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A decursio was a military exercise, by which Roman soldiers were taught to make long marches in a given time, under arms and without quitting their ranks. They sometimes consisted of a mock fight between two divisions. Augustus and subsequently Hadrian ordered that the infantry and cavalry were to march out three times a month ten miles from the camp and ten miles back, fully armed and equipped. Decursio on this coin probably refers Nero's participation in mock military maneuvers in the circus.SH96390. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 508, Mac Dowall WCN 448, BMCRE I 316, BnF II 135, Cohen I 88, SRCV I -, Choice aEF/VF, superb portrait, well centered and struck, scratches, marks, porosity more on the reverse, weight 23.971 g, maximum diameter 35.4 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 66 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT P P, laureate head left, small globe at point; reverse DECVRSIO (in exergue), Nero and a companion on horseback prancing right, Nero holds spear in right hand, companion holds vexillum in right over shoulder, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $2700.00 SALE |PRICE| $2430.00
Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.
The Lost Arch of Nero. This arch is undoubtedly the one that Tacitus says was voted to Nero for Corbulo's victory in Armenia in 58, and that he further reports was being constructed "in the middle of the Capitoline Hill" in 62, despite a successful invasion of Armenia by the Parthians in that year. No traces of the arch have ever been found. The arch was completely destroyed either shortly after Nero's death with the damnatio memoriae Nero received when the senate proclaimed him an enemy of the state, or in one of the two fires that consumed the Capitoline hill in 69 and 80. However, the quadriga on top of the arch is similar to that depicted on sestertii at the center of the Flavian amphitheatre (the Colosseum). It may have been reallocated.SH96391. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 144, BMCRE I 184, Cohen I 306, Mac Dowall WCN 134, SRCV I -, Choice gVF, excellent portrait, dark patina, well centered, light marks, scattered light porosity, weight 27.125 g, maximum diameter 35.0 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 65 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER PM TR P IMP P P, laureate head left, globe at point of bust; reverse triumphal arch; surmounted by statue of Nero in a facing quadriga, led by Pax on left and Victory on right, and flanked below by two soldiers; front ornamented with statue of Mars in a niche and bas-reliefs of small figures; garland hanging in arch; ex Pegasi Numismatics; $1850.00 SALE |PRICE| $1665.00
Eastern Celts, Imitative of Philip II of Macedonia, "Dachreiter" Type, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
Although the body and head of the horseman on the prototype drachm of Philip III of Macedonia have been replaced by an S-shaped line over three pellets, the horseman's leg can still be found on the side of the horse!SH89462. Silver tetradrachm, Göbl OTA tf. 15, 170/4; Lanz 448, aVF, light toning, reverse slightly off center, light marks, weight 11.953 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 0o, tribal mint, 2nd - 1st century B.C.; obverse laureate and bearded head of Zeus right; reverse stylized horseman prancing left, rider's head and body reduced to an S-shaped line over three pellets, leg of horseman on side of the horse; $500.00 SALE |PRICE| $450.00
Syracuse, Sicily, Timoleon and the Third Democracy, c. 344 - 317 B.C.
Threatened by Carthage and dominated by Hiketas, the tyrant of Leontini, Syracusans sent an appeal for help to their mother city, Corinth. By a unanimous vote Corinth selected Timoleon to set sail for Sicily with a few leading citizens of Corinth and a small troop of Greek mercenaries. After defeating Hiketas, Timoleon put order to Syracuse' affairs and established a democratic government. He repelled Carthage in several wars, ending with a treaty which divided the island. Timoleon then retired without any title or office, though he remained practically supreme. He became blind before his death, but when important issues were under discussion he was carried to the assembly to give his opinion, which was usually accepted. When he died the citizens of Syracuse erected a monument to his memory, afterward surrounded with porticoes, and a gymnasium called Timoleonteum.GI95238. Silver dilitron, SNG ANS 518; SNG Cop 717; SNG Munchen 1126; BMC Sicily p. 186, 283; Weber 1644; HGC 2 1373 (R2), VF, well centered, very dark toning, porosity, edge crack, weight 1.226 g, maximum diameter 14.3 mm, die axis 45o, Syracuse mint, c. 344 - 317 B.C.; obverse laureate Janiform female head, ΣYPAKOΣI-ΩN upward on left, two dolphins nose to nose on right; reverse horse galloping right, barley ear right above, N below; ex Forum (2018); rare; $450.00 SALE |PRICE| $405.00
Larissa, Thessaly, Greece, c. 300 - 150 B.C.
According to mythology, Larissa was founded by Acrisius, who was killed accidentally by his grandson, Perseus; the nymph Larissa was a daughter of the primordial man Pelasgu; Achilles was born at Larissa, and Hippocrates, the "Father of Medicine"; died there. Today, Larissa is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly region and an important commercial, agricultural, and industrial center of Greece.GB92063. Bronze trichalkon, BCD Thessaly 1172.1 (same countermark), BCD Thessaly II 394.1 (same countermark), SNG Cop 147, Rogers 309, HGC 4 530 (S), BMC Thessaly -, VF, well centered, attractive dark patina, interesting countermark, some flatness of strike, edge crack, beveled obverse edge; c/m: VF, weight 11.952 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 270o, Larissa mint, c. 300 - 150 B.C.; obverse head of the nymph Larissa right, monogram behind; countermark on cheek: spiked helmet with visor, neck and cheek guards in a c. 6mm oval punch; reverse cavalryman prancing right, wearing spiked helmet, couched lance in right hand, star upper left, ΛA-PI/ΣNΩN divided above and below; ex Numismatik Lanz München, auction 112 (25 Nov 2002), 193; scarce; $400.00 SALE |PRICE| $360.00
Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.
