Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "Quarter"
ATARICqSil1DR.jpg
180 viewsAthalaricus Rex
AD 526-534
Quarter-siliqua
d/ DN IVSTINIANVS AVG
r/ DN ATHALARICVS REX
2 commentsRugser
924_xlarge_87e458b449580d0ec5dba4e330aff431.jpg
28 viewsObv: Cruciform invocative monogram Type V; in the quarters: τω-cω|ΔϪ-λω; within wreath border (Θεότοκε βοήθει τῷ σῷ δούλῳ)
Rev:
SpongeBob
Cherronesos_Hemidrachm.jpg
23 viewsCherronesos Hemidrachm
480-350 BCE

Obverse: Forepart of lion right, head turned
Reverse: Quadripartite incuse square with alternating raised and sunken quarters; partial E and dolphin pellet in opposite sunken quarters

BMC 31
SNG Copenhagen 829
Weber 2413
SNG Leake 1704
2 commentsShea B
110295LG.jpg
8 viewsNorthwest Gaul, Carnutes. Ca. 100-52 B.C. Æ (16 mm, 3.12 g, 9 h). Head right / Two eagles flying right; in field, pentagram and cross with pellet in each quarter; serpent to right. Depeyrot 25; Delestrée & Tache 2582Quant.Geek
Severus_II_RIC_VI_Siscia_170a.jpg
5 Severus II23 viewsSEVERUS II
AE Quarter-Folles , Siscia, 305-306 AD

FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C, Bust r. / GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopiae, SIS in ex

RIC VI Siscia 170a Rare
Sosius
Severus_II_Siscia_171a.jpg
5 Severus II24 viewsSEVERUS II
AE Quarter-Folles, Siscia, 305-306 AD

O: SEVERVS NOB C, Laureate bust left / GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius, naked, wearing modius, holding patera and cornucopia, chalmys over l. shoulder

RIC VI Siscia 171a; Rare; Fine, rough.
Sosius
T1118LG.jpg
C POBLICIUS Q F. 80 BC91 viewsHelmeted bust of Roma right / Hercules strangling the Nemean lion; bow and quiver at left; club below. Cr. 380/1.

POBLICIA, a plebian family, but of consular rank. Its cognomen on coins is Malleolus. There are fifteen varieties, all of silver, on some of which a small hammer or mallett is engraved, evidently alluding to the surname Malleolus.

The first of Heracles' twelve labours, set by King Eurystheus (his cousin) was to slay the Nemean lion.

According to one version of the myth, the Nemean lion took women as hostages to its lair in a cave near Nemea, luring warriors from nearby towns to save the damsel in distress. After entering the cave, the warrior would see the woman (usually feigning injury) and rush to her side. Once he was close, the woman would turn into a lion and kill the warrior, devouring his remains and giving the bones to Hades.

Heracles wandered the area until he came to the town of Cleonae. There he met a boy who said that if Heracles slew the Nemean lion and returned alive within 30 days, the town would sacrifice a lion to Zeus; but if he did not return within 30 days or he died, the boy would sacrifice himself to Zeus.[3] Another version claims that he met Molorchos, a shepherd who had lost his son to the lion, saying that if he came back within 30 days, a ram would be sacrificed to Zeus. If he did not return within 30 days, it would be sacrificed to the dead Heracles as a mourning offering.

While searching for the lion, Heracles fetched some arrows to use against it, not knowing that its golden fur was impenetrable; when he found and shot the lion and firing at it with his bow, he discovered the fur's protective property when the arrow bounced harmlessly off the creature's thigh. After some time, Heracles made the lion return to his cave. The cave had two entrances, one of which Heracles blocked; he then entered the other. In those dark and close quarters, Heracles stunned the beast with his club and, using his immense strength, strangled it to death. During the fight the lion bit off one of his fingers. Others say that he shot arrows at it, eventually shooting it in the unarmoured mouth.

After slaying the lion, he tried to skin it with a knife from his belt, but failed. He then tried sharpening the knife with a stone and even tried with the stone itself. Finally, Athena, noticing the hero's plight, told Heracles to use one of the lion's own claws to skin the pelt.

When he returned on the thirtieth day carrying the carcass of the lion on his shoulders, King Eurystheus was amazed and terrified. Eurystheus forbade him ever again to enter the city; in future he was to display the fruits of his labours outside the city gates. Eurystheus warned him that the tasks set for him would become increasingly difficult. He then sent Heracles off to complete his next quest, which was to destroy the Lernaean hydra.

The Nemean lion's coat was impervious to the elements and all but the most powerful weapons. Others say that Heracles' armour was, in fact, the hide of the lion of Cithaeron.
ecoli
10.jpg
County of Tripoli, Bohemond V, 1233 - 1251 Billon denier 70 viewsCounty of Tripoli, Bohemond V, 1233 - 1251 Billon denier
R : + CIVITAS TRIPOL, eight pointed star, annulets between the rays
O : + BAMVND' COMS, cross pattée, three pellets in upper right quarter
CCS 19
Vladislavs D
101.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III (1152-87), Æ Pougeoise, (c.1173-1187)157 views County of Tripoli, Raymond III (1152-87), Æ Pougeoise, (c.1173-1187), Tripoli mint +CIVITAS, towered gateway, rev., +TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommettée, circle in centre, crescent in each quarter, (CCS 13)Vladislavs D
32264q00~0.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise48 views County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise
O : + CIVITAS fortified gateway, five rows of masonry, five crenellations, large divided door
R : + TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommetée, circle in center, crescent and pellet in each quarter
CCS 13
Ex FORUM ; Ex Malloy
Vladislavs D
max207x.JPG
Maximinus II RIC 171B Siscia17 viewsMaximinus II quarter follis, 305-306 CE
Obverse: MAXIMINVS NOBC, laureate bust right.
Reverse: GENIO POP_VLI ROMANI , Genius standing left, modius on headn naked but for chlamys over shoulder, holding patera and cornucopia.
SIS in ex. Siscia mint. 19.1 mm., 2.0 g.
NORMAN K
valentinien1-resitvtor-reip-cyzique.JPG
RIC.10a1(var) Valentinian I (AE4, Restitvtor Reip)17 viewsValentinian I, western roman emperor (364-375)
Quarter maiorina (?) AE4 : Restitvtor Reip (364-365, Cyzicus mint)

bronze, 17 mm diameter, 1.98 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ RESTITV-TOR REIP / SMK• in exergue; emperor standing facing left, holding l. standard and r. Victory on a globe

Divisonal emission ?
Droger
charlemagne-denier-bourges~0.JPG
D.175 Charles the Great [Charlemagne] (denier, class 3, Bourges)16 viewsCharles the Great, king of the Franks (768-840) and Holy Roman emperor (800-814)
Denier (Bourges, class 3, 781-800)

Silver, 1.18 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 3h

O/ [+CA]RLVS REX FR; cross pattée with a crescent in each quarter
R/ [+B]ITVRICA[S]; carolingian monogram KRLS

For the 3rd type of his coinage, Charles the Great introduced the famous KRLS monogram. This one contains all the letters of Karolvs : the consonants are clearly written at the edges and bound by a lozenge. The vowels are at the center of the monogram: A (using the upper part of the lozenge, O as the whole lozenge and V as the down part of the lozenge).
This monogram still appeared two centuries later in the coinage of Hugh Capet, first capetian king.
Droger
cnut-pointed-helmet.JPG
S.1158 Cnut (pointed helmet penny, London)17 viewsCnut, king of England (1016-1035)
Pointed helmet penny (moneyer: Edwerd, mint: London, 1024-1030)

A/ +CNVT: - RECX A: around central circle enclosing bust in pointed helmet left holding scepter
R/ +ELEDERD ON LV(ND): around central circle enclosing quarters of short voided cross with circles in centre

silver, 1.04 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 7h

Peck marks are very common on these pennies. A large part of them was minted in order to pay the danegeld (tax raised to pay tribute to Vikings to save a land from their raids). These peck marks are supposed to have been made by Danes when checking the penny was in good silver.

1 commentsDroger
marseille-obole-droite.JPG
LT abs, Gaul, Massalia16 viewsMassalia (Marseille, south of France)
Circa 385-310 BC ?

Silver obol, 0.67 g, 10 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ youthful head of Apollo, right, with a visible ear and sideburns
R/ wheel with four spokes, M and A in two quarters

Marseille was founded by the Phocean Greeks circa 600 BC. This obol has obviously more greek than celtic origins.
Droger
marseille-obole-gauche.JPG
LT 681, Gaul, Massalia16 viewsMassalia (Marseille, south of France)
Circa 225-100 BC ?

Silver obol, 0.59 g, 11 mm largest diameter, die axis 11h

O/ youthful head of Apollo, left, with a visible ear and sideburns
R/ wheel with four spokes, M and A with small bullets in two of the quarters
Droger
edouard-conf-penny-hammer-cross.JPG
S.1182 Edward the Confessor (hammer cross penny, York)5 viewsEdward the Confessor, king of England (1042-1066)
Hammer cross penny (moneyer: Thorr, mint: York, 1059-1062)

A/ +EΛDPΛRD-DRE; crowned, bearded bust right, scepter before
R/ +DORR ON EOFRPICE (barred D); hammer cross, annulet in one quarter

silver, 1.40 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 6h



Droger
SEVERUS_II_B.jpg
(0306) SEVERUS II27 views306 - 307 AD
struck 305/306 AD as Caesar
AE Quarter Follis
O: VL VAL SEVERVS NOB
LAUR HEAD R
R: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
GENIUS STANDING L, MODIUS ON NEAD, NAKED EXCEPT FOR CHLAMYS, HOLDING PATERA AND CORNUCOPIAE
SIS IN EXE
SISCIA
RIC VI 170a (RARE)
(ex P.Bulgerin)
laney
romanus_iv_1.jpg
(1068) ROMANUS IV DIOGENES35 views1068 - 1071 AD
AE Follis 26.5 mm 3.42 g
o: Bust of Christ facing
R: C-R/P-Delta in quarters of cross, pellets at ends
laney
romanus_iv_2.jpg
(1068) ROMANUS IV DIOGENES21 views1068 - 1071 AD
AE Follis 27 mm 4.08 g
o: Bust of Christ facing
R: C-R/P-Delta in quarters of cross, pellets at ends
laney
MarcAnt28.jpg
- 032-031 BC - Marc Antony - RSC 28 - Legion II Denarius285 viewsMarc Antony
Date: 32-31 BC
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Legionary Denarius

Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C
Galley rt., mast with banners at prow.

Reverse: LEG II
Legionary eagle between two standards.

Mint: Most likely minted in Patrae, Marc Antony's winter headquarters.
RSC 28
3.11g; 18.0mm; 15°
2 commentsPep
DSC07230.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #3 .7 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
---------------------------------------------------
Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217) Antioch, Syria Silver Tetradrachm #3 with USA Quarter Dollar (25 cent piece) for size comparison
---------------------------------------------------
rexesq
DSC07227.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #3 .7 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
---------------------------------------------------
Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217) Antioch, Syria Silver Tetradrachm #3 with USA Quarter Dollar (25 cent piece) for size comparison
---------------------------------------------------
rexesq
DSC07228.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #3 .13 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
---------------------------------------------------
Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217) Antioch, Syria Silver Tetradrachm #3 with USA Quarter Dollar (25 cent piece) for size comparison
---------------------------------------------------
rexesq
caracalla_tets_syro-phoenician_obv_DSC07297_75%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria. Tetradrachmai, Syro - Phoenician.7 views4x Caracalla Tets, the one on the bottom row is from Tyre, Phoenicia, and has an interesting Frontal, cuirassed bust, that I have never seen before on a Tyre tet.
---
With a USA Quarter (25 cent piece) on the bottom right, for size comparison.
rexesq
caracalla_tets_syro-phoenician_rev_DSC0790_65%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria. Tetradrachmai, Syro - Phoenician.8 views4x Caracalla Tets, the one on the bottom row is from Tyre, Phoenicia, and has an interesting Frontal, cuirassed bust, that I have never seen before on a Tyre tet.
---
With a USA Quarter (25 cent piece) in the center for size comparison.
rexesq
caracalla_tets_syro-phoenician_obv_DSC0783_60%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria. Tetradrachmai, Syro - Phoenician.10 views4x Caracalla Tets, the one on the bottom row is from Tyre, Phoenicia, and has an interesting Frontal, cuirassed bust, that I have never seen before on a Tyre tet.
---
With a USA Quarter (25 cent piece) in the center for size comparison.
rexesq
DSC07494_philip-II_as-caesar_01.JPG
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front.14 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Philip II as Caesar (Prince) - Large Silver Tetradrachm
Struck in Antioch, Syria between 244 and 247 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare head of Philip II facing right. Draped and cuirassed. Bust seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on Palm branch facing, wings open holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left.
'S C' Below.

