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Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Unofficial Barbaric (Pannonian Tribes?)
In Roman Imperial Coinage, on page 473, in the section on Sirmium, footnote 42 says, "In L. [London=British Museum] an irregular SECVPITAS PEI-PETVAE, obv. CONSTNATTI-VAS P F NNG, Bust B1, m.m. SINN, 3.71 gm." Our coin is apparently from the same dies. Certainly unofficial, perhaps this coin was struck by a Pannonian tribal mint?SH94406. Gold solidus, RIC VII Sirmium 42 var. (British Museum specimen of same irregular variant noted), gF, well centered, blundered legends and mintmark, pale gold, light scratches, probably holed and filled, weight 4.100 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 180o, unofficial mint, c. 324 - 325 A.D.; obverse CONSTNATTI-IIAS P F NNG, laureate head right; reverse SECIIPITAS PEI-PETVAE, Emperor standing left, in military attire, right hand crowning trophy of captured arms erected before him, transverse scepter in left hand, shield and cuirass(?) left of base of trophy, SINN in exergue; $2200.00 SALE |PRICE| $1980.00
Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D.
Theodosius I abolished the last remaining expressions of Roman religion by making its holidays into workdays, banning blood sacrifices, closing Roman temples, confiscating Temple endowments, and disbanding the Vestal Virgins. He ordered, authorized, or at least failed to punish, the closure or destruction of many temples, holy sites, images and objects of piety throughout the empire. In 393, he issued a comprehensive law that prohibited any public non-Christian religious customs. He discontinued the ancient Olympic Games, last recorded in 393, though archeological evidence indicates that some games were still held after this date.SH94407. Gold solidus, RIC X Theodosius I 20b (S); Depeyrot p. 169, 9/2; SRCV V 20412; Cohen VIII 37; Hunter V -, gVF, well centered, nice portrait, slight double strike, die wear, part of flan edge ragged with splits, weight 4.375 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, Jan 389 - Apr 391 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA AVGG (victory of the two emperors), two emperors, crowned and nimbate, seated facing on double-throne, legs draped, holding a globe together, the emperor on right holding mappa in left hand, Victory behind above center facing with spread wings, palm frond low center, M-D divided across field, COM in exergue; ex Gorny & Mosch Auction 196 (7 March 2011), lot 3040; scarce; $1650.00 SALE |PRICE| $1485.00
Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.
Valens ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from the Danube to the Persian border. He allowed Goths, who were driven from their home by the Huns, to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by Romans that they rebelled. Valens was defeated and killed by the Goths at the battle of Hadrianople.SH94513. Gold solidus, RIC IX Antioch 2(c)i3, Depeyrot 30/2, SRCV V 19566, Cohen VIII 32, Hunter V -, VF, well centered, bumps, marks, scratches, slight bend, weight 4.345 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 180o, 6th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, Oct 367 - end 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENS PER F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing facing, head right, vexillum with cross on flag in right hand, Victory standing on globe presenting wreath in left hand, ANTS (S recut over Z) in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $1250.00 SALE |PRICE| $1125.00
Side, Pamphylia, c. 145 - 125 B.C.
In 190 B.C. a fleet from Rhodes, supported by Rome and Pergamum, defeated the Seleucid fleet under the command of the fugitive Carthaginian general Hannibal. The Seleucid defeat freed Side from the overlord-ship of the Seleucid Empire. The Treaty of Apamea (188 B.C.) left Side in a state of uncertain freedom. It was during this period of autonomy that Side struck these tetradrachms. It would last until 36 B.C. when the city came under the rule of the Roman client King of Galatia, Amyntas.GS92896. Silver tetradrachm, SNGvA 4796 (also with anchor c/m); SNG BnF 694; BMC Pamphylia p. 148, 46 (KΛE-YX), Choice VF, well centered, reverse strike a little flat, obverse flattened opposite of countermark, weight 16.505 g, maximum diameter 28.8 mm, die axis 0o, Side (near Selimiye, Antalya Province, Turkey) mint, magistrate Kleuch-, c. 145 - 125 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right in a crested Corinthian helmet; reverse Nike advancing left, wreath extended in right hand, pomegranate in left field, KΛ-E (magistrate's name) divided across field below center; countermark: anchor within incuse rectangle; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 77 (5 May 2019), lot 287; $500.00 SALE |PRICE| $450.00
Brettian League, Bruttium, Italy, c. 214 - 211 B.C.