Domitian was at first effective and he spent much of his time in the provinces preserving order. But his reign was marred by paranoia and cruelty in his latter years and he executed many Senators. He was murdered in a plot, allegedly involving his wife.SL94493. Silver denarius, RIC II-1 V106, RSC II 664, BMCRE II V129, BnF III V105, SRCV I 2644, NGC Ch VF, strike 4/5, surface 2/5 (5770030-001), weight 2.507 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, as caesar, 73 A.D.; obverse CAES AVG F DOMIT COS II, laureate head right; reverse Domitian on horse prancing left, togate, raising right hand, scepter topped by human bust in left hand; from an Israeli collection; NGC| Lookup; rare; $250.00 SALE |PRICE| $225.00
Kelenderis, Cilicia, c. 5th Century B.C.
The Gorgoneion was originally a horror-creating apotropaic pendant showing the Gorgon's facing head. It was worn by the Olympian deities Zeus and Athena as a protective pendant. It was also worn, among other godlike attributes, as a royal aegis by rulers of the Hellenistic age and later on the busts of Roman Emperors. In Greek mythology, the Gorgon was a terrifying female creature. The name derives from the Greek word gorgós, which means "dreadful." While descriptions of Gorgons vary across Greek literature, the term commonly refers to any of three sisters who had hair of living, venomous snakes, and a horrifying visage that turned those who beheld it to stone. Traditionally, while two of the Gorgons were immortal, Stheno and Euryale, their sister Medusa was not, and was slain by the mythical demigod and hero Perseus. Gorgons were a popular image of Greek mythology, appearing in the earliest of written records of Ancient Greek religious beliefs such as those of Homer. Because of their legendary gaze, images of the Gorgons were put upon objects and buildings for protection. For example, an image of a Gorgon holds the primary location at the pediment of the temple at Corfu. It is the oldest stone pediment in Greece and is dated to c. 600 B.C.SL95877. Silver obol, SNG BnF Cilicia 465 (uncertain mint), Weber 7521 (Forrer notes, "Sir H. Weber notes against this coin: 'Dr. Imhoof says, indubitably Kelenderis'." , NGC Choice VF, strike 3/5, surface 4/5 (5872605-020), in NGC plastic holder, weight 0.70 g, Kelenderis (Aydincik, Turkey) mint, c. 5th century B.C.; obverse facing gorgon head; reverse forepart of horse right, incuse square; NGC| Lookup; $250.00 SALE |PRICE| $225.00
Volusian, c. November 251 - July or August 253 A.D.
Adventus reverse types commemorate the emperor's arrival at Rome, either at the commencement of his reign or on his return from a distance. They may also refer to his arrival in some other city or province of the empire. At their accession, emperors were not conveyed in a chariot nor in any other vehicle, but went on horseback or on foot when they made their first public entry into the capital of the Roman world.RS93314. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 224(a) (R), RSC IV 2b, SRCV III 9738, Hunter III - (p. cviii), VF, attractive style, well centered, darkened bronze and turquoise encrustations, flan cracks, weight 2.800 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Antioch mint, 252 A.D.; obverse IMP C V AF GAL VOLVSIANO AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind, three pellets below; reverse ADVENTVS AVG (arrival of the Emperor), Trebonianus Gallus on horseback left, raising right hand in salute, long scepter in left hand, paludamentum flying behind, horse's right foreleg raised; from the Errett Bishop Collection; rare; $220.00 SALE |PRICE| $198.00
Gallic Celts, Uncertain (Lemovices?), c. 100 - 50 B.C.
The tribe and mint that issued this obol type are unknown, but the Lemovices struck quinarii with similar types, including a human head above the horse on the reverse. It is possible the Lemovices also issued this rare type.CE89067. Silver obol, Delestrée-Tache 3699; cf. CCBM II S404 ff., De la Tour 4561 (Lemovices, severed head series quinarii), F, well centered, toned, etched surfaces, weight 0.633 g, maximum diameter 10.8 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain mint, c. 100 - 50 B.C.; obverse female head right in classic style; reverse horse galloping right, small human head right above; ex CGB Numismatique Paris; rare; $195.00 SALE |PRICE| $176.00
Thessalonika, Macedonia, c. 54 - 68 A.D.
Thessalonica was founded around 315 B.C. by Cassander, King of Macedonia, on or near the site of the ancient town of Therma. He named it after his wife Thessalonike, a daughter of Philip II and a half-sister of Alexander the Great. In 168 B.C. it became the capital of Macedonia Secunda and in 146 B.C. it was made the capital of the whole Roman province of Macedonia. Due to its port and location at the intersection of two major Roman roads, Thessalonica grew to become the most important city in Macedonia. Thessalonica was important in the spread of Christianity; the First Epistle to the Thessalonians written by Paul the Apostle is the first written book of the New Testament.GB92061. Bronze AE 16, Touratsoglou G.I/A; RPC I 1607 (13 spec. online); SNG Hunterian I 682; McClean 3776; AMNG III taf. XXIII, 23; BMC Macedonia -; SNG Cop -; SNG ANS -, aVF, green patina, tight flan, weight 4.078 g, maximum diameter 16.0 mm, die axis 180o, Thessalonika (Salonika, Greece) mint, reign of Nero(?), c. 54 - 68 A.D.; obverse horse trotting right, crescent with horns upward above, star below raised foreleg; reverse ΘEΣ/ΣAΛON/IKEΩN in three lines within laurel wreath; ex CHS Basel Numismatics; very rare; $160.00 SALE |PRICE| $144.00