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Victoria or Nike, the Winged Goddess of Victory, personifies victory. She was described variously in different myths as the daughter of the Titan Pallas and the goddess Styx, and the sister of Kratos (Strength), Bia (Force), and Zelus (Zeal). Nike and her siblings were close companions of Zeus. According to classical (later) myth, Styx brought them to Zeus when the god was assembling allies for the Titan War. Nike assumed the role of the divine charioteer, a role in which she often is portrayed in Classical Greek art. Nike flew around battlefields rewarding the victors with glory and fame, symbolized by a wreath of laurel leaves. Victory or Nike is one of the most common figures on Greek and Roman coins.
Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, October 49 - 15 March 44 B.C.
Venus was the Roman goddess of love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory. Julius Caesar claimed direct descent from the goddess through her son, Aeneas, who survived the fall of Troy and fled to Italy. Caesar sacrificed to her and believed she would ensure he was victorious. The small star at the base of Venus' scepter is symbolic of her divinity. The star on the obverse was likely intended to advertise the beginning of a new age.SH84760. Silver denarius, Crawford 480/5b, Sydenham 1071, RSC I 41, BMCRR I Rome 4165, Sear Imperators 106a, SRCV I 1412, F, light toning, slightly off center on a tight oval flan, right side of reverselegend unstruck, scratches, light porosity, weight 3.603 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, moneyer P Sevullius Macer, Jan - Feb 44 B.C.; obverseCAESAR IMP, wreathed head of Caesar right, star with eight rays around a central pellet behind; reverse P SEPVLLIVS MACER, Venus standing left, Victory in her right hand, long scepter with a star at base behind in her left hand, Victory facing left, holding wreath in both hands; $1210.00 SALE PRICE $1089.00
Seleukid Kingdom, Alexander I Balas, 152 - 145 B.C.
Alexander Balas, of humble origin, claimed to be Antiochus IV's son and heir to the Seleukid throne. Rome and Egypt accepted his claims. He married Cleopatra Thea, daughter of King Ptolemy Philometor of Egypt. With his father-in-law's help, he defeated Demetrius Soter and became the Seleukid king. After he abandoned himself to debauchery, his father-in-law shifted his support to Demetrius II, the son of Demetrius Soter. Balas was defeated and fled to Nabataea where he was murdered.GS84619. Silver tetradrachm, Houghton-Lorber II 1781.3a, Cohen DCA 118, HGC 9 875a, EF, excellent Hellenistic style, lightly toned, slightly off center, some die wear, light marks, light deposits on obverse, weight 16.950 g, maximum diameter 28.9 mm, die axis 45o, Antioch on the Orontes (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 152 - 146 B.C.; obverse diademed head right, filletborder; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY ΘEOΠATOPOΣ EYEPΓETOY, Zeus Nikephoros enthroned left, chest bare, himation around hips and legs and over left shoulder, Nike offering him wreath in his right hand, scepter in his left hand, cornucopia (control symbol) outer left, ΓΞP (Seleukid Era year 163) and monogram (control symbol) in exergue; ex CNG e-auction 386 (9 Nov 2016), lot 328; $540.00 SALE PRICE $486.00
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
Issued to commemorate victory in Britain. Between 208 and 210 A.D., Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla campaigned into Scotland (then Caledonia) and also restored Hadrian's Wall. The victories in the north pacified the island for the remainder of the century, but the aged Septimius died at Eburacum (York) in 211 A.D.SH83529. Silver denarius, RIC IV 332 (S); RSC III 727; BMCRE V p. 366, 51; Hunter III 108; SRCV II 6382, Choice gVF, some luster, perfect centering, nice portrait, light toning, small edge cracks, weight 3.369 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 210 - 211 A.D.; obverse SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right; reverseVICTORIAE BRIT (victories over the British), Victory advancing right, raising wreath in extended right hand, palm frond in left hand over left shoulder; scarce; $450.00 SALE PRICE $405.00
Lot of 20 Roman Empire City of Constantinople Commemoratives Bronzes 330 - 346 A.D.
On 11 May 330, Constantine I refounded Byzantium, renamed it Constantinopolis after himself, and moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to his new city. Coins were issued with types for Rome and Constantinople to advertise the importance of the new capital.LT85420. Bronze reduced centenionalis, SRCV IV 16444 ff. (various mints), VF, all nice coins, 330 - 346 A.D.; obverseCONSTANTINOPOLIS, laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis left, wearing imperial cloak, scepter over left shoulder; reverseVictory standing left, right foot on prow, scepter in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, mintmark in exergue; unattributed mint or issue, correction: one of the 20 coins is a Roma commemorative, no flips or tags, the actual coins in the photographs, as-is, no returns; $340.00 SALE PRICE $306.00
Lot of 20 Roman Empire City of Constantinople Commemoratives Bronzes 330 - 346 A.D.
On 11 May 330, Constantine I refounded Byzantium, renamed it Constantinopolis after himself, and moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to his new city. Coins were issued with types for Rome and Constantinople to advertise the importance of the new capital.LT85418. Bronze reduced centenionalis, SRCV IV 16444 ff. (various mints), all VF, nice coins, 330 - 346 A.D.; obverseCONSTANTINOPOLIS, laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis left, wearing imperial cloak, scepter over left shoulder; reverseVictory standing left, right foot on prow, scepter in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, mintmark in exergue; one with soldiers with standardreverse, unattributed mint or issue, no flips or tags, the actual coins in the photographs, as-is, no returns; $300.00 SALE PRICE $270.00
Parthian Empire, Vonones I, c. 8 - 12 A.D.