Weight: 13.03 Grams
Size: 26.3 mm* - *(at the narrowest part)
---
-
---
ex Amphora Coins

with Photo Certificate of Authenticity signed by Author of "Guide to Biblical Coins" David Hendin.
-----
*Shown next to a US 25 cent piece (quarter-dollar) for size comparison.*
----
rexesq
DSC05286.JPG
02 - Antoninus Pius - Tetradrachm - Dikaiosyne - w/ US quarter10 viewsEmperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) - silver/billon Tetradrachm.
Alexandria, Egypt.

obv: Laureate bust right.

rev: Dikaiosyne seated left holding scales of justice and cornucopiae.

Weight: 13.4 grams.
*shown with US quarter for size.
rexesq
DSC08187_DSC08191_china_10-cash_ND_o-r.JPG
02 - China, Republic - 10 Cash coin26 views-
--
The Republic of China
1920 (ND) - Ten Cash

(Titles in Chinese, some in English)

obv: Crossed Flags.

Weight: 6.5 Grams
Size: 31 mm

ex Old Pueblo Coin Exchange, Tucson, Arizona. USA.
--
-

*NOTE: Coin next to a modern USA State Quarter-Dollar (25 cents) in this photo for size comparison.
---
-
rexesq
DSC08183_china_10cash_ND_w-US-25c_obv.JPG
02 - China, Republic - 10 Cash coin.19 views-
--
The Republic of China
1920 (ND) - Ten Cash

(Titles in Chinese, some in English)

obv: Crossed Flags.

Weight: 6.5 Grams
Size: 31 mm

ex Old Pueblo Coin Exchange, Tucson, Arizona. USA.
--
-

*NOTE: Coin next to a modern USA State Quarter-Dollar (25 cents) in this photo for size comparison.
---
-
rexesq
augustus quadr-.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE quadrans - struck 5 BC67 viewsobv: GALVS.MESSALLA.III.VIR
rev: SISENNA.APRONIVS.AAA.FF / S.C.
ref: RIC I 443, C.352
mint: Rome, 3.03gms, 16mm
Moneyers Apronius, Galus, Messalla, and Sisena.

The quadrans (literally meaning "a quarter") was a low-value Roman bronze coin worth 1/4th of an as. After ca. 90 BC, when bronze coinage was reduced to the semuncial standard, the quadrans became the lowest-valued coin in production.
berserker
Andras-I_(1047-1060)_U-005_C1-012_H-009_Q-003_9h_12,5-13,3mm_0,42g-s.jpg
04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a1b4.01./121., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #0188 views04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a1b4.01./121., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #01
avers: + REX•ANDREAS in a double circle; cross in a circle with a circle in the center, (hands of three lines?); border of dots with three lines at each quarter.
reverse: + PANONEIA, Cross in a circle with a circle in the center and wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 12,5-13.3mm, weight: 0,42 g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-009, Unger-005, CNH I.-012,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 04.4./a1b4.01./121.,
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-I_(1047-1060)_U-005_C1-012_H-009_Q-002_5h_15,5mm_0,64g-s.jpg
04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a2d2.03./164., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #0199 views04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a2d2.03./164., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #01
avers: + REX•ANDREAS in a double circle; cross in a circle with a circle in the center, (hands of three lines?); border of dots with three lines at each quarter.
reverse: + PANONEIA, Cross in a circle with a circle in the center and wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 15,5mm, weight: 0,64 g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-009, Unger-005, CNH I.-012,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 04.4./a2d2.03./164.,
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-I_(1047-1060)_U-005_C1-012_H-009_Q-001_11h_17mm_0,60g-s.jpg
04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a5.01./053., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #01113 views04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a5.01./053., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #01
avers: + REX•ANDREAS in a double circle; cross in a circle with a circle in the center, (hands of three lines?); border of dots with three lines at each quarter.
reverse: + PANONEIA, Cross in a circle with a circle in the center and wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 0,60 g, axis: 11h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-009, Unger-005, CNH I.-012,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 04.4./a5.01./053.,
Q-001
quadrans
caracalla_silver-ant_serapis_pmtrp-xviiii-cos-iiii-pp_25c_obv_02.jpg
05 - Caracalla AR Antoninianus - Serapis 'P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII PP' . US Quarter.28 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (AD 198 - 217)
Silver Antoninianus (double denarius) Rome Mint

obv: ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped. Seen from behind.

rev: P M TR P XVIII COS IIII PP - Serapis standing with raised hand and holding a sceptre in other.

5.03 Grams

**Slightly off color due to new lighting setup**
rexesq
LarryW1905.jpg
0666 Focas 602-61047 viewsBronze three-quarter follis (30 nummi), 26.3mm, 10.1g, EF
Struck at Cyzikus, 609-610
[d N FOCAS] PERP AVG, bust facing wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia and cross on circlet / large XXX, cross above, stigma II (year 8) right, KYZ A in exg. Very rare type, some flatness in the striking.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins; Harlan Berk
Sear 666v; DO 77, note (Longuet collection); MIB 77 (citing two specimens -- Birmingham and Longuet collection)
Lawrence Woolslayer
Copy_of_faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_w-quarter_obv_01.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES - with US 25 Cent coin.8 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
--------------------------------
*US Quarter Dollar (25 cents) to right, for size comparison.
--------------------------------
rexesq
Copy_of_faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_w-quarter_obv_05.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES - with US 25 Cent coin.12 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
--------------------------------
*US Quarter Dollar (25 cents) to right, for size comparison.
--------------------------------
rexesq
theodosius2~0.jpg
074. Theodosius II, 402-450AD. AV Solidus.510 viewsAV Solidus. Constantinople mint. Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG - Three-quarters bust right, draped, cuirassed, holding spear over right shoulder and shield in left hand Rev: VOT XXX MVLT XXXXS - Constantinopolis seated left, holding cross on globe and scepter, her left foot sits on the prow of a galley and at rear of her throne, a shield sits; in right field, a 'star'. Exe: CONOB : AD 430-440, RIC X, 257 (s) Scarce, page 259/ 4.48 g. Choice FDC.
15 commentsLordBest
TheopSB1667.jpg
0829-0842 AD - Theophilus - Sear 1667 - Follis39 viewsEmperor: Theophilus (r. 829-842 AD)
Date: 829-842 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: ΘEOFIL' bASIL'
Three-quarter length figure facing, wearing loros and crown surmounted by tufa (which is ornamented with pellets); he holds labarum in right hand and globus cruciger in left hand.

Reverse: +ΘEO / FILE AV / OVSE SV/ ICAS in four lines.

Constantinople mint
Sear 1667
6.49g; 27.0mm; 195°
Pep
vcoin4046.jpg
1.31 Crusader - Antioch98 viewsBohemund III (1163-1201)
Crusader State of Antioch
silver denier
18 mm .92 g
Malloy Antioch 65

Obv: †BOAMVNDVS
helmeted bust facing left, upward facing crescent on left, star on right

Rev: †AMTIOCNIA
Large Cross with downward facing cross in upper-right quarter
Spelling mistake - M instead of N in "Antioch"
1 commentsEcgþeow
HENRY_II_Tealby_AR_Penny.JPG
1154 - 1189, HENRY II, AR 'Tealby' Penny, Struck 1158 - 1163 at Canterbury (?), England33 viewsObverse: (HE)NRI • R(EX• A -). Crowned facing bust of Henry II, his head facing slightly to the left, holding sceptre tipped with a cross potent in his right hand. Crown has three vertical uprights each topped by a fleur-de-lis.
Reverse: + (ROGI)ER : ON : (C)A(NT) surrounding short cross potent within beaded circle, small cross potents in each quarter. Moneyer: Rogier, cognate with the modern English name of Roger. Mintmark: Cross potent.
Uncommonly clear Class A bust
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 4
Flan chipped and cracked
SPINK: 1337

For the first few years of Henry II's reign the coins of King Stephen continued to be produced, but in 1158, in order to restore public confidence in the currency, a new 'cross and crosslet' coinage was introduced in England which was of sufficient importance for the contemporary chroniclers to record that 'a new money was made, which was the sole currency of the kingdom.' While this coinage was acceptable in terms of weight and silver quality, it is notorious for its ugly appearance, bad craftsmanship and careless execution. In fact the 'Tealby' coinage is among the worst struck of any issue of English regal coinage, so much so that collectors consider it something of a bonus if they are able to make out the name of the moneyer, or the mint, from the letters showing.
The cross and crosslet type coinage of King Henry II is more often called 'Tealby' because of the enormous hoard of these coins which was found in late 1807 at Bayons Manor farm near Tealby in Lincolnshire. This hoard, which originally amounted to over 5,700 pieces, was first reported in the Stamford Mercury of the 6th November 1807, but unfortunately the majority of the coins, more than 5,000 of them, were sent to be melted at the Tower of London and only some 600 pieces were saved for national and important private collections.
A total of 30 mints were employed in the initial 'Tealby' recoinage, however once the recoinage was completed only 12 mints were permitted to remain active and this marks the beginning of the gradual decline in the number of mints which were used to strike English coins.
The 'Tealby' issue continued until 1180 when a new style coin of much better workmanship, the short-cross penny, was introduced.
2 comments*Alex
King_John_AR_Penny.JPG
1199 – 1216, John, AR Short cross penny, Struck 1205 - 1216 at Winchester, England22 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of the king holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand, bust extending to edge of flan.
Reverse: +ANDREV•ON•WI around voided short cross within circle, crosslets in each quarter. Moneyer: Andrev, cognate with the modern English name of Andrew.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
Class 5b
SPINK: 1351

The class four type short cross pennies of Henry II continued to be struck during the early years of John's reign, but in 1205 a recoinage was begun and new short cross pennies of better style replaced the older issues. Sixteen mints were initially employed for this recoinage but they were reduced to ten later on. All John's coins continued to bear his father's (Henry II) title of henricvs rex.

