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Hadrian, one of the "Five Good Emperors," abandoned the expansionist policy of Trajan and established a policy of defense and consolidation during which Hadrian's Wall in Britain was constructed. He traveled to nearly every province of the Empire, more than any other emperor, often ordering grandiose building programs to improve infrastructure and the quality of life in those regions. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and ordered the construction of many opulent temples in the city. He spent much of his time with the military; usually wore military attire and even dined and slept amongst the soldiers. He ordered military training and drilling to be more rigorous and made use of false reports of attack to keep the army alert. He suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina.
Pergamon, Mysia, c. 134 A.D.
Eurypylos was a Mysian hero of the Trojan War. His image is otherwise unknown on coinage. Like Bellerophon at Corinth and Dionysos at Tium, this image of a local hero appears modeled on Antinous. Homer (Odyssey 11.522) has Odysseus say that Eurypylus was, next to Memnon, the most beautiful man he had ever seen.
The strategos I. Pollion is named on several coin types of Pergamon during the reign of Hadrian, including one for Sabina (RPC III 1737) and another for Antinous (RPC III, 1738).
The link between Pergamon and Paphos, evidenced by this coin, is not well understood. However, the same reverse was used, from Hadrian to Philip I, on coins struck to honor an alliance between Sardes and Paphos.RP96071. Orichalcum dupondius, RPC Online III 1740 (4 spec.), SNG BnF 1897, Weber 5206, SNG Cop -, BMC Mysia -, F, porous, reverse off center, countermark obscure, weight 11.652 g, maximum diameter 26.5 mm, die axis 0o, Pergamon (Bergama, Turkey) mint, time of Hadrian, c. 134 A.D.; obverse HPΩC EYPYΠYΛOC (Hero Eurypylos), head of hero Eurypylos (with the features of Antinous) right, flowing hair, uncertain oval countermark; reverse ΠEPΓAMHNΩN EΠI CTP ΠΩΛΛIΩNOC (Pergamon, struck under strategos Pollion), temple of Aphrodite at Paphos, in which conical xoanon, semicircular walled courtyard, ΠAΦIA (of Paphos) across the courtyard; extremely rare, the 5th known; $1200.00 SALE |PRICE| $1080.00
Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.RB95780. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC II-3 260 (S), BMCRE III 1203, Hunter II 358, SRCV II 3625, Cohen II 1207 var. (no drapery), Choice aEF, dark patina, light deposits, spots of corrosion, weight 27.215 g, maximum diameter 35.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 119 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III, laureate bust right, bare chest, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse PROVIDENTIA DEORVM (to the foresight of the gods), Hadrian standing facing, togate, lituus (or scroll?) in left hand, head left looking at eagle flying right with scepter held in talons, extending right hand to receive scepter from eagle, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; scarce; $1100.00 SALE |PRICE| $990.00
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt
NEW Hadrian was born on 24 January 76, probably in Italica (near modern Seville) in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. His father was a senator of praetorian rank and Trajan's cousin. Hadrian's parents died in 86, when he was ten. He and his sister became wards of Trajan and Publius Acilius Attianus (who later became Trajan's Praetorian prefect). Hadrian was physically active, and enjoyed hunting; when he was 14, Trajan called him to Rome and arranged his further education in subjects appropriate to a young Roman aristocrat. Hadrian's enthusiasm for Greek literature and culture earned him the nickname Graeculus ("Greekling").RX92545. Bronze drachm, RPC Online III 5279; Dattari 1602; Geissen 817; Milne 997; BMC Alexandria p. 100, 861; Emmett 961/5 (R2); Kampmann -, VF, rough uneven patina, light corrosion, obverse edge beveled, weight 22.040 g, maximum diameter 36.5 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 120 - 28 Aug 121 A.D.; obverse AVT KAI TPAI A∆PIA CEB, laureate head right, drapery on far shoulder; reverse emperor standing in quadriga drawn by four elephants, wearing toga, eagle-tipped scepter in left hand, laurel branch in right hand, LE (year 5) above right; from the Errett Bishop Collection; scarce; $180.00 SALE |PRICE| $162.00
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt
NEW Demeter in Greek mythology is the goddess of grain and fertility, the pure; nourisher of the youth and the green earth, the health-giving cycle of life and death; and preserver of marriage and the sacred law. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, dated to about the seventh century B.C. she is invoked as the "bringer of seasons," a subtle sign that she was worshiped long before she was made one of the Olympians. She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries that also predated the Olympian pantheon.RX92501. Billon tetradrachm, Geissen 1209; Dattari 1335; Milne 1518; BMC Alexandria p. 71, 579; SNG Cop 409; Kampmann 32.720; Emmett 830/21 (R1), gVF, nice portrait, dark patina, some porosity, spots of light corrosion on reverse, obverse slightly off center, weight 12.099 g, maximum diameter 24.8 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 136 - 28 Aug 137 A.D.; obverse AYT KAIC TPA - A∆PIANOC CEB, laureate head right; reverse Demeter standing slightly left, head left, wreathed with grain, wearing chiton with diplois, veil on shoulders blowing behind, stalks of grain and poppy in right hand, long torch vertical behind in left hand, L / K-A (year 21) across field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $160.00 (€147.20)
