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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Roman armies invaded the Iberian peninsula in 218 B.C. and used it as a training ground for officers and as a proving ground for tactics during campaigns against the Carthaginians, the Iberians, the Lusitanians, the Gallaecians and other Celts. It was not until 19 B.C. that Augustus was able to complete the conquest. Under the Roman Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Baetica and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova, later renamed "Callaecia" (or Gallaecia, whence modern Galicia). From Diocletian's Tetrarchy (A.D. 284) onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis was again split off as Carthaginensis, and probably then too the Balearic Islands and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae (that is, the Celtic provinces).
Carmo, Hispania Ulterior, Early 1st Century B.C.
Hispania is the Latin term given to the Iberian peninsula. Hispania Ulterior (Further Hispania) was a region of Hispania during the Roman Republic, roughly located in Baetica and in the Guadalquivir valley of modern Spain and extending to all of Lusitania (modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of Salamanca province) and Gallaecia (modern Northern Portugal and Galicia). Its capital was Corduba.GB93424. Bronze as, Villaronga-Benages 2405 (R2), Villaronga 24, SNG BM Spain 1588 ff., Burgos 459, Choice VF, well centered, brown tone with buff earthen highlighting, die wear, porosity, weight 12.534 g, maximum diameter 23.5 mm, Carmo (Carmona, Seville) mint, early 1st century B.C.; obverse male head right; reverse CARMO, horizontal line above and below, between two heads of grain laying right one above and one below; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $140.00 (€128.80)
Lastigi, Hispania Ulterior, 150 - 100 B.C.
After its defeat in 201 B.C., Carthage ceded Iberia to Rome. In 197 B.C., the peninsula was divided into Hispania Citerior (Nearer Hispania) and Hispania Ulterior (Further Hispania). Hispania Ulterior consisted of what are now Andalusia, Portugal, Extremadura, Castilla y León, Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, and the Basque Country. There was peace in the region until 155 B.C. when the Lusitanians attacked. The area was largely conquered by 138 B.C., but war continued until 19 B.C. when Agrippa defeated the Cantabrians in Hispania Citerior and Hispania finally was completely conquered. That same year, Augustus divided Hispania Ulterior into Baetica (modern Andalusia) and Lusitania (modern Portugal, Extremadura, and part of Castilla-León). Hispania Citerior, which now included Cantabria and Basque country, was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis.GB93425. Bronze quadrans, Villaronga-Benages 2374 (R3), SNG BM Spain 1569 - 1571, Villaronga 4, SNG Cop 165, aF, dark tone, porous, weight 3.504 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 270o, Lastigi (Sancular la Mayor, Sevilla, Spain) mint, 150 - 100 B.C.; obverse helmeted male head right, laurel wreath border; reverse LAS within laurel wreath border; from the Errett Bishop Collection; rare; $90.00 (€82.80)
Indigets, Untikesken, Emporion, Iberia, c. 130 - 90 B.C.
Early in the 2nd century B.C., Emporion began striking bronze coinage with the Iberian inscription UTIKENSKEN, which refers to the Indigets tribe that inhabited the town and its surrounding area. The earliest coins were struck at a one ounce standard of 1/12 Roman pound. In the mid 2nd Century B.C., the standard changed to 1/15th of the Roman pound. Some of these coins were marked XV, most were marked with an Iberian EI mark, which means 15. The names of magistrates were added to some coins in the second half of the 2nd century B.C. Weights were gradually reduced until coinage with Iberian inscriptions ended in the 1st century B.C.GB88304. Bronze as, reduced Roman ounce standard, Villaronga-Benages 1043 (same dies), Villaronga CNH 50, cf. SNG BM Spain 522, F, dark patina with attractive highlighting earthen deposits, soft strike, weak reverse, weight 14.462 g, maximum diameter 28.3 mm, die axis 90o, Emporion (Empúries, Catalonia, Spain) mint, c. 130 - 90 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Athena-Minerva right, Iberian mark before: EI (15); reverse Pegasos springing right, head modified, laurel wreath above rump, palm frond outer right, Iberian inscription above exergue line: UTIKESKEN; ex Jenceck Historical Enterprise; $80.00 (€73.60)
Castulo, Hispania Ulterior, Mid 2nd Century B.C.
After a local princess named Himilce married Hannibal, Castulo allied with Carthage. In 213 B.C., Castulo was the site of Hasdrubal Barca's crushing victory over the Roman army with a force of roughly 40,000 Carthaginian troops plus local Iberian mercenaries. Soon after the Romans made a pact with the residents and the city became a foederati (ally) of Rome.GB89045. Bronze as, Villaronga-Benages 2126, Villaronga 23, SNG BM Spain 1298, Burgos 695, SNG Cop -, aVF, earthen encrustation, scratches, spots of light corrosion, reverse a little off center, weight 18.451 g, maximum diameter 29.1 mm, die axis 90o, Castulo (near Linares, Spain) mint, mid 2nd century B.C.; obverse diademed head right; reverse helmeted sphinx walking right, left foreleg raised, star before, KASTILO in Iberic script below exergue line; ex Rusty Romans; $80.00 (€73.60)
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