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has been the subject of much debate by historians from the 16th century onwards. These negative qualities have provided extensive material for fiction writers since the Victorian era, and even today John remains a recurring character within popular culture, primarily as a villain in films and stories regarding the Robin Hood legends.
2 comments*Alex
Maximianus-Herculeus_AE-Quarter-Follis_IMP-C-M-A-MAXIMIANVS-P-F-AVG_GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI_SIS_RIC-VI-146-p-471-2a-A-R2-_Siscia_305-AD__Q-001_0h_19mm_2,34g-s.jpg
120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 146, AE-Quarter-Follis, -/-//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, R2!!, #170 views120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 146, AE-Quarter-Follis, -/-//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, R2!!, #1
avers: IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO POP VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergue: -/-//SIS, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,34g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 305 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-146, p-471, R2!,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximianus-Herculeus_AE-Quarter-Follis_IMP-C-M-A-MAXIMIANVS-P-F-AVG_GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI_SIS_RIC-VI-146-p-471-2a-A-R2-_Siscia_305-AD__Q-002_0h_19mm_2,xxg-s.jpg
120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 146, AE-Quarter-Follis, -/-//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, R2!!, #272 views120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 146, AE-Quarter-Follis, -/-//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, R2!!, #2
avers: IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO POP VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergue: -/-//SIS, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,34g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 305 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-146, p-471, R2!,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Quarter-Follis_FL-VAL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-CAES_4a-A_GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI_XX_B_I_ALE_RIC-VI-33a_p-665_Alexandria_301-AD_C2_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Alexandria, RIC VI 033a, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #170 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Alexandria, RIC VI 033a, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO POPV LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo:XX/B/I// ALE, diameter: 25,5-28,2mm, weight: 9,11g, axis: 11h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 301 A.D., ref: RIC VI 033a, p-665, C2,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Quarter-Follis_IMP-C-CONSTANTIVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI_SIS_RIC_VI_167_p-475_Siscia_305-06_AD_Q-001_axis-0h_18-18,5mm_2,57g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 167, AE-Quarter-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, Rare!!, #1125 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 167, AE-Quarter-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, Rare!!, #1
avers:- IMP C CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO POPV LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: SIS, diameter: 18,0-18,5mm, weight: 2,57g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 305-306 A.D., ref: RIC VI 167, p-475, Rare,
Q-001
quadrans
Henry_III_short_cross_penny.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1217 - 1242 at London, England (Short cross type)2 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of Henry III holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand.
Reverse: + GIFFREI ON LVND. Voided short cross dividing legend into quarters, crosslets in each quarter of inner circle. Cross pattée in legend. Moneyer: Giffrei, cognate with the modern English name of Geoffrey.
Issue type 7c, distinguished by the degraded portrait and large lettering.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.1gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 1356C

Henry III was the eldest son of King John and came to the throne at the age of nine. He was king of England from 1216 until his death in 1272, ruling longer than any other English monarch until the reign of George III.
Henry expressed a lifelong interest in architecture and much of what constitutes the Tower of London today is a result of Henry’s work, he added several towers and a curtain wall to expand the White Tower beginning in 1238. Westminster Abbey however, is considered to be Henry's greatest building work. The project began in 1245, when Henry sent his architect Henry de Reynes to visit the French cities of Rheims, Chartres, Bourges and Amiens and Paris’s royal chapel Sainte-Chapelle to learn the Gothic technique that he much admired.
The Westminster Abbey that stood previously on the site had been erected by Edward the Confessor in 1042. Edward the Confessor was a hero of Henry’s, and he probably named his son (the future Edward I) after him. The foundations and crypt are still those of Edward the Confessor’s Abbey, but everything above ground today is the building begun by Henry III. The tomb of Edward the Confessor was moved to a new position of honour in 1269 at the very centre of the new abbey, and when Henry III died in 1272 he was buried beside Edward’s shrine in the exact position the bones of his hero had lain for 200 years.
*Alex
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England (Long cross type)45 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer: Nicole, cognate with the modern English name of Nicholas. The surname Nicole originates in the Netherlands where it was notable for its various branches, and associated status or influence. The modern given name Nicole is a French feminine derivative of the masculine given name Nicolas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
1280_-1286_Alexander_III_AR_Penny_SCOTLAND.JPG
1249 - 1286, Alexander III, AR Penny, Struck 1280 - 1286 at Roxburgh, Scotland16 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054

Alexander III's reign saw the introduction of the round halfpenny and farthing to Scottish medieval coinage.
Following the English recoinage of Edward I in 1279, Alexander introduced his second coinage which began in 1280 and ended when he died in 1286. This coin was therefore struck between those dates.

Alexander III was born at Roxburgh, he came to the throne when he was just 7 years old following the death of his father, Alexander II.
At the age of ten, in 1251, Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. Henry seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage from the Scottish kingdom. Alexander did not comply but In 1255, after a meeting between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso, he was compelled to consent to the creation of a regency representative of both monarchs.
The early years of Alexander III’s reign were dominated by a power struggle between the two factions, but when he reached the age of 21 he was able to rule in his own right. His first action was to claim control of the Western Isles which were then under the domination of Norway. The Norwegian King Haakon rejected the claim, and in 1263, responded with a formidable invasion force which sailed around the west coast of Scotland and halted off the Isle of Arran. Alexander craftily delayed negotiations until the autumn storms began which resulted in the Norwegian ships being greatly damaged. Haakon, losing patience, attacked the Scots at Largs, but the battle proved indecisive and his position became hopeless. The Norwegians set sail for home but Haakon died en route, on Orkney, towards the end of the year. In 1266, at the Treaty of Perth, Norway formally ceded the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to Scotland in return for a monetary payment.
Alexander, when only 44 years old, met his end on the night of 19th March 1286. After entertaining guests at Edinburgh Castle he decided that night that he would return home to his wife near Kinghorn. His aides advised against it because there was a storm and the party would have to travel in darkness for many miles along a treacherous coastal path. Alexander was determined to travel anyway and ignored his advisors. It is not clear what happened, but it seems he got separated from the rest of his group and his horse lost its footing in the dark. The following day Alexander's body, and that of his horse, was found on the shore at the foot of the cliffs, the King's neck was broken. In 1886, a monument to him was erected in Kinghorn, on the side of the cliffs, at the approximate location of Alexander's death.
Alexander had no heirs, which ultimately led to a war with England that lasted almost thirty years.
1 comments*Alex
Severus-II_AE-Quarter-Follis_SEVERVS-NOB-C_GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI_SIS_RIC-VI--p--2a-A-R2-_Siscia_305-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_17,5-18mm_2,39g-s.jpg
127 Severus-II. (305-306 A.D. Caesar, 306-307 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC-VI 171a, AE-Quarter-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, -/-//SIS, Genius standing left, R!!, #1130 views127 Severus-II. (305-306 A.D. Caesar, 306-307 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC-VI 171a, AE-Quarter-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, -/-//SIS, Genius standing left, R!!, #1
avers:- SEVERVS-NOB-C, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: -/-//SIS, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 2,39g, axis: 6 h,
mint: Siscia, date: A.D., ref: RIC-VI-171a, p-475, Rare,
Q-001
quadrans
Edward_I_AR_Penny_Berwick.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1296 - 1306 at Berwick-on-Tweed, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: VILLA BEREVVICI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, Class 10 Berwick Type II (Local dies). Issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 21.5mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 1415

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

In September 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland, who were the de facto heads of state until a king was chosen, asked Edward I of England to conduct the court proceedings in the dispute because the late King Alexander III had been married to Edward's sister, Margaret of England.
John Balliol, a descendant of King David I, was chosen and he was inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292. But Edward I treated both Baliol and Scotland with contempt and demanded military support for his war against France. The Scottish response was to form an alliance with the French, invade England, and launch an attack on Carlisle.
After the failure of the Scottish attack on Carlisle, Edward I marched north and, on 28th March 1296, he crossed the river Tweed which borders the two countries, with his troops. On the following day he marched on the town of Berwick, which was Scotland's most important trading port and second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain at that time.
Contemporary accounts of the number slain range anywhere from 4,000 to 20,000. ”When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred...So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.” - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon.
Berwick's garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, whose life and those of his garrison were spared after he surrendered and the English took the castle.
Berwick was recaptured by the Scots in 1318 but the town changed hands between the two countries several times during the following years until it was finally captured for the English by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, in 1482. The Scots however, did not accept this conquest for at least two centuries after this date as is evidenced by innumerable charters.
2 comments*Alex
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England14 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
Maximinus-II_AE-Quarter-Follis_GAL-VAL-MAXIMINVS-NOB-C_GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI_SIS_RIC-VI-170b-p475-4b-A-R_Siscia_305-6_AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_2,34g-s.jpg
128 Maximinus II. "Daia" (305-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 310-313 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 170b, AE-Quarter-Follis, -/-//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, R!,131 views128 Maximinus II. "Daia" (305-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 310-313 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 170b, AE-Quarter-Follis, -/-//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, R!,
avers:- GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB C, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO POPV LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: -/-//SIS, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,47g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 305-06 A.D., ref: RIC VI 170b, p-475, R!,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Edward_II_AR_Penny_Bury_St_Edmunds.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1307 at Bury St. Edmunds, England3 viewsObverse: + EDWAR R ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: VILL SCI EDMVNDI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.37gms | Die Axis: 12
Rare mint
SPINK: 1465

Class 11c penny with angular backs to C and E's in legends.

Edward II was born on 25 April 1284, the fourth son of Edward I of England and when Edward I died in July 1307 Edward II became king because his three elder brothers were already dead. Edward II was the first English prince to hold the title prince of Wales, which was bestowed on him by his father in 1301.
Unfortunately Edward II had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval king. He surrounded himself with favourites, the best known being Piers Gaveston who he recalled from exile, Edward I having banished him to France due to his bad influence on his son. Furthermore, Edward II gave Gaveston the earldom of Cornwall, a title which had previously only been conferred on royalty.
Opposition to the king and his favourite began almost immediately, and in 1311 the nobles issued the 'Ordinances', in an attempt to limit royal control of finance and appointments. Gaveston was twice exiled at the demand of the barons, only for him to return to England shortly afterwards. However, in 1312, he was captured by the barons and executed.
In 1314, Edward invaded Scotland where he was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn. So bad was this for Edward's rule that by the following year parts of England had fallen into anarchy and power was in the hands of the barons headed by Edward's cousin Thomas of Lancaster, who had virtually made himself the real ruler of England.
By 1318, Edward and Lancaster had been partly reconciled, but the king now had two new favourites, Hugh le Despenser and his son. When Edward supported the two Despensers' ambitions in Wales the barons banished both father and son. This prompted Edward to fight back and he defeated Lancaster at Boroughbridge in March 1322, Lancaster was executed him and the Despensers were called back to Edward's court.
But now, Edward's wife, Isabella of France, emerged as a focus of opposition. In 1325, she was sent on a diplomatic mission to France where she met and became the mistress of Roger Mortimer, an exiled opponent of Edward. In September 1326, Isabella and Mortimer invaded England. There was virtually no resistance and the Despensers were captured and executed. Defeated, Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son Edward who was crowned Edward III in January 1327.
Edward II was imprisoned at Berkeley Castle and later murdered there.
*Alex
Edward_2_Crozier.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1311 - 1316 at Durham, England21 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS DVNELM. Long cross, the upper limb of which is in the form of a bishop's crozier, dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 7
Rare
SPINK: 1469

Undated Penny, Class 11a, struck under Bishop Kellawe. Bishop Kellawe was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in 1311 but he died in 1316 so this coin was struck during the five years between those two dates. These coins were sometimes called “poker pennies” because the shape of the crozier on the reverse is reminiscent of an old iron fireside poker. It's an unfortunate nickname considering the reputed manner of the King's death.

Edward II
Edward II was crowned King of England when his father, Edward I, died in 1307. However Edward II caused discontent among the barons by his close relationship with Piers Gaveston and in 1311 the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms which included Gaveston being banished. Angered, Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite, but in 1312 a group of barons, led by the Earl of Lancaster, seized and executed Gaveston.
The war with Scotland was not going well either, the English forces were pushed back and in 1314 Edward was decisively defeated by the Scottish King, Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Bannockburn.
When this was followed by a widespread famine in England opposition to Edward II's reign grew until, in 1325, when Edward's wife, Isabella, was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty she turned against Edward, allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and refused to return. In 1326, Mortimer and Isabella invaded England with a small army. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, but he was soon captured and in January 1327 he was forced to relinquish his crown in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III. Edward II died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September the same year, reputedly horrifically murdered on the orders of the new regime by having a red hot poker inserted into his rectum.

