References do not describe the obverselegend, but it is also present on the Svoronos plate.
SH65976. Silver drachm, Svoronos Crete p. 231, 19 and pl.XXI, 13; BMC Crete p. 55, 7; SNG Cop 494, aVF, slightly grainy, well centered, weight 5.352 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 0o, Lyttus mint, c. 380 - 320 B.C.; obverse ΛY−TΣ (clockwise starting above, ΛY ligate), eagle flying left; reverse ΛYTTION, boar’s head right in beaded square border, all within incuse square; rare; $760.00 (€661.20)
Pontus (Amisos?), Roman Quaestor (Lucius Lucullus?), 100 - 50 B.C.
The Q identifies the bare male head as a Roman Quaestor. This letter is not noted in RPC but is visible here and clear on other examples known to Forum. Perhaps the image is of Lucius Lucullus, an important Quaestor of Sulla, about whom Plutarch wrote. The reverselegend, the Latin FETIA, refers to the fetial ceremony, part of the treaty making process, during which a pig was sacrificed to sanctify the oaths. The mint location is unknown but Imhoof-Blumer placed it at Amisus, where Leypold acquired his specimen.
SH66800. Brass AE 20, RPC I 2156, SNG Leypold I p. 24, 69, F, cleaning scratches, weight 7.222 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Pontus(?) mint, c. 80 B.C.(?); obverse bare male head right, Q below; reverse two standing figures holding a pig between them, each with a hand raised, taking an oath of fealty, FETIA in exergue; rare; $450.00 (€391.50)
Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.
In 77 or 78 A.D., Gnaeus Julius Agricola was made governor of Roman Britain, a post he occupied until 84. In his first year, Agricola subdued the Ordovices in Wales and pursued the remnants of the tribe to Anglesey, the holy island of the Druids. According to Tacitus, he exterminated the whole tribe. The Ordovices do completely disappear from the historical record, but considering the mountainous terrain, it is unlikely killed the entire population. Another tribe, the Silures, was either also militarily defeated or simply agreed to terms. Tacitus wrote of the Silures: non atrocitate, non clementia mutabatur - the tribe "was changed neither by cruelty nor by clemency." A Roman squadron, sent by Agricola, explored the north of Scotland for the first time, discovering the Orkney and Shetland Islands.
RS70429. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 982; RSC II 213; BMCRE II 212; BnF III 188, SRCV I 2292, VF, some luster , uneven toning, weight 3.351 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jul 77 - Dec 78 A.D.; obverseCAESARVESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse sow left and three piglets left, all on ground line, IMP XIX in exergue; $200.00 (€174.00)
Phokis, Greece, Federal Coinage, c. 449 - 447 B.C.
Phocis was mainly pastoral. The twenty-two confederate Phocian towns held their periodic synedrion (assembly) in a building called Phokikon, near Daulis, and here, perhaps, rather than at any one of the Phocian towns, the federal mint may have been established. Money would be issued at this mint only on the occasions of the meetings of the synedrion, when it may be supposed that a concourse of people from all parts of the Phocian territory was gathered together, and that a fair or market was held for the exchange and purchase of commodities, as at Delphi during the Pythian festivals. The bull's head is perhaps symbolic of a special sacrifice held on behalf of the whole people, when a prize bull may have been the victim.
GA68398. Silver obol, cf. BCD Lokris 246, Williams Phokians 227, SNG Cop 104 ff., SNG Lockett 1713, VF, nice style, high relief bull head, weight 0.839 g, maximum diameter 9.4 mm, die axis 315mo, Phokikon mint, c. 449 - 447 B.C.; obverse Φ−O, facing bull head, parallel lines for hair; reverse forepart of boar right, stippled hide, both legs showing, right foreleg bent; $160.00 (€139.20)
Persian Empire, Lycia, Uncertain Dynasts, c. 520 - 480 B.C.
In 546 B.C., Lycia was involuntary incorporated into the Persian Empire. The local population was decimated, and the area received an influx of Persians. Lycia fought for Persia in the Greco-Persian Wars. Intermittently free after the Greeks defeated the Achaemenid Empire, it briefly joined the Delian League, it seceded and became independent, was under the Persians again, revolted again, was conquered by Mausolus of Caria, returned to the Persians, and went under Macedonian hegemony at the defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Great.