During Hadrian's reign agriculture in Italy declined. Imports from Egypt and North Africa depressed wheat prices, making farming unprofitable and forcing many farmers off the land. In Rome, bakeries produced dozens of bread varieties, and free bread was distributed to the poor. RS94574. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 854, RSC II 379, BMCRE III 385, Strack II 166, Hunter II -, SRCV -, VF, nice portrait, light toning, flow lines, slightly grainy, a little off center, tiny edge cracks, weight 3.002 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 128 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse COS III, Annona (or Abundantia) seated left, reaping hook in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, modius with grain ears at feet; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $160.00 SALE |PRICE| $144.00
Hadrian toured Greece, 124 - 125, made a detour to Sicily, and returned to Italy in 126. He left again in 128 to visit Africa. Hadrian returned to Italy in the summer of 128 but his stay was brief and he set off on another tour that would last three years. Hadrian's galley reverse types refer to his travels to the provinces and his safe return.RB92428. Copper as, BMCRE III 1342, Hunter II 422, RIC II-3 820, SRCV II 3682, Cohen II 446 var. (no drapery), aVF, nice portrait, nice galley, well centered, light deposits, scattered light corrosion, part of obv. legend weak, weight 10.699 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 125 - 128 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse COS III, galley right with rowers; ram, acrostolium, and vexillum (or furled sail) at prow; rudder and arched cabin at stern; S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $150.00 SALE |PRICE| $135.00
Juno was the chief female divinity in the Roman pantheon. She was the wife of Jupiter and a member of the Capitoline Triad. She had many different aspects, such as Juno Regina, Juno Sospita, and Juno Lucina, but here she is depicted as Juno Moneta, holding the scales symbolic of equity and a cornucopia indicating plenty. This surname was given to Juno because she counseled the Romans to undertake only just wars in which case she promised that they would never be in want of money. The first mint in Rome was within the temple of Juno Moneta.RS94580. Silver denarius, RSC II 965, RIC II-3 2224, Strack II 251, SRCV II 3507, BMCRE III 677 var. (no drapery), Hunter II 222 var. (same), Choice gF, well centered, nice portrait, flow lines, toning, some reverse legend weak, tiny edge cracks, weight 3.183 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 136 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse MONETA AVG, Moneta standing facing, head left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $150.00 SALE |PRICE| $135.00
Liberalitas coin types attest to occasions when the emperor has displayed his generosity towards the people by a distribution to them of money, provisions, or both. The first mention of Liberalitas was on coins of Hadrian. It was a type frequently repeated by the succeeding emperors. Indeed these instances of imperial generosity are more carefully recorded on coins than they are by history.RS94578. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 1100 (R), RSC II 920c, BMCRE III 559 (note), Strack II 345, SRCV II -, Hunter II -, aVF/F, light toning, flow lines, tiny encrustations, light marks, die wear, small edge cracks, weight 2.869 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 129 - 130 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse LIBERALITAS AVG COS III P P (the generosity of the Emperor, consul three times, father of the country), Liberalitas standing slightly-right, head right, emptying cornucopia held in both hands; from the Ray Nouri Collection; rare; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00
In 122, Hadrian gave up the conquered territories in Scotland. During a personal visit to the area, Hadrian ordered construction of a 73 mile (117-kilometer) long wall to mark the northern border and keep the Caledonians, Picts and other tribes at bay. Construction of Hadrian's Wall began on 13 September.RS94586. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 497, RSC II 212b, BMCRE III 252, Hunter II 91, Strack II 60, SRCV II 3463, aVF, light toning, flow lines, reverse a little off center, small edge split/cracks, weight 3.237 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 150o, Rome mint, late 121 - 123 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse P M TR P COS III, Clementia (mercy) standing left, leaning on column, patera in right hand held over altar, long scepter vertical in left hand, left elbow rests on column, CLEM in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $130.00 SALE |PRICE| $117.00
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.RS94568. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 124, RSC II 1015a, BMCRE III 78, Strack II 38, Hunter II 28, SRCV II 3511, gF, light marks, die wear, edge crack, obverse slightly off center on an oval flan, weight 3.133 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 240o, Rome mint, 118 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse P M TR P COS II, Pax standing slightly left, head left, olive branch downward in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, PAX in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00
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