Bishop Kellawe, Bishop of Durham
Richard de Kellawe was sub-prior at St. Cuthbert's, Durham, and on the death of Antony Bek in 1311, Kellawe was chosen to replace him as Bishop of Durham by the monks. The palatinate of Durham was at this time in a deplorable condition owing to the Scottish wars, and in 1312 Kellawe even received a papal dispensation for not attending the council at Vienne in consideration of the state of his province. Troubles with the Scots continued after Bannockburn and the Palatinate was now so exhausted that it could not even provide for its own defence and Bishop Kellawe had to purchase peace with a levy of fifteen hundred men and a gift of one thousand marks.
On 10th October 1316, at Middleham, Bishop Kellawe died. He was buried in the chapter-house at Durham. His grandly adorned tomb was destroyed when the chapter house was demolished in 1796.
2 comments*Alex
Edward_III_AR_Penny.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, AR Penny, Treaty Period, struck 1361 – 1369 at London, England9 viewsObverse: + EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Crowned bust of Edward III facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil and annulet in each quarter of inner circle.
This coin was struck during the period of the Treaty of Brétigny under which Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1630

Edward III was King of England from January 1327 until his death. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. During his long reign Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, though it also saw the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. But at the age of seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, whom he executed, and began his personal reign.
In 1337, after a successful campaign in Scotland, Edward declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne which started what was to become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the first part of this war went exceptionally well for England, the victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny in which, though Edward renounced his claim to the French throne, England made great territorial gains. However Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Around 29 September 1376 Edward fell ill with a large abscess and, after a brief period of recovery, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, since the Black Prince, Edward's son and Richard's father, had predeceased Edward on 8 June 1376.
2 comments*Alex
RI 135e img.jpg
135 - Carus Ant. - RIC 013 Bust Type F18 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR CARVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVGG, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and sceptre
Minted in Lugdunum (B | _). 1st Quarter A.D. 283
Reference:– Cohen 48, Bastien 509 (29). RIC 13 Bust type F
maridvnvm
RI 135a img~0.jpg
135 - Carus Ant. - RIC 024 Bust Type F32 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR CARVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA AVGG, Victory, standing left on globe, holding wreath, two captives beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (A in left field) Emission 4 Officina 1. 1st quarter A.D. 283
Reference:– Cohen 99. Bastien 502, RIC 24 Bust type F
maridvnvm
RI 135f img.jpg
135 - Carus Ant. - RIC 024 var41 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR CARVS AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA AVGG, Victory, standing left on globe, holding wreath, two captives beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (A in left field) Emission 4 Officina 1. 1st quarter A.D. 283
Reference:– Cohen 100. Bastien 474 (11 examples cited), RIC 24 var (Not listed with this bust type in RIC)
maridvnvm
RI_136l_img.jpg
136 - Numerian Ant. - RIC 353 Bust Type C (As Caesar) 20 viewsObv:– M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARS VICTOR, Mars walking right holding trophy and spear
Minted in Lugdunum (C in right field) Emission 4 Officina 3. 1st Quarter A.D. 283
References:– Cohen 18. RIC V part 2 353 Bust Type C. Bastien 519 (28 examples)
Martin Griffiths
RI_136p_img.jpg
136 - Numerian Ant. - RIC 356 Bust Type C (As Caesar) 18 viewsObv:– M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Prince standing left holding globe and inverted spear
Minted in Lugdunum (Retrograde C in left field) Emission 4 Officina 3. 1st Quarter A.D. 283
References:– Cohen 72. RIC V part 2 356 Bust Type C. Bastien 517 (6 examples)
Martin Griffiths
RI_136s_img.jpg
136 - Numerian Ant. - RIC 384 var58 viewsObv:– IMP C NVMERIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding sceptre over left shoulder
Rev:– FELICITAS AVGG, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus, leaning on column
Minted in Lugdunum (B | _) Emission 8 Officina 2. 1st quarter A.D. 284
Ref:– Cohen -. Bastien 588 (3 examples cited). RIC 384 var (Not listed with this bust type in RIC)
2 commentsMartin Griffiths
RI 137h img.jpg
137 - Carinus - RIC V part II Lugdunum 150 Bust Type C17 viewsObv:– CARINVS NOBIL CAES, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Prince standing left holding globe and inverted spear
Minted in Lugdunum (Retrograde C in left field). Emission 4, Officina 3. 1st Quarter A.D. 283
Reference:– Cohen 92. Bastien 516 (9 examples cited). RIC 150 Bust type C
maridvnvm
RI 137i img.jpg
137 - Carinus - RIC V part II Lugdunum 152 Bust Type C9 viewsObv:– CARINVS NOBIL CAES, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SAECVLI FELICITAS, Prince standing right holding spear and globe
Minted in Lugdunum (D in right field). Emission 4, Officina 4. 1st Quarter A.D. 283
Reference:– RIC 152 Bust type C
maridvnvm
ROBERT_II_AR_Groat_of_Perth.JPG
1371 – 1390, Robert II, AR Groat minted at Perth, Scotland4 viewsObverse: + ROBERTVS DEI GRA REX SCOTORVM. Crowned bust of Robert II facing left, sceptre topped with a lis and with a star at its base before, within double tressure of six arches broken at the king's neck, small trefoils in spandrels, surrounded by beaded inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattée in legend and small crosses in spaces between words. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Reverse: + DnS PTECTOR MS ┼ LIBATOR MS (God is my protector and redeemer) / VILLA DE PERTh X. Long cross pattée dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, pierced mullet in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattées in both inner and outer legends, but cross set as saltire in inner legend, small cross over crescent after DnS in outer legend. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 3.87gms | Die Axis: 12
SPINK: 5136 | SCBI: 35, 460-72

Robert II's coinage was maintained at the same standard and in the same general style as that of David’s last issue, but coins were struck at Perth and Dundee in addition to those of the Edinburgh mint.

Robert II was the first Scottish king of the Stewart line, he was the son of Walter, the sixth hereditary High Steward of Scotland, and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce. Robert II acted as regent during part of the period of imprisonment in England of David II and was himself imprisoned in England when Edward III was declared to be David’s successor. The Scots never accepted this arrangement and, after several years of secret negotiations between David II and Edward III, in 1370 Robert was released. He peacefully succeeded to the throne on David II's death the following year.
Robert II succeeded to the throne at the age of 54 and was viewed by many in his kingdom as past his best. In November 1384 he was effectively deposed by his eldest son John, Earl of Carrick. John, however, was seriously injured after being kicked by a horse, and Robert II's second son, Robert, Earl of Fife, later the Duke of Albany, was appointed as Guardian of Scotland instead. Robert II died at Dundonald Castle on 19 April 1390, and was buried at Scone. He was succeeded by his son John, who confusingly took the name Robert III, probably because in Scotland "John" was a name too closely associated with John Balliol, the erstwhile protégé of Edward I.
*Alex
Richard_II_halfpenny.JPG
1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England7 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
1 comments*Alex
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
Henry_V_AR_Penny_of_York.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, AR Penny struck at York, England2 viewsObverse: + HENRICVS REX ANGLIE. Crowned facing bust of Henry V, mullet (left) and trefoil (right) at each side of crown, all within circle of pellets. Pierced cross in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS ‡ EBORACI. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle, incuse quatrefoil in centre of cross.
York, Class F (Local dies)
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1788

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
*Alex
Henry_VI_AR_Halfpenny.JPG
1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France30 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*Alex
Edward_IV_AR_Groat_London.JPG
1471 - 1483, EDWARD IV (Second Reign), AR Groat, Struck 1477 - 1480 at London, England24 viewsObverse: EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL (Z FRANC +). Crowned bust of Edward IV facing within tressure of arches, trefoils on cusps, all within beaded circle. Small crosses in spaces between words in legend. Mintmark, off-flan, pierced cross.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM +/ CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, pierced cross, small crosses between words in outer legend.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 2096 var. (DEI rather than DI in obverse legend)

Edward IV was King of England from March 1461 to October 1470, and again from April 1471 until his sudden death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 and there were no further rebellions in England during the rest of his reign.
In 1475, Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais in June. However, his ally Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, failed to provide any significant military assistance leading Edward to undertake negotiations with the French, with whom he came to terms under the Treaty of Picquigny. France provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to "recoup his finances.” Edward also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and brother of King James III of Scotland, to take the Scottish throne in 1482. Edward's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester (and future King Richard III) led an invasion of Scotland that resulted in the capture of Edinburgh and the Scottish king himself. Alexander Stewart, however, reneged on his agreement with Edward. The Duke of Gloucester then withdrew from his position in Edinburgh, though he did retain Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Edward became subject to an increasing number of ailments when his health began to fail and he fell fatally ill at Easter in 1483. He survived long enough though to add some codicils to his will, the most important being to name his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9th April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded first by his twelve-year-old son Edward V of England, who was never crowned, and then by his brother who reigned as Richard III.
It is not known what actually caused Edward's death. Pneumonia, typhoid and poison have all been conjectured, but some have attributed his death to an unhealthy lifestyle because he had become stout and inactive in the years before his death.
2 comments*Alex
1488-1513_JAMES_IV_PLACK.JPG
1488 - 1513, James IV, Billon Plack (Groat), Struck 1488 - 1513 at Edinburgh, Scotland24 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ★ 4 : DEI ★ GRACIA ★ REX ★ SCOTTO. Crowned shield bearing lion rampant within a tressure of four arcs, crown on each side of the shield and fleur-de-lis in all the spandrels. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Reverse: + VILLA ★ DE EDINBVRG. Floriate cross fourchée with a saltire in the centre. Crown in each quarter of the cross. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Type IV issue. Scarce
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.4gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5352

James IV was the King of Scotland from June 1488 until his death in battle at the age of 40 on the 9th September, 1513.
James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, James III, and though somewhat estranged from her husband she raised their sons at Stirling Castle until she died in 1486. Two years later, a rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader. The rebels fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn where, on 11th June 1488, the king was killed. Prince James assumed the throne as James IV and was crowned at Scone on 24th of June. However he continued to bear an intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father.
James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France, and this occasionally created diplomatic problems with England, but James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, and established good diplomatic relations with England as well. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497, then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII which was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year. Anglo-Scottish relations generally remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509.
James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence, he founded two new dockyards and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy. These including the “Great Michael” which, built at great expense, was launched in 1511 and was at that time the largest ship in the world.
When war broke out between England and France, James found himself in a difficult position as an ally by treaty to both countries. But relations with England had worsened since the accession of Henry VIII, and when Henry invaded France, James reacted by declaring war on England.
James sent the Scottish navy, including the “Great Michael”, to join the ships of Louis XII of France and, hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence at the siege of Thérouanne, he himself led an invading army southward into Northumberland. However, on 9th September 1513 at the disastrous Battle of Flodden James IV was killed, he was the last monarch in Great Britain to be killed in battle. His death, along with many of his nobles including his son the archbishop of St Andrews, was one of the worst military defeats in Scotland's history and the loss of such a large portion of the political community was a major blow to the realm. James IV's corpse was identified after the battle and taken to Berwick, where it was embalmed and placed in a lead coffin before being transported to London. Catherine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, sent the dead king's slashed, blood-stained surcoat to Henry, who was fighting in France, with the recommendation that he use it as a war banner.
James IV's son, James V, was crowned three weeks after the disaster at Flodden, but he was not yet two years old, and his minority was to be fraught with political upheaval.
2 comments*Alex
Edward_VI_AR_Shilling.JPG
1547 - 1553, EDWARD VI, AR Shilling, Struck 1551 - 1553 at London, England45 viewsObverse: EDWARD:VI:D:G:AGL:FRA:Z:HIB(:R)EX•Y: Crowned facing bust of Edward VI head turned slightly to left. Tudor rose to left of bust and XII to right; mintmark Y, in legend after REX above.
Reverse: POSV(I) DEV:ADIVTORE:MEVM:Y. Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; mintmark Y, in legend after MEVM.
Diameter: 33mm | Weight: 5.8gms | Die Axis: 2 | Holed
SPINK: 2482

In 1551 Edward VI issued a new fine silver coinage, his previous silver issues having been very debased. The sixpence denomination was first introduced at this time. It was similar to the new shilling above in having a facing portrait of the king with a tudor rose to the left, but the denomination value to the right of the King's portrait was VI on the sixpence instead of the XII seen on the shilling.
3 comments*Alex
Mary_Tudor___as_found.JPG
1553 - 1558, Mary I Tudor, AR Groat, Struck 1553 - 1554 at London, England4 viewsObverse: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI. Crowned bust of Mary I, wearing pearl necklace with pendant, facing left. Mintmark in legend after MARIA, pomegranate.
Reverse: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA. Long cross fourchée over quartered royal arms. Mintmark in legend after VERITAS, pomegranate.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 1.7gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2492

Although this coin is undated, Mary married Philip of Spain on the 25th of July, 1554 and thereafter his name appears along with Mary's in the inscriptions on the coinage. Mary only came to the throne on 1st October 1553 and, since Philip's name is absent on this coin, it would appear that it was struck during the ten months of her reign prior to her marriage.

