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Before the Roman invasion, Britain was populated by Celtic tribes with well-established cultural and economic links with continental Europe. Although Julius Caesar conducted the first Roman campaign in Britain in 55 B.C., the conquest did not begin until A.D. 43, during the reign of Claudius. The British tribes initially opposed the Roman legions, but by 84 the Romans had decisively conquered southern Britain and had pushed into what is now southern Scotland. In 122 they fortified the northern border with Hadrian's Wall, which spanned what is now Northern England. In 142 Roman forces pushed north again and began construction of the Antonine Wall, but they retreated back to Hadrian's Wall after only twenty years. Following the conquest, native Britons were subject to the Roman governors but mostly kept their land, and a distinctive Romano-British culture emerged. The Roman Empire retained control until its departure about A.D. 430.
Celtic, Ring Money, c. 800 - 100 B.C.
NEW Ring money of bronze, of silver, and of gold was used by the Celts in trade from Ireland to the Danube region. The dating of Celtic ring money is uncertain. Some authorities date the use of ring money from as early as 800 B.C. and it may have been used as late as 100 B.C. Some believe the bronze rings are actually just strap fittings, not a trade currency. Bronze rings are, however, sometimes found in quite large hoards and, in Spain, they are sometimes found with silver bar and disk ingots, and with 2nd century B.C. denarii of the Roman Republic. Undoubtedly they were used as fittings but they were also undoubtedly used as a store of wealth and for trade.CE96777. Bronze Ring Money, plain ring, cf. Victoor I - 1b, Alvarez-Burgos P15, VF, green patina, weight 4.670 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, found at Sutton-on-the-Forest, North of York, UK; $30.00 (€27.60)
Belgic Celts in Britain, Atrebates, Verica, c. 10 - 43 A.D.
At the time of Caesar's invasion of Britain, the Atrebates, "the settlers," covered Sussex, Berkshire, west Surrey, parts of Hampshire, north-east Wiltshire.SL86748. Gold quarter stater, Little Horse Rearing type; Bean VERC1-2, Cottam ABC 1199, Van Arsdell 466-1, Hobbs 1179, SCBC 124, NGC EF, strike 5/5, surface 3/5 (2400434-001), weight 1.19 g, maximum diameter 9.2 mm, die axis 225o, Calleva mint, c. 10 - 40 A.D.; obverse COM F in linear rectangle tablet, pellet in annulet above and below; reverse horse prancing right, VI above, exergual line below; ex Stephen Album auction 21 (15 Jan 2015), lot 1 (realized $900 plus fees); NGC| Lookup; SOLD
Celts, Atrebates and Regni, British Tribes, South of the Thames, c. 60 - 20 B.C.
At the time of Caesar's invasion of Britain, the Atrebates, "the settlers," covered Sussex, Berkshire, west Surrey, parts of Hampshire, north-east Wiltshire. The Regni, originally Regini, "the stiff ones," occupied Sussex in Roman times.SH01358. Gold quarter stater, uninscribed 'Bognor Cogwheel' type; Cottam ABC 509, SCBC 48, gVF, scyphate, weight 1.39 g, maximum diameter 13.0 mm, die axis 180o, obverse extremely stylized head of Zeus or Apollo; reverse horse right with triple tail, floral sun above, cog wheel below, wheel right; a beautiful example of Celtic art; SOLD
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Allen, D. The Coins of the Ancient Celts. (Edinburgh, 1980). Coins of England & the United Kingdom, Standard Catalogue of British Coins. (London, -).
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de Jersey, P. Celtic Coinage in Britain. (London, 1996).
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Hobbs, R. British Iron Age Coins in the British Museum. (London, 1996).
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Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 1: Europe. (London, 1978).
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