Cyzicus was one of the great cities of the ancient world. During the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.) Cyzicus was subject to the Athenians and Lacedaemonians alternately. In the naval Battle of Cyzicus in 410, an Athenian fleet completely destroyed a Spartan fleet. At the peace of Antalcidas in 387, like the other Greek cities in Asia, it was made over to Persia. Alexander the Great captured it from the Persians in 334 B.C.
GA71821. Silver hemiobol, SNG BnF 386; SNGvA 1215, SNG Ashmolean 540, Von Fritze II 13, SNG Kayhan -, aEF, porous, weight 0.399 g, maximum diameter 9.9 mm, die axis 0o, Kyzikos (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, c. 480 - 400 B.C.; obverse forepart of boar running left, retrograde K on shoulder, tunny fish upwards behind; reverse head of roaring lion left, small facing panther head above, all within a shallow incuse square; $125.00 (€108.75)
Nemausus, Gaul, 120 - 60 B.C.
The Volcae Arecomici surrendered of their own accord to the Roman Republic in 121 B.C., after which they occupied the Roman province of GalliaNarbonensis (the area around modern day Narbonne), the southern part of Gallia Transalpina. They held their assemblies in the sacred wood of Nemausus, the site of modern Nîmes.
GB67906. Bronze AE 15, CCBM III 204 - 212; De la Tour 2698; Castelin 119; Blanchet 436, fig. 476; SNG Cop -; SNG Dreer -, VF, green patina, tight flan, weight 1.827 g, maximum diameter 14.5 mm, die axis 180o, Nemausus (Nimes) mint, 120 - 60 B.C.; obverse head of Apollo left; reverseboar left, NAMA/SAT starting above, the second line in exergue; $95.00 (€82.65)
Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D.
Herakles' fourth labor was to capture the giant fear-inspiring Erymanthian Boar that lived on Mount Erymanthos in the primitive highlands of Arcadia. The centaur Chiron advised Herakles to drive the boar into thick snow. Herakles caught the boar and carried it back to Eurystheus, who was frightened, hid and begged Herakles to get rid of the beast. Three days later, Eurystheus, still trembling with fear, sent Herakles to clean the Augean stables.
RB65623. Copper quadrans, RIC II 702 var, BMCRE III 1062 var, Cohen II 341 var, SRCV II 3248 var (all refs Hercules is diademed, not laureate), VF, green patina with some edge flaking, weight 1.454 g, maximum diameter 16.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 101 A.D.; obverseIMP CAES TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate bustHercules right, Nemean lion skin tied around his neck; reverseErymanthian Boar walking right, S C in exergue; scarce; $80.00 (€69.60)
Lesbos, c. 500 - 450 B.C.
A most unusual use of illusion on a coin. The two confronting boars' heads can also be viewed as the facing head of a panther.
GA70935. Billon 1/10th stater, BMC Troas p. 151, 14; SNG Cop 287; Traité I, p. 350, 564; SNGvA 7712 var (no ethnic); SNG München 645 ff. var (same); Rosen 542 var (same), VF, dark toning, tight flan, weight 1.264 g, maximum diameter 9.6 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Koinon of Lesbos mint, c. 500 - 450 B.C.; obverse ΛEΣ (above), confrontingboar heads, creating the illusion of a facing head of a panther; reverseincuse square punch; from Matt Kreuzer, ex Mediterranean Coins; $80.00 (€69.60)
Arpi, Apulia, Italy, c. 325 - 275 B.C.
Arpi was located 20 miles inland, 5 miles north of modern Foggia. Its territory extended to the sea, and Strabo says that from the extent of the city walls one could gather that it had once been one of the greatest cities of Italy. Legend attributed its foundation to Diomedes. The figure of a horse, which appears on its coins, shows the importance of horse-breeding in the district. As a protection against the Samnites, Arpi became an ally of Rome. In the war with Pyrrhus, the Arpi aided Rome with a contingent of 4000 infantrymen and 400 cavalrymen. Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae. The consul Quintus Fabius Maximus captured it in 213 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty.
GB90740. Bronze AE 22, HN Italy 642, SNG ANS 637, SNG Cop 603, SNG München 438, SNG BnF 1228, F, weight 7.365 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 315o, Arpi mint, c. 325 - 275 B.C.; obverse laureate and bearded head of Zeus left, thunderbolt right (off flan); reverseboar right, spear above, APΠANΩN in exergue; $60.00 (€52.20)