*Alex
1594_Elizabeth_I_Sixpence.JPG
1558 - 1603, ELIZABETH I, AR Sixpence struck in 1594 at London, England17 viewsObverse: ELIZAB•D•G•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•REGI• Crowned bust of Elizabeth I of England facing left. Tudor rose behind bust and mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Reverse: POSVI DEV:ADIVTOREM:MEV: Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; 1594 above; mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.5gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 2578A

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
1 comments*Alex
157.jpg
157 Leo I. AV solidus 4.5gm13 viewsobv: DN LEO PE_RPET AVG dia. elm. and cuir. three quarter facing bust, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman
rev: VICTORI_A AVGGG Victory std. l. holding long jeweled cross, star in r. field
ex: H/CONOB
hill132
158.jpg
158 Zeno. AV solidus 4.5gm13 viewsobv: DN ZENO PERP AVG helm. dia. cuir. three quarter facing bust, spear over r. shoulder, shield with horseman
rev: VICTORI_A AVGGG Victory std. l. holding long jeweled cross, star in r. field
ex: (delta)//CONOB
hill132
159.jpg
159 Basiliscus. AV solidus 4.4gm18 viewsobv: DN BASILIS_CV PP AVG pearl dia. helm. three quarter facing bust. r., holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman
rev: VICTORI_A AVGGG victory std. l. holding long cross, star in r. field
ex: CONOB
hill132
James_I_AR_Sixpence.JPG
1603 - 1625, JAMES I (JAMES VI of Scotland), AR Sixpence struck in 1605 at London2 viewsObverse: IACOBVS•D:G:MAG:BRIT:FRA:ET•HIB:REX. Crowned and armoured bust of James I of England facing right, VI in field behind bust and mintmark (Rose) in legend above.
Reverse: •QUAE•DEVS•CONIVNXIT•NEMO•SEPARET• Square topped shield bearing the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland; 1605 above. Mintmark (rose) in legend.
Second coinage (1604 – 1619) and fourth bust with long square cut beard.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2658

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
With the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England, reigning there as James I, the royal titles and the coat of arms were altered on the coinage. The Scottish lion rampant and the Irish harp now made their appearance in the second and third quarters of the royal coat of arms of the newly formed United Kingdom and, from 1604, MAG BRIT replaced ANG SCO in the King's titles.

The infamous “Gunpowder Plot” took place on November the fifth in the year this coin was struck. The plot, to blow up the English Houses of Parliament, was foiled when a Justice of the Peace, Sir Thomas Knyvet, was secretly informed of a Catholic plot and, after giving orders for a search of the area, discovered Guy Fawkes in a cellar below the Parliament building. Thirty-six barrels of gunpowder were found and Guy Fawkes was arrested for treason and charged with trying to kill King James along with the members of Parliament who were scheduled to sit together next day.
Guy Fawkes, also known as Guido Fawkes, was tortured and questioned over the next few days and eventually confessed. He was sentenced to being hung, drawn and quartered. However, immediately before his execution on the 31st of January 1606 he fell from the scaffold where he was about to be hanged and broke his neck, so avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed.
Guy Fawkes has become synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot which has been commemorated in Britain on the 5th of November ever since. His effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, usually accompanied by a fireworks display.
When I was young, on the run-up to “bonfire night”, children used to make their own “Guy” and then tout it through the streets with cries of “Penny for the Guy” something like today's Hallowe'en “trick or treat”. But this has pretty much died out now having been replaced by officially staged events.
*Alex
commodus as-.jpg
166-177 AD - COMMODUS Caesar AE As - struck 175-176 AD49 viewsobv: COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM (draped bust right)
rev: SPES PVBLICA (Spes walking left holding flower & raising hem of skirt), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1544 (M.Aurelius), C.710
mint: Rome
8.92gms, 25mm
Scarce

Commodus is known to have been at Carnuntum, Marcus Aurelius’s headquarters during the Marcomannic Wars, in 172. It was presumably there that, on 15 October 172, he was given the victory title Germanicus in the presence of the army. The title suggests that Commodus was present at his father’s victory over the Marcomanni. Even the title of Sarmaticus he was given in 175.
During the preparations for the campaign against Cassius in Syria, the prince assumed his toga virilis on the Danubian front on July 7, 175, thus formally entering adulthood.
berserker
ELIZABETH_I_1794.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester, Sussex15 viewsObverse: QUEEN ELIZABETH •. Three-quarter facing crowned bust of Queen Elizabeth I right, sceptre resting on her right shoulder.
Reverse: CHICHESTER HALFPENNY •. View of Chichester Cross; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: PAYABLE AT DALLY'S CHICHESTER + + + +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. Little is known about the issuer of the token, seemingly to have been Dally and Son who were drapers in Chichester in the 18th century.

Chichester Cross is an elaborate perpendicular market cross standing at the intersection of the four principal streets in the centre of the city of Chichester, West Sussex. According to the inscription upon it, this cross was built by Edward Story, Bishop of Chichester from 1477 to 1503, but little is known for certain and the style and ornaments of the building suggest that it may date from the reign of Edward IV. It was apparently built so that the poor people should have somewhere to sell their wares, and as a meeting point. An earlier wooden cross had been erected on the same site by Bishop Rede (1369-1385). The stone cross, which underwent repairs during the reign of Charles II and again in 1746, still stands to this day.
3 comments*Alex
1794_LACKINGTON_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. J. Lackington, London, Middlesex.36 viewsObverse: J. LACKINGTON ✤. Three-quarter facing bust of J.Lackington left, 1794 below.
Reverse: HALFPENNY OF LACKINGTON • ALLEN & Co ★ / CHEAPEST BOOKSELLERS IN THE WORLD • in a double line of text around Fame, portrayed as a winged female figure facing right, head left, holding a laurel-wreath and blowing a trumpet.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE TEMPLE OF THE MUSES ★ / ★ / ★.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 353

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Roger Dixon.
It was issued by James Lackington who was a bookseller with a large business at his premises known as “The Temple of the Muses”, No 32 Finsbury Place South, Finsbury Square, London. This token marked the sale of a 25% interest in his company to Robert Allen.
*Alex
17o-Crispus-Aqu-009.jpg
17o. Crispus: Aquileia.17 viewsAE3, 317, Aquileia mint.
Obverse: CRISPVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Crispus.
Reverse: PRINCIPIA IVVENTVTIS / Crispus standing, helmeted and in military dress, cloak over shoulder, resting his shield on ground, holding spear.
Mint mark: AQT
3.71 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #9; PBCC #748; Sear 16709.

The reverse legend of this coin is unique in all of Roman coinage. It can not be a simple spelling error -- PRINCIPIA (military headquarters) for PRINCIPI (Prince) -- because it exists on coins from several different mints. Thus it has got to be taken as referring to the military training given to Crispus and his commission to Gaul in 317 - 318.
Callimachus
1875H_VICTORIA_BUN_HEAD_FARTHING_.JPG
1875 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING34 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1875, small "H" below, in exergue.
Diameter: 20mm
SPINK: 3959

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny_1876H.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY5 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3957

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1876H_Victoria_Penny.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY9 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3955

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
AugustusDenApollo.jpg
1ai Augustus25 views27 BC-14 AD

Denarius
Laureate head left, AVGVSTVS DIVI F
Apollo stg. Right, IMP XII

Van Meter notes that after about 15 BC, Augustus moved the production of gold and silver to Lugdunum and underscored the end of the moneyer issues by using "IMP" on the reverse.

RIC 180

Suetonius summarized Augusts' life in these words: He lost his father at the age of five (58BC). At twelve he delivered a funeral oration in honour of his grandmother Julia, Julius Caesar’s sister (51BC). At sixteen, having assumed the toga, he was decorated by Caesar during the African triumph (46BC) even though he had been too young to fight. When Caesar went to conquer Pompey’s sons in Spain (in 46BC), Augustus followed, despite still being weak from severe illness, and despite being shipwrecked on the way, with a minimal escort, over roads menaced by the enemy, so endearing himself greatly to Caesar, who quickly formed a high opinion of Augustus’ character, beyond merely his energetic pursuit of the journey.
After recovering the Spanish provinces, Caesar planned an expedition against the Dacians, to be followed by an attack on Parthia, and sent Augustus ahead (in 45BC) to Apollonia in Illyria, where he spent his time studying. When news came of Caesar’s assassination (in 44BC), and that the will named him as the main heir, Augustus considered seeking protection from the legions quartered there. However he decided it would be rash and premature, and chose to return to Rome, and enter on his inheritance, despite the doubts expressed by his mother, and strong opposition from his stepfather, the ex-consul Marcius Philippus.

Augustus went on to levy armies and rule the State; firstly for a twelve-year period (from 43BC to 30BC), initially with Mark Antony and Lepidus and then (from 33BC) with Antony alone; and later by himself for a further forty-four years (to his death in AD14).

In his youth he was betrothed to Servilia, the daughter of Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus, but on his reconciliation with Mark Antony following their first dispute, the troops begged them to become allied by some tie of kinship, and he married (in 43BC) Claudia, Antony’s stepdaughter, born to Fulvia and Publius Clodius Pulcher, even though Claudia was barely of marriageable age. However he quarrelled with Fulvia, and divorced Claudia before the marriage had been consummated.

Not long afterwards (in 40BC), he married Scribonia, whose previous husbands had been ex-consuls, and to one of whom she had borne a child. He divorced her also ‘tired’, he wrote, ‘of her shrewish ways,’ and immediately took Livia Drusilla from her husband Tiberius Nero though she was pregnant at the time (38BC), loving and esteeming her alone to the end.
Blindado
OthoDenSecuritas.jpg
1au Otho36 views69

Denarius
Bewigged head, right, IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P
Securitas stg., SECVRITAS P R

RIC 10

Suetonius wrote: Otho was born on the 28th of April 32 AD, in the consulship of Furius Camillus Arruntius and Domitius Ahenobarbus, Nero’s father. In early youth he was so profligate and insolent that he earned many a beating from his own father. . . . After his father died, he feigned love for an influential freedwoman at Court, though she was old and decrepit, in order to win her favour, and then used her to insinuate himself among the emperor’s friends, easily achieving the role of Nero’s chief favourite, not only because they were of a similar disposition, but also some say because of a sexual relationship. . . .