All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied with Hannibal. The Brettii joined Hannibal after his victory at Cannae. Hannibal's last base in Italy was Castra Hannibalis, in Bruttium. The ravages of war inflicted a severe blow to the prosperity of Bruttium. Roman punishment for their rebellion completed their humiliation. They lost most of their territory and the whole nation reduced to a state bordering on servitude. They were not admitted like the other nations of Italy to rank as allies but were pronounced incapable of military service, and were only employed by Rome for menial work.GI95364. Bronze sextans, Scheu Bronze 11; SNG ANS 43; SNG Cop 1652; BMC Italy p. 326, 62 corr.; HN Italy 1975; HGC I 1361 (R1), gVF, smooth olive brown patina, well centered, light marks, minor flan flaws, weight 16.641 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 0o, c. 214 - 211 B.C.; obverse head of Ares left, wearing crested helmet decorated with griffin leaping left, harpa below; reverse Nike sanding left, crowning trophy of captured arms with right hand, palm frond in left hand, KB monogram left, anchor with flukes up in center, BPETTIΩN downward on right; ex Pegasi Numismatics; $330.00 SALE |PRICE| $297.00
Cappadocian Kingdom, Ariarathes VII Philometor, 116 - 101 B.C., In the Name and Types of Antiochos VII of Syria
When Ariarathes VII Philometor was a child under the regency of his mother Laodice, Cappadocia was seized by King Nicomedes III of Bithynia, who then married Laodice. Laodice's brother King Mithridates VI of Pontus soon expelled Nicomedes and the restored the Cappadocian throne to Ariarathes VII. When Ariarathes VII learned that his father's assassin was under Mithridates' protection (Mithridates had arranged the murder), he prepared for war. Before the battle, the King of Pontus had him killed and put his own son Ariarathes IX on the Cappadocian throne.GY91996. Silver tetradrachm, Houghton-Lorber 2148; HGC 7 829; HGC 9 1069, gVF, areas a little rough, a few deposits, weight 16.604 g, maximum diameter 28.2 mm, die axis 0o, Eusebia-Mazaka mint, 107/6 - 104/3 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Antiochos VII right; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ APIAPAΘOY ΦIΛOMHTPOΣ, Athena Nikephoros standing left, Nike right in extended right offering wreath, spear and grounded shield in left hand, monogram above A outer left, O inner left, Λ inner right; all within laurel wreath; ex CNG e-auction 233 (26 May 2010), lot 227; $270.00 SALE |PRICE| $243.00
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
The as is a rare denomination for Septimius Severus.RB95801. Copper as, RIC IV 805, BMCRE V 200, Cohen IV 545, Hunter III -, VF, nice green patina, nice style, tight flan, light encrustations, part of legends weak, small edge split, weight 11.403 g, maximum diameter 26.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 210 A.D.; obverse SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse P M TR P XVIII COS III P P, Victory standing right, holding vexillum transversely in both hand, flanked by seated at feet on each side, S - C across field below center; Roma Numismatics sale 68 (27 Feb 2020) lot 1091; ex European Collection; scarce; $240.00 SALE |PRICE| $216.00
Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D., Antioch, Syria, Civic Christian Persecution Issue
In 311, after the death of Galerius in late April or May, representatives from Nicomedia presented themselves before Maximinus, bringing images of their gods and requested that Christians not be allowed to live in their city. Late in 311, an embassy from Antioch, led by their curator Theotecnus, also requested permission to banish Christians from their city and its territory. Other cities followed with the same request. Maximinus support for Antioch's requests is advertised by this coin type. Fearing his co-emperors, however, Maximinus changed his mind. His edict in May 313 restored privileges and property to Christians. Later in 313, Licinius captured Antioch and executed Theotecnus.RL93284. Billon quarter follis, McAlee 171(d), Van Heesch 2, Vagi 2955, SRCV IV 14932, gVF, dark patina, earthen highlighting deposits, weight 1.560 g, maximum diameter 15.5 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 312 - May 313 A.D.; obverse IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter seated left, globe in right, long scepter vertical behind in left; reverse VICTORIA AVGG (victory of the two emperors), Victory left, wreath in extended right hand, palm frond in left, ∆ in right field, ANT in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; scarce; $200.00 SALE |PRICE| $180.00
Gallic Empire, Postumus, Summer 260 - Spring 269 A.D.
The radiate crown indicates the double denomination. The weights are sometimes no heavier than sestertii of the period, and they are frequently overstruck on coins of the first and second century emperors. Authorities do not agree on the mint. Also, there are also many imitatives or counterfeits, some of which are very crude style, carelessly struck, or both.RA93326. Orichalcum double sestertius, RIC V-2 169, SRCV III 11065, Cohen VI 380, Hunter IV - (p. xcii), F, well centered on a tight flan, brown patina, weight 16.714 g, maximum diameter 30.7 mm, die axis 165o, uncertain (Cologne?) mint, c. 260 - 268 A.D.; obverse IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand, captive seated left at feet on left with hands bound behind, S C in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $200.00 SALE |PRICE| $180.00
Lucius Verus, 7 March 161 - February 169 A.D.
In 166, Marcus Aurelius appointed his sons as caesars, while he and Lucius Verus traveled to Germany.RS92460. Bronze as, RIC III MA1448 (S), Cohen III 282, BMCRE IV 1307, Szaivert MIR 18 129, SRCV II 5416, Hunter II -, VF, nice portrait, light marks, some porosity, some earthen encrustation, weight 12.355 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Dec 165 - summer 166 A.D.; obverse L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right; reverse TR POT VI IMP III COS II, Victory standing facing, head left, crowning a trophy of arms with right hand, palm frond in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking low across field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; rare; $180.00 SALE |PRICE| $162.00