The reverselegend commemorates Vonones' temporary victory over Artabanos, the king who would in time defeat him. Unlike most Parthian coins, the reversetype is not the usual seated archer and the king's personal name appears in the Greek legend.GS85455. Silver drachm, Sellwood 60.5, Sunrise 407, Shore 329, SNG Cop 146 - 147, gVF, light toning, reverse slightly off center on a broad flan, weight 4.052 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 0o, Ecbatana (Hamedan, Iran) mint, c. 8 - 12 A.D.; obverse BACIΛEYC ONWNHC, diademed head left, medium tapering square cut beard, ear visible, wearing earring, diadem with four bands, loop behind, three diadem ends, torque without visible end; reverse BACIΛEYC ONWNHC NEIKHCAC APTABANON (King Vonones, conqueror of Artabanos, squared legend around), Nike standing right, extending palm frond in right hand, wreath in left hand, Ekbatana mint TA dot monogram below palm; from the Robert L3 Collection, ex CNG e-auction 155 (3 Jan 2007), lot 118; $255.00 SALE PRICE $230.00
Seleukid Kingdom, Philip IPhiladelphos, 93 - 83 B.C.
Philip IPhiladelphus was the fourth son of Antiochus VIII Grypus. He took the diadem in 95 BC together with his older brother (probably twin) Antiochus XI Epiphanes, after the eldest son Seleucus VI Epiphanes was killed by their cousin Antiochus X Eusebes. He established himself in Antiochia after 92 B.C. and survived attacks from younger brother Demetrius III Eucaerus. His rule ended in 83 B.C. when Tigranes conquered Syria, or earlier. He disappears from history at that point, but coins bearing his portrait were issued later by local and Roman authorities.GS85162. Silver tetradrachm, Houghton-Lorber II 2463(1), Newell SMA 436, VF, well centered, rose toning, bumps and marks, die damage at neck on obverse, low weight indicates likely posthumous issue, weight 14.766 g, maximum diameter 27.0 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, probably posthumous, c. 69 - 57 B.C.; obverse diademed head right, filletborder; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ΦIΛIΠΠOY EΠIΦANOYΣ / ΦIΛA∆EΛΦOY, Zeus enthroned left, Nike in right hand, long scepter in left hand, Nike offering Zeus a wreath, N/A outer left, laurel border; $250.00 SALE PRICE $225.00
Lucius Verus, 7 March 161 - February 169 A.D.
In 166, Marcus Aurelius appointed his sons as caesars, while he and Lucius Verus traveled to Germany.RB83531. Bronze as, RIC III MA1448 (S), Cohen III 282, BMCRE IV 1307, Szaivert MIR 18 129, SRCV II 5416, VF, well centered, nice green patina, marks and scratches, some light corrosion, weight 8.821 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Dec 165 - summer 166 A.D.; obverse L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right; reverseTR POT VI IMP IIII COS II, Victory standing facing, head left, crowning a trophy of arms with right hand, palm frond in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking low across field; scarce; $225.00 SALE PRICE $203.00
Lucilla, Augusta c. 164 - 182 A.D., Wife of Lucius Verus
Sulla in a dream first saw Venus with the weapons of Mars as VenusVictrix and made her his personal patroness. In the night before the battle of Pharsalus 48 B.C. Pompey dreamed of VenusVictrix - seemingly a lucky sign. Caesar sacrificed to VenusGenetrix, but issued as watchword 'Venus Victrix', and defeated Pompey!RS85213. Silver denarius, RIC III 786, RSC II 89, BMCRE IV 353, Hunter II 18, SRCV II 5492, Choice EF, well centered and struck, edge cracks, weight 3.282 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 166 - 169 A.D.; obverse LVCILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right; reverseVENVS VICTRIX (victorious Venus), Venus standing half left, right breast bare, Victory in right hand, left hand on grounded shield; $220.00 SALE PRICE $198.00
Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D., Issued by Vetranio
In 312 A.D., Constantine dreamed he saw a Christogram in the sky and heard the words IN HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, meaning in Latin "In this sign, you will be the victor." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions standards and shields. He won a great victory and later became the first Christian Roman Emperor.RL90446. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIIISiscia 286 (S), LRBC II 1173, Voetter 51, SRCV V 18203, VF, well centered, slightly rough green patina, coppery high-points, weight 4.749 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, issued by Vetranio, 1 Mar - 25 Dec 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassedbust right, A behind, star before; reverse HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Constantius standing facing head left, holding labarum (Chi RhoChristogramstandard) and spear, Victory right crowning him, A left, ēASISē in exergue (A's often appear as H in this period); scarce; $215.00 SALE PRICE $194.00
Imhoof-Blumer, F. "Die FlŁgelgestalten der Athena und Nike auf MŁnzen" in NZ III (1871)., pp. 1 - 50.
Marest-Caffey, L. "Seleukos I's Victory Coinage of Susa Revisited: A Die Study and Commentary" in AJN 28 (2016).
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