Otho had hoped to be adopted by Galba as his successor, and anticipated the announcement daily. But Piso was chosen, dashing Otho’s hopes, and causing him to resort to force, prompted not only by feelings of resentment but also by his mounting debts. He declared that frankly he would have to declare himself bankrupt, unless he became emperor. . . . When the moment was finally ripe, . . . his friends hoisted him on their shoulders and acclaimed him Emperor. Everyone they met joined the throng, as readily as if they were sworn accomplices and a part of the conspiracy, and that is how Otho arrived at his headquarters, amidst cheering and the brandishing of swords. He at once sent men to kill Galba and Piso. . . .

Meanwhile the army in Germany had sworn allegiance to Vitellius. When the news reached Otho he persuaded the Senate to send a deputation, advising the soldiers to maintain peace and order, since an emperor had already been chosen. However he also sent envoys with letters and personal messages, offering to share power with Vitellius, and marry his daughter. With civil war clearly inevitable, on the approach of Vitellius’s advance guard, who had marched on Rome led by their generals, . . . Otho began his campaign vigorously, and indeed too hastily. . . .

His army won three engagements, but of a minor nature, firstly in the Alps, then near Placentia, and finally at a place called Castor’s, and were ultimately defeated in a decisive and treacherous encounter at Betriacum (on the 14th April). . . . After this defeat, Otho resolved to commit suicide, more from feelings of shame, which many have thought justified, and a reluctance to continue the struggle with such high cost to life and property, than from any diffidence or fear of failure shown by his soldiers. . . . On waking at dawn (on the 16th of April, AD69), he promptly dealt himself a single knife-blow in the left side of his chest, and first concealing and then showing the wound to those who rushed in at the sound of his groaning, he breathed his last. . . . Otho was thirty-six years old when he died, on the ninety-second day of his reign. . . .

Neither his bodily form nor appearance suggested great courage. He is said to have been of medium height, bandy-legged and splay-footed, though as fastidious as a woman in personal matters. He had his body-hair plucked, and wore a toupee to cover his scanty locks, so well-made and so close-fitting that its presence was not apparent.
Blindado
MarcAurelSestSalus.jpg
1bj Marcus Aurelius95 views161-180

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM
Salus stg, SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII COS III SC

RIC 843

The Historia Augusta relates: He was reared under the eye of Hadrian, who called him Verissimus. . . . And so he was adopted in his eighteenth year, and at the instance of Hadrian exception was made for his age and he was appointed quaestor for the year of the second consulship of Antoninus [Pius], now his father. . . . After Hadrian's death, Pius immediately got his wife to ask Marcus if he would break off his betrothal to the daughter of Lucius Commodus and marry their own daughter Faustina (whom Hadrian had wanted to marry Commodus' son, even though he was badly matched in age). After thinking the matter over, Marcus replied he was willing. And when this was done, Pius designated him as his colleague in the consulship, though he was still only quaestor, gave him the title of Caesar. . . .

When Antoninus Pius saw that the end of his life was drawing near, having summoned his friends and prefects, he commended Marcus to them all and formally named him as his successor in the empire. . . . Being forced by the senate to assume the government of the state after the death of the Deified Pius, Marcus made his brother his colleague in the empire, giving him the name Lucius Aurelius Verus Commodus and bestowing on him the titles Caesar and Augustus.

Eutropius summarizes: They carried on a war against the Parthians, who then rebelled for the first time since their subjugation by Trajan. Verus Antoninus went out to conduct that war, and, remaining at Antioch and about Armenia, effected many important achievements by the agency of his generals; he took Seleucia, the most eminent city of Assyria, with forty thousand prisoners; he brought off materials for a triumph over the Parthians, and celebrated it in conjunction with his brother, who was also his father-in-law. He died in Venetia. . . . After him MARCUS ANTONINUS held the government alone, a man whom any one may more easily admire than sufficiently commend. He was, from his earliest years, of a most tranquil disposition; so that even in his infancy he changed countenance neither for joy nor for sorrow. He was devoted to the Stoic philosophy, and was himself a philosopher, not only in his way of life, but in learning. . . .

Under his rule affairs were successfully conducted against the Germans. He himself carried on one war with the Marcomanni, but this was greater than any in the memory of man,so that it is compared to the Punic wars. . . . Having persevered, therefore, with the greatest labour and patience, for three whole years at Carnuntum,14 he brought the Marcomannic war to an end; a war which the Quadi, Vandals, Sarmatians, Suevi, and all the barbarians in that quarter, had joined with the Marcomanni in raising; he killed several thousand men, and, having delivered the Pannonians from slavery, triumphed a second time at Rome with his son Commodus Antoninus, whom he had previously made Caesar. . . . Having, then, rendered the state happy, both by his excellent management and gentleness of disposition, he died in the eighteenth year of his reign and the sixty-first of his life, and was enrolled among the gods, all unanimously voting that such honour should be paid him.
3 commentsBlindado
TrebGallusAEVim.jpg
1cu Trebonianus Gallus24 views251-253

AE Viminacium

Laureate, draped bust, right, IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
Moesia standing facing, head left, hands outstretched over a bull and a lion at her sides, PMS COL VIM

Moushmov 56

For Gallus' perfidy against Decius, see the Decius entry. Zosimus reports regarding Gallus' reign: Gallus, who declared his son Volusianus his associate in the empire, published an open declaration, that Decius and his army had perished by his contrivance. The Barbarians now became more prosperous than before. For Callus not only permitted them to return home with the plunder, but promised to pay them annually a sum of money, and allowed them to carry off all the noblest captives; most of whom had been taken at Philippopolis in Thrace.

Gallus, having made these regulations, came to Rome, priding himself on the peace he had made with the Barbarians. And though he at first spoke with approbation of Decius's mode of government, and adopted one of his sons, yet, after some time was elapsed, fearing that some of them who were fond of new projects might recur to a recapitulation of the princely virtues of Decius, and therefore might at some opportunity give the empire to his son, he concerted the young man's destruction, without regard either to his own adoption of him, or to common honour and justice.

Gallus was so supine in the administration of the empire, that the Scythians in the first place terrified all the neighbouring nations, and then laid waste all the countries as far by degrees as the sea coast; not leaving one nation subject to the Romans unpillaged, and taking almost all the unfortified towns, and many that were fortified. Besides the war on every side, which was insupportably burdensome to them, the cities and villages were infested with a pestilence, which swept away the remainder of mankind in those regions; nor was so great a mortality ever known in any former period.

At this crisis, observing that the emperors were unable to defend the state, but neglected all without the walls of Rome, the Goths, the Borani, the Urugundi, and the Carpi once more plundered the cities of Europe of all that had been left in them; while in another quarter, the Persians invaded Asia, in which they acquired possession of Mesopotamia, and proceeded even as far as Antioch in Syria, took that city, which is the metropolis of all the east, destroyed many of the inhabitants, and carried the remainder into captivity, returning home with immense plunder, after they had destroyed all the buildings in the city, both public and private, without meeting with the least resistance. And indeed the Persians had a fair opportunity to have made themselves masters of all Asia, had they not been so overjoyed at their excessive spoils, as to be contented with keeping and carrying home what they had acquired.

Meantime the Scythians of Europe were in perfect security and went over into Asia, spoiling all the country as far as Cappodocia, Pesinus, and Ephesus, until Aemilianus, commander of the Pannonian legions, endeavouring as much as possible to encourage his troops, whom the prosperity of the Barbarians had so disheartened that they durst not face them, and reminding them of the renown of Roman courage, surprised the Barbarians that were in that neighbourhood. Having destroyed great numbers of them, and led his forces into their country, removing every obstruction to his progress, and at length freeing the subjects of the Roman empire from their ferocity, he was appointed emperor by his army. On this he collected all the forces of that country, who were become more bold since his successes against the Barbarians, and directed his march towards Italy, with the design of fighting Gallus, who was as yet. unprepared to contend with him. For Gallus had never heard of what had occurred in the east, and therefore made only what accidental preparations were in his reach, while Valerianus went to bring the Celtic and German legions. But Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority.
Blindado
MaximianusFollisGenio.jpg
1dt Maximianus22 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
Blindado
ConstantiusChlorusFollisGenio.jpg
1du Constantius I17 views305-306

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark: SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

Also known as Constantius Chlorus.

RIC 167

After being names Caesar, according to Eutropius: A battle was fought by Constantius Caesar in Gaul, at Lingonae, where he experienced both good and had fortune in one day; for though he was driven into the city by a sudden onset of the barbarians, with such haste and precipitation that after the gates were shut he was drawn up the wall by ropes, yet, when his army came up, after the lapse of scarcely six hours, he cut to pieces about sixty thousand of the Alemanni. . . .

CONSTANTIUS and GALERIUS were made emperors; and the Roman world was divided between them in such a manner, that Constantius had Gaul, Italy, and Africa; Galerius Illyricum, Asia, and the East; two Caesars being joined with them. [Zosimus adds: Three years after Dioclesian died, and the reigning emperors, Constantius and Maximianus Gallerius declared Severus and Maximinus (who was nephew to Gallerius), the Caesars, giving all Italy to Severus, and the eastern provinces to Maximinus.] Constantius, however, content with the dignity of emperor, declined the care of governing Africa. He was an excellent man, of extreme benevolence, who studied to increase the resources of the provinces and of private persons, cared but little for the improvement of the public treasury, and used to say that "it was better for the national wealth to be in the hands of individuals than to be laid up in one place of confinement." So moderate was the furniture of his house, too, that if, on holidays, he had to entertain a greater number of friends than ordinary, his dining-rooms were set out with the plate of private persons, borrowed from their several houses. By the Gauls1 he was not only beloved but venerated, especially because, under his government, they had escaped the suspicious prudence of Diocletian, and the sanguinary rashness of Maximian. He died in Britain, at York, in the thirteenth year of his reign, and was enrolled among the gods.
Blindado
GaleriusFollisGenio.jpg
1dv Galerius21 views305-311

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMIANVS AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, holding cornucopia & patera, SIS in ex., GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

RIC 169b

Eutropius tells us: Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. . . . Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian. . . .

Galerius Maximian, in acting against Narseus, fought, on the first occasion, a battle far from successful, meeting him between Callinicus and Carrae, and engaging in the combat rather with rashness than want of courage; for he contended with a small army against a very numerous enemy. Being in consequence defeated, and going to join Diocletian, he was received by him, when he met him on the road, with such extreme haughtiness, that he is said to have run by his chariot for several miles in his scarlet robes.

But having soon after collected forces in Illyricum and Moesia, he fought a second time with Narseus (the grandfather of Hormisdas and Sapor), in Greater Armenia, with extraordinary success, and with no less caution and spirit, for he undertook, with one or two of the cavalry, the office of a speculator. After putting Narseus to flight, he captured his wives, sisters, and children, with a vast number of the Persian nobility besides, and a great quantity of treasure; the king himself he forced to take refuge in the remotest deserts in his dominions. Returning therefore in triumph to Diocletian, who was then encamped with some troops in Mesopotamia, he was welcomed by him with great honour. Subsequently, they conducted several wars both in conjunction and separately, subduing the Carpi and Bastarnae, and defeating the Sarmatians, from which nations he settled a great number of captives in the Roman territories. . . .

Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum.
Blindado
SeverusIIFollisGenio.jpg
1dx Severus II14 views306-307

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI.

RIC 170a

According to Eutropius: Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum. But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. . . . Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers. . . .
The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna.
Blindado
MaximinusIIFollisGenio.jpg
1dy Maximinus II22 views309-313

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMINVS NOB C
Genius standing left, naked except for modius on head & chlamys over shoulder, holding patera & cornucopiae, SIS in ex, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI.

RIC 170b

According to Eutropius: Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum. . . . LICINIUS, a native of Dacia, was made emperor by Galerius, to whom he was known by old companionship, and recommended by his vigorous efforts and services in the war which he had conducted against Narseus. The death of Galerius followed immediately afterwards. The empire was then held by the four new emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of emperors, Licinius and Maximian, sons of undistinguished men. Constantine, however, in the fifth year of his reign, commenced a civil war with Maxentius, routed his forces in several battles, and at last overthrew Maxentius himself (when he was spreading death among the nobility by every possible kind of cruelty,4) at the Milvian bridge, and made himself master of Italy. Not long after, too, Maximin, after commencing hostilities against Licinius in the east, anticipated the destruction that was falling upon him by an accidental death at Tarsus.
Blindado
GratianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1es Gratian39 views367-383

AE3

Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG
Gratian standing right, holding labarum with Chi-rho on banner, and holding captive by hair, GLORIA ROMANORVM; Q to left, K over P to right, DSISCR in ex.

RIC 14c

Zosimus reports: [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death.
Blindado
TheodosAE4VotMult~0.jpg
1eu Theodosius25 views379-395

AE4

Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex

RIC 29d

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian] commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa [to crush a rebellion]. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi. . . , availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . The barbarians therefore revenged themselves by plundering all the country along the Ister, carrying off all that they found in the towns. The Pannonians were by these means exposed to the cruelty of the barbarians, while the soldiers were extremely negligent in the defence of their towns, and committed as much mischief as the Barbarians themselves in all places on this side of the river. But Moesia was free from harm, because Theodosius, who commanded the forces there, courageously resisted the Barbarians, and routed them when they attacked him. By that victory he not only acquired great renown, but subsequently attained the imperial dignity. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

During the stay of the new emperor, Theodosius, at Thesslonica, a great concourse arrived there from all parts of persons soliciting him on business, both public and private; who having obtained of him whatever he could conveniently grant, returned, to their homes. As a great multitude of the Scythians beyond the Ister, the Gotthi, and the Taiphali, and other tribes that formerly dwelt among them, had crossed the river, and were driven to infest the Roman dominions, because the Huns, had expelled them from their own country, the emperor Theodosius prepared for war with all his forces. . . . The army having made this good use of the occasion afforded by fortune, the affairs of Thrace, which had been on the brink of ruin, were now, the Barbarians being crushed beyond all hope, re-established in peace. . . .

Meanwhile, the emperor Theodosius, residing in Thessalonica, was easy of access to all who wished to see him. Having commenced his reign in luxury and indolence, he threw the magistracy into disorder, and increased the number of his military officers. . . . As he squandered the public money without consideration, bestowing it on unworthy persons, he consequently impoverished himself. He therefore sold the government of provinces to any who would purchase them, without regard to the reputation or ablity of the persons, esteeming him the best qualified who brought him the most gold or silver. . . .

Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina. . . . [A]rriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. . . . The emperor, being delivered from this alarm, marched with great resolution with his whole army against Maximus. . . . Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople.
Blindado
MagnMaxAE2RepReip.jpg
1ew Magnus Maximus45 views383-388

AE2

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female; mintmarks PCON, SCON and TCON known, REPARATIO REIPVB

RIC 26a

Zosimus reports: While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death. . . .

The reign of Gratian being thus terminated, Maximus, who now considered himself firmly fixed in the empire, sent an embassy to the emperor Theodosius, not to intreat pardon for his treatment of Gratian, but rather to increase his provocations. The person employed in this mission was the imperial chamberlain (for Maximus would not suffer an eunuch to preside in his court), a prudent person, with whom he had been familiarly acquainted from his infancy. The purport of his mission was to propose to Theodosius a treaty of amity, and of alliance, against all enemies who should make war on the Romans, and on refusal, to declare against him open hostility. Upon this, Theodosius admitted Maximus to a share in the empire, and in the honour of his statues and his imperial title. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . .

Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. Such was the end of Maximus and of his usurpation. Having fraudulently overcome Valentinian, he imagined that he should with ease subdue the whole Roman empire. Theodosius, having heard, that when Maximus came from beyond the Alps he left his son Victor, whom he had dignified with the title of Caesar, he immediately sent for his general, named Arbogastes, who deprived the youth both of his dignity and life.
Blindado
ArcadiusAE4GlorRom.jpg
1ey Arcadius20 views383-408

AE4

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N ARCADIVS P F AVG
Emperor advancing right, seizing bound captive by the hair & carrying labarum, BSISC in ex., GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 38c2

Zosimus recorded, [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. After they had amassed immense wealth, Rufinus began to concert the means of becoming emperor, by making his own daughter, who was now marriageable. . . . [A different cabal persuaded Arcadius to marry a different girl.]. . . .

Before this juncture a report had been circulated at Rome, that the emperor Arcadius was dead, which was confirmed after the departure of Arcadius for Ravenna. Stilico being at Ravenna while the emperor was at a city of Aemilia, called Bononia, about seventy miles distant, the emperor sent for him to chastise the soldiers, who mutinied amongst each other by the way. Stilico, therefore, having collected the mutinous troops together, informed them that the emperor had commanded him to correct them for their disobedience, and to punish them by a decimation, or putting to death every tenth man. At this they were in such consternation, that they burst into tears, and desiring him to have compassion on them, prevailed on him to promise them a pardon from the emperor. The emperor having performed what Stilico had promised, they applied themselves to public business. For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise.
Blindado
HonoriusAE3Emperors.jpg
1fa Honorius19 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
Blindado
carnuntum_12.JPG
2009-Austria - Carnuntum26 viewsThe Roman city quarter was a peripheral part of the former civilian city. The ruins are exposed in the open-air museum directly in the present village.berserker
Elizabeth_2_2_Pounds_2015.JPG
2015 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL Bimetallic TWO POUNDS7 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II DEI.GRA.REG.FID.DEF.2015. Diademed head of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: TWO POUNDS. Three quarter helmeted bust of Britannia facing right, shield at her side, right hand holding trident over her shoulder.
Edge: QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO.
Diameter 28.4mm | Weight 15.97gms

This is the fifth portrait of Queen Elizabeth II to be used on circulating UK coinage since she was crowned in 1953. It was designed by (Mr) Jody Clark and was introduced in March 2015 to replace the previous portrait on all circulating UK coins. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.

This 2015 two pound coin welcomed Britannia back onto circulating UK coinage, Britannia having not featured on any UK circulating coin after she was removed from the reverse of 50p coins in 2008. The new portrait of Britannia was designed by sculptor Antony Dofort and is meant to present Britannia in a modern era.
The edge legend of "QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO" meaning "I claim the four seas" first appeared as a reverse legend on coins bearing a Britannia design during the reign of Charles II, but those coins were patterns or prototypes which were never issued for general circulation.
*Alex
101144.jpg
201b. Clodius Albinus232 viewsBy the time Severus made it back from the east in 196, the breach with Albinus was beyond repair. The emperor's son Caracalla had been displayed to the army as Caesar and heir. Albinus had been proclaimed emperor and gone into open revolt, crossed the English Channel and gained the support of many aristocrats from Gaul and Spain. Lyon became Albinus' headquarters, from which he minted coins that wishfully hinted at reconciliation. Albinus had taken the title of Augustus, but he still kept the name Septimius.

Albinus was unable to expand his control eastward despite achieving a victory against the governor of Lower Germany. By the middle of the year 196, his momentum had stalled. Gaul was drenched in the blood of Roman soldiers as the two sides repeatedly engaged in indecisive battles.[[8]] The ever increasing chaos in the region even allowed an opportunist to raise his own army to harass Albinus' troops.[[9]]

Time was running out for Albinus. His troops were defeated early in 197 at Tournus, on the river Saône 65 miles north of Lyon.[[10]] Severus could now sweep his armies into Gaul. Albinus retreated to Lyon, where he prepared for one final stand. The battle, one of the fiercest in Roman history, took place 19 February 197 and involved more than 100,000 men.[[11]] In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. But Albinus' success was shortlived. The Severan cavalry appeared, and Albinus' army was routed. The battlefield was strewn with bodies, and Severus' victorious troops were allowed to vent their anger by sacking Lyon. Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Heis wife and children were be ordered killed by Severus, who also had Albinus' head cut off and sent to Rome for display.

Clodius Albinus had the breeding and upbringing to have been a popular emperor among the senatorial aristocracy, but he lacked the cunning and daring of his erstwhile ally and eventual rival Severus. Albinus would never be included among the canonical list of emperors, and his defeat finally ended the period of instability and civil war that originated with the death of Commodus.

CLODIUS ALBINUS, as Caesar. 193-195 AD. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.14 gm). Rome mint. Bare head right / Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory and reversed spear. RIC IV 11b; RSC 61a. VF. Ex - CNG
2 commentsecoli73
VIRGIN2Stars.jpg
2119 John III (Magn.) AE Tetarteron SBCV -2119 DOC 61 62 views
OBV. * in field. Three quarters length figure of Virgin nimbate and orans, wearing tunic and maphorion, turned slightly. R.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of simplified type; Holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter, and in l. globus surmounted by patriarchal cross, which he holds by the shaft.

Weight 2.4gm

Size 18.37mm

Doc lists 4 examples with weights from 1.63 to 3.73gm and sizes from 18 to 22mm
3 commentsSimon
i4~0.jpg
2157 Anonymous2 (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2157 DOC IV 9 Type G 27 viewsOBV Radiate, floriated, cross

REV Three-Quarter-length figure of St. Theodore, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon Holds in r. hand sword resting over shoulder in l. shield

( This coin is lacking an inscription for St Theodore, should be appearing in two columnar groups.)

Size 20mm

weight 2.9gm

DOC lists 3 examples weighing between 2.07gm to 2.60gm and sizes 20 to 22m
Simon
22001.jpg
22001 Valence Denier27 viewsValence Denier
Obv: + S APOLLINARS
cross pomme with annulet in second quarter.
Rev: + VRBS VALENTIA
Eagle standing facing

Anonymous. 13th century BI denier 18.2mm 1.3g

Thanks to shanxi for helping id.
2 commentsBlayne W
Sear_1569.jpg
26. Constantine V and Leo IV9 viewsConstantine V and Leo IV.
751-775 AD.
AE Follis. Syracuse mint.

O: K-LEWN to right and left of Constantine V, bearded on left, and Leo IV, beardless on right, standing facing (usually three-quarter length), each wearing crown and chlamys and holding akakia in arm across their chests; cross between their heads

R: LEON-DECP downwards to left and right, Leo III, bearded, half-length, standing facing, wearing crown and chlamys and holding cross potent.

SB 1569, DOC 19.

Thanks to FORVM member joma-tk for helping to ID.
Sosius
coin237.JPG
304. Philip I26 viewsPhilip I

Philip the Arabian remains an enigmatic figure because different authors evaluated his reign with wildly divergent interpretations. Christian authors of late antiquity praised the man they regarded as the first Christian emperor. Pagan historians saw Philip as indecisive, treacherous and weak. Our lack of detailed knowledge about the reign makes any analysis highly speculative. Nonetheless, Philip's provincial and administrative background represents continuity with features of Severan government. His career has its closest parallel with that of Macrinus, an equestrian from the provinces who, a quarter of a century earlier, capped an administrative career by moving from the office of praetorian prefect to that of emperor. Unfotunately, they also shared the same fate - Philip only lasted half a decade.

AR Antoninianus. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / AEQVITAS AVGG, Aequitas standing left with scales & cornucopia. RIC 27b, RSC 9
ecoli
ConClVISis169a.jpg
305-306 AD - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Siscia 169a - GENIO POPVLI ROMANI38 viewsEmperor: Constantius I Chlorus (r. 305-306 AD)
Date: 305-306 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Quarter-Follis

Obverse: CONSTANTIVS AVG
Emperor Constantius
Head right; laureate

Reverse: GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI
To the Genius of the Roman Public.
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopiae.
Exergue: SIS (Siscia mint, no officina mark)

RIC VI Siscia 169a
2.38g; 18.7mm; 165°
Pep
MaxIIVISis170bvar.jpg
305-308 AD - Maximinus II Daia as Caesar - RIC VI Siscia 170b var - GENIO POPVLI ROMANI28 viewsCaesar: Maximinus II Daia (Caes. 305-308 AD)
Date: 305-306 AD
Condition: Fine/aEF
Denomination: Quarter-Follis

Obverse: GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB C
Galerius Valerius Maximinus Noble Caesar
Head right; laureate

Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI
To the Genius of the Roman Public.
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left hand.
Exergue: SIS (Siscia mint, no officina mark)

RIC VI Siscia 170b var (P-V listed); VM 14
2.05g; 18.3mm; 180°
Pep
rjb_fol11_01_09.jpg
30912 viewsRomulus d. 309 AD
AE Quarter Follis
Obv: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS
Head right
Rev: AETERNAE MEMORIAE
Domed temple with open doors, eagle on roof
-/-//MOSTT
Ostia Mint
RIC (VI) Ostia 59
mauseus
291_P_Hadrian_RPC3333.jpg
3333 CILICIA, Aegeae. Hadrian. Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Eagle standing27 viewsReference
RPC III, 3333; Prieur 718; SNG France 2329

Issue Year 164 (ΔΞΡ)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum, seen from front

Rev. ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ ΕΤΟΥС ΔΞΡ
Eagle standing three quarters l., head r., wings spread, on harpe; in exergue, goat kneeling, right

13.09 gr
26 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
551_P_Hadrian_RPC3348.jpg
3348 CILICIA, Aegeae. Hadrian. Tetradrachm 132-33 AD Eagle standing18 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3348; Prieur 720; SNG France 2231; SNG Levante 1718.

Issue Year 179 (ΘΟΡ)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ Π Π
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r.

Rev. ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ ΕΤΟΥС ΘΟΡ
Eagle standing three quarters l., head r., wings spread, on harpe; below, goat, kneeling right.

13.3 gr
31 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
0005.jpg
359-336 BC Philip II 21 viewsPhilip II
Bronze AE Quarter Unit

Obverse:Head of Herakles left wearing lions skin
Reverse:FILIPPOY; up and down of thunderbolt

10.88mm 1.79gm

SNG Alpha Bank 412, SNG ANS 994 , SNG COP 621
maik
philippos II  021.JPG
359-336 BC Philip II30 viewsMacedonian KIngdom Philip II 359-336 b.c
AE Quarter Unit
Obverse:Head of Herakles right
Reverse:FILIPPOY up and down of club

10.79mm 1.35gm

SNG COP 620
maik
003.jpg
359-336 BC Philip II27 viewsPhilip II
Bronze AE Quarter Unit

Obverse:Head of Herakles right wearing lions skin
Reverse:FILIPPOY up and down of club;M below

10.00mm 1.30gm


SNG Cop 620, SNG Alpha bank 446
maik
37-Harthacnut.jpg
37. Harthacnut.24 viewsPenny, 1035-1042; Lund, Denmark (now Sweden) mint.
Obverse: +HARÐECNVT / Crowned and cuirassed bust of Harthacnut.
Reverse: +TOCI ON LVDI / Cross, with a crescent in the second and fourth quarters.
Moneyer: Toci.
1.02 gm., 17 mm.
Seaby #1170.
Callimachus
coin186.JPG
408a. Romulus 30 viewsDivus Romulus, Quarter Follis. Struck late 309-312 AD. DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS C, bare head right / AETERNAE MEMORIAE, Eagle with wings spread standing right on domed shrine, MOSTQ in ex.1 commentsecoli
coin225.JPG
409. Maximinus II Daza37 viewsCaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus, more commonly known as Maximinus Daia or Daza, was from Illyricum and was of peasant origin. He was born 20 November perhaps in the year 270. Daia was the son of Galerius' sister and had served in the army as a scutarius, Protector, and tribunus. He had been adopted by Galerius ; his name had been Daia even before that time. He had a wife and daughter, whose names are unknown, while his son's name was Maximus. When Diocletian and Maximianus Herculius resigned their posts of emperor on 1 May 305, they were succeeded by Constantius I Chlorus and Galerius as Augusti; their new Caesars were Severus and Maximinus Daia respectively. Constantius and Severus ruled in the West, whereas Galerius and Daia served in the East. Specifically, Daia's realm included the Middle East and the southern part of Asia Minor.[[1]]

Immediately after his appointment to the rank of Caesar, he went east and spent his first several years at Caesarea in Palestine. Events of the last quarter of 306 had a profound effect on the Emperor Galerius and his Caesar Daia. When Constantius I Chlorus died in July 306, the eastern emperor was forced by the course of events to accept Constantius' son Constantine as Caesar in the West; on 28 October of the same year, Maxentius , with the apparent backing of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps. Both the attempt to dislodge Maxentius by Severus, who had been appointed Augustus of the West by Galerius after the death of Constantius in late 306 or early 307, and the subsequent campaign of Galerius himself in the summer of 307 failed. Because of the escalating nature of this chain of events, a Conference was called at Carnuntum in October and November 308; Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place and Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum. Daia, however, unsatisfied with this sop tossed to him by Galerius, started calling himself Augustus in the spring of 310 when he seems to have campaigned against the Persians.[[2]] Although, as Caesar, he proved to be a trusted servant of Galerius until the latter died in 311, he subsequently seized the late emperor's domains. During the early summer of that year, he met with Licinius at the Bosporus; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. Several yea rs later, after the death of Daia, Licinius obtained control of his domain. Like his mentor the late emperor, Daia had engaged in persecution of the Christians in his realm.[[3]]

In the autumn of 312, while Constantine was engaged against Maxentius, Daia appears to have been campaigning against the Armenians. In any case, he was back in Syria by February 313 when he seems to have learned about the marital alliance which had been forged by Constantine and Licinius. Disturbed by this course of events and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia left Syria and reached Bythinia, although the harsh weather had seriously weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, garrisoned by Licinius' troops; when the city refused to surrender, he took it after an eleven day siege. He moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege; he then moved his forces to the first posting station. With only a small contingent of men, Licinius arrived at Adrianople while Daia was besieging Heraclea. On 30 April 313 the two armies clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. Divesting himself of the purple and dressing like a slave, Daia fled to Nicomdeia. Subsequently, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there; Licinius' army succeeded in breaking through, and Daia fled to Tarsus where he was hard pressed on land and sea. Daia died, probably in July or August 313, and was buried near Tarsus. Subsequently, the victorious emperor put Daia's wife and children to death.

Maximinus II Daza. 309-313 AD. ? Follis. Laureate head right / Genius standing left holding cornucopiae.
ecoli
coin599.JPG
501. Constantine I Alexandria Posthumous23 viewsAlexandria

The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC, according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander but after it had been previously under Roman influence for more than a hundred years. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC, saw Alexander's body (quipping 'I came to see a king, not a collection of corpses' when he was offered a view of the other royal burials) and was mobbed by the rabble. His example was followed by Marc Antony, for whose favor the city paid dearly to Octavian, who placed over it a prefect from the imperial household.

From the time of annexation onwards, Alexandria seems to have regained its old prosperity, commanding, as it did, an important granary of Rome. This fact, doubtless, was one of the chief reasons which induced Augustus to place it directly under imperial power. In AD 215 the emperor Caracalla visited the city and for some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre ensued.

Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, now Alexandria acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government. There Arianism was formulated and where also Athanasius, the great opponent of both Arianism and pagan reaction, triumphed over both, establishing the Patriarch of Alexandria as a major influence in Christianity for the next two centuries.

As native influences began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt and losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century AD, followed by a fast decline in population and splendour.

In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire: pagan rituals became forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries were closed. In 391, Emperor Theodosius I ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the Patriarch Theophilus, complied with his request. It is possible that the great Library of Alexandria and the Serapeum was destroyed about this time. The pagan mathematician and philosopher Hypathia was a prominent victim of the persecutions.

The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fell into ruin. On the mainland, life seemed to have centred in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. The Pharos and Heptastadium quarters, however, remained populous and left intact.

veiled head only
DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG
RIC VIII Alexandria 32 C3

From uncleaned lot; one of the nicer finds.
ecoli
coins358.JPG
501. Constantine I London BEATA TRANQVILLITAS26 viewsLondon

Londinium was established as a town by the Romans after the invasion of 43 AD led by the Emperor Claudius. Archaeological excavation (undertaken by the Department of Urban Archaeology of the Museum of London now called MOLAS) since the 1970s has also failed to unearth any convincing traces of major settlement before c.50 — so ideas about Londinium being a military foundation around the Fort that protected London Bridge are now largely discounted.

The name Londinium is thought to be pre-Roman in origin although there is no consensus on what it means. One suggestion is that it derived from a personal name meaning 'fierce'. However, recent research by Richard Coates has suggested that the name derives from pre-Celtic Old European — Plowonida — from 2 roots, "plew" and "nejd", meaning something like "the flowing river" or "the wide flowing river". Londinium therefore means "the settlement on the wide river". He suggests that the river was called the Thames up river where it was narrower, and Plowonida down river where it was too wide to ford. For a discussion on the legends of London and Plowonida see [1]. The story of the settlement being named after Lud is considered unlikely.

Archaeologists now believe that London was founded as a civilian settlement by 50 AD. A wooden drain by the side of the main roman road excavated at No 1 Poultry has been dated to 47 which is likely to be the foundation date.

Ten years later, Londinium was sacked by the Iceni lead by the British queen Boudica. Excavation has revealed extensive evidence of destruction by fire at this date, and recently a military compound has been discovered in the City of London which may have been the headquarters of the Roman fight back against the British uprising.

The city recovered after perhaps 10 years, and reached its population height by about 120 AD, with a population of around 60,000. London became the capital of Roman Britain (Britannia) (previously the capital was the older, nearby town of Colchester). Thereafter began a slow decline; however, habitation and associated building work did not cease. By 375 London was a small wealthy community protected by completed defences. By 410 Roman occupation officially came to an end, with the citizens being ordered to look after their own defenses. By the middle of the 5th century the Roman city was practically abandoned.

RIC VII London 271 R2

ecoli
coin275.JPG
510. Valentinian I55 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
ecoli
AnthonyLegPanoramaBlack~0.jpg
544/21 Mark Anthony 34 viewsMarc Antony Legionary Denarius- Legion VIII. Patrae(?) Mint 32-31 BC. (3.42 g, 16.73 mm) Obv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C, Praetorian galley. Rev: LEG VIII, legionary eagle between two standards.
Sydenham 1225, RSC 35, Crawford 544/21

Ex: Private Collection

Description from Forvm Ancient Coins:

"The legionary denarii were struck by Antony for the use of his fleet and legions, most likely at his winter headquarters at Patrae just before the Actian campaign. They may have been struck with silver from Cleopatra's treasury. The legionary denarii provide an interesting record of the 23 legions, praetorian cohorts and the chort of speculatores of which Antony's army was composed. Some of them give the name as well as the number of the legion honored. They have a lower silver content than the standard of the time. As a result they were rarely hoarded, heavily circulated and are most often found in very worn condition."

Unfortunately from what I understand VIII Leg has no equivelant among the imperial legions.

This specific coin was fun to photograph, it seemed like no matter how you turned and twisted it still turned out great. A photogenic coin, in other words!
Paddy
56-Henry-VI.jpg
56. Henry VI.23 viewsGroat, 1422-1427; Calaise mint.
Obverse: +HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC / Crowned bust facing, with annulet on each side of neck.
Reverse: +POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM VILLA CALISIE / