Silver Coins Since 1816. (1982).
Elias, E. The Anglo-Gallic Coins. (Paris/London, 1984).
Everson, T. The Galata Guide to the Farthing Tokens of James I and Charles I: A History and Reclassification. (Llanfyllin, 2008).
Freeman, M. Bronze Coinage of Great Britain. (London, 1985).
Krause C. & Mishler, C. Standard Catalog of World Coins. (Iola, WI, 2010 - )
Lawrence, L. "The Coinage of Edward III from 1351" in NC 1926, 1929, 1932, 1933.
Marsh, M. The Gold Half Sovereign. (Cambridge, 2004).
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Mass, J. Mass Collection, English Short Cross Coins, 1180-1247. SCBI 56. (Oxford, 2001).
Montagu, H. The copper, tin and bronze coinage and patterns for coins of England, from the reign of Elizabeth to that of Her present Majesty. (London, 1893).
Nelson, P. The Coinage of William Wood, 1722-1733. (Brighton, 1903).
North, J. English Hammered Coinage Vol 1: Early Anglo-Saxon to Henry 111 c. A.D. 600-1272. (London, 1994).
North, J. English Hammered Coinage Vol 2: Edward 1 to Charles 11 1272-1662. (London, 1991).
North, J. & P. Preston-Morley. Brooker Collection, Coins of Charles I. SCBI 33. (London, 1984).
Peck, C. English Copper, Tin and Bronze Coins in the British Museum, 1558-1958. (London, 1964).
Spink. Coins of England & the United Kingdom, Standard Catalogue of British Coins. (London, 2012).
Spink. Coins of Scotland, Ireland and the Islands (Jersey, Guernsey, Man and Lundy) Pre-Decimal Issues, Standard Catalogue of British Coins. (Cambridge, 2003).
Wilson, A. & M. Rasmussen. English Pattern Trial and Proof Coins in Gold 1547-1968. (Cambridge, 2000).
Withers, P. & B. Small Change I - V Farthings and Halfpennies. (Llanfyllin, 2003 - 2005).
Withers, P. & B., & S. Ford. Anglo-Gallic Coins - Monnaies Anglo-Francaises. (Llanfyllin, 2015).
Woodhead, P. & D. Liddell. The Herbert Schneider Collection, Volume One, English Gold Coins and their Imitations, Henry III to Elizabeth I, 1257-1603. (London, 1996).
Woodhead, P. The Herbert Schneider Collection, Volume Two, English Gold Coins, 1603-20th Century. (London, 2002).
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