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Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of Apulia or Counts of Sicily & Calabria, c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs less then 1/3 the weight of the even the lightest official Class B Byzantineanonymous follisForum has handled. Attribution to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other Byzantine imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and Sicily.ME73353. Bronze follaro, apparently unpublished, imitative of Class B Byzantineanonymous follis (SBCV 1823, Constantinople, 1028 - 1041); MEC Italy III -, MIR -, et al. -, F, weight 2.163 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Italian mint, c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.; obverse facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium, and colobium, holding book of Gospels; reverse IS - XS / bAS-ILE / bAS-ILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings, mostly off flan), Cross on three steps, dividing legend; from a California collector; $170.00 (€144.50)
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of Apulia or Counts of Sicily & Calabria, c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs about 1/3 the normal weight of an official Class J Byzantineanonymous follis. Attribution to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other Byzantine imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and Sicily.ME68381. Bronze follis, apparently unpublished, imitative of Byzantine class J follis (SBCV 1900, Constantinople, 1081 - 1118); MEC Italy III -, Biaggi -, Wroth Western -, aF, on a very small thin flan compared to Byzantine proto-types, weight 2.200 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain S. Italy mint, c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.; obversebust of Christ facing, cross behind, wears pallium and colbium, raising right in benediction, Gospels in left, crescents above, IC - XC flanking; reverseCross with globule and two pellets at each extremity, large crescent below, four globules around each surrounded by pellets; from an American collection; very rare; $110.00 (€93.50)
Thracian or Germanic Tribes, Pseudo-Imperial Coinage, Mid 4th - Early 5th Century A.D.
This type was minted by and used as currency by tribes outside the Roman Empire in Thrace. It copied a Roman votive type issued under Constantine the Great. The inscriptions are made up of illiterate imitations of letters.CE76987. Bronze AE 18, Imitative of Crispus types, for prototypes see RIC VII p. 379 ff. (official Roman, Ticinum mint, c. 320 - 325 A.D.), Choice VF, nice green patina, weight 2.047 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, tribal mint, mid 4th - early 5th century A.D.; obverse laureate bust left, illiterate blundered imitation of a legend; reverse blundered VOT X within wreath, illiterate blundered limitation of a legend around, ST in exergue; $100.00 (€85.00)
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Barbaric Imitative
Tribal peoples outside the Empire struck coinage imitative of Roman types beginning in the second century B.C. and continued to strike imitative types even after the Western Empire ceased to exist. Several official issues used this reversetype, but the style is exotic and crude. These legends were never used on any official issues.RS90386. Silver denarius, for possible prototype: cf. RIC IV 516, RSC III 719, BMCRE V 678 (Roman official, Laodicea ad Mare mint, 198 - 202 A.D.), gVF, fantastic unofficial style, frosty surfaces, weight 2.520 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 180o, tribal mint, c. 198 - 210 A.D.; obverse S VERVS - AVGVSTVS P, laureate head right; reverse TR - PO CO VIII VICTO AVG, Victory ascending left, open wreath in both hands, round shield on a low base at feet on left; $95.00 (€80.75)
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Iberian(?) Barbaric Imitative
RB70583. Copper as, cf. SRCV I 1685, RIC I 431, BMCRE 226, Cohen I 515, BnF I 687 (official, Rome mint, 7 B.C.), F, interesting crude style, nice green patina, edge cracks, scratches, pits on reverses, weight 10.390 g, maximum diameter 25.7 mm, die axis 225o, Iberian(?) unofficial mint, obversebare head right; reverse large S C; $90.00 (€76.50)
Geto-Dacian, Roman Republic Imitative, 106 B.C. - 1st Century A.D.
CE76909. Silver denarius, cf. Davis A/II M14 (possibly same prototype but not very similar), cf. possible prototype: Crawford 313/1 (Rome mint, L. Memmius Galeria, 106 B.C.), F, scratches, uneven strike with some areas unstruck, weight 3.596 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 45o, obversestylizedhead of Saturn(?) right; reversebiga right, MEΛΛIVS (or similar) in exergue; $90.00 (€76.50)
Crusaders(?), Imitative of Zangids of Syria, c. 1146 - 1200 A.D.,
This coin is a crude imitative of an Islamic fals of the Zangids of Syria, Nur al-Din Mahmud, struck at Halab (Aleppo, Syria), 1146 - 1173 (Spengler-Sayles 73, Album 1850). That type was itself also imitative, copying a Byzantinefollis of Constantine X, struck at Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), 1059 - 1067 (DOC III 8, SBCV 1853). The quality of the Zangids fals vary greatly and it can be difficult to distinguish between Halab mint issues and imitatives. This example is very crude and if any can be attributed to the crusaders, this is one.BZ77974. Bronze follis, Malloy Crusaders -; cf. Spengler-Sayles 73 (notes "barbaric" imitations), Album 1850 (notes imitations are perhaps struck by the Crusaders), F, desert patina, tight flan, weight 2.798 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain mint, c. 1150 - 1200 A.D.; obverse two Byzantinestyle imperial figures (Constantine X and Eudocia) standing facing, supporting between them labarum resting on three steps, EX downward on left, imitation of Kuficlegend inner left; reverse Christ standing facing, nimbate, book of Gospels in left hand, right hand on hip, IC - XC flanking head, blundered imitation of legend around; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $90.00 (€76.50)
Thracians, Odrysian Kingdom, Early 5th - Middle 4th Century B.C.
This type has traditionally been attributed to Parion, Mysia or as a Celtic imitative of the Parion type. Based on find locations in the area of Plovdiv, Haskova, Stara Zagora and Yambol in Bulgaria, Topalov has reattributed this imitative type to the Thracian Odrysian Kingdom. He notes they may have been struck by a tribal mint or by one of the Greek cities within Odrysian territory to pay their annual tax to the tribe.GA47648. Silver hemidrachm, Topalov Thrace p. 230, 55, F, weight 3.260 g, maximum diameter 13.6 mm, Thracian, Greek city or tribal mint, early 5th - middle 4th century B.C.; obverse facing head of Medusa (gorgoneion); reverseincuse square containing angles in each corner forming a cruciform pattern, with pellet in center; ex Alex G. Malloy; $65.00 (€55.25)
Celtic imitative of a rare Macedonian issue struck under Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C. The choice was appropriate for the SerdiCelts as the river Strymon runs through the Serdi region.CE46709. Bronze AE 18, Malloy Danubian Celtstype E5G; imitative of a Macedonian Kingdom (Philip V or Perseus) type, 187 - 168 B.C., SNG Cop 1299, gF, nice green patina, weight 3.606 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 180o, obverse reed-wreathed head of the river god Strymon right; reverse trident head, bar across near base of prongs, no inscription or symbols; rarestyle variety; $60.00 (€51.00)
Celtic imitative of a rare Macedonian issue struck under Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C. The choice was appropriate for the SerdiCelts as the river Strymon runs through the Serdi region. CE46722. Bronze AE 20, Malloy Danubian Celtstype F4A; imitative of a Macedonian Kingdom (Philip V or Perseus) type, 187 - 168 B.C., SNG Cop 1299, aVF, edge split, weight 6.953 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 30o, obverse reed-wreathed head of the river god Strymon right; reverse trident head, stylizeddolphin ornaments between the prongs, incomplete inscription of a few blundered letters; rarestyle variety; $60.00 (€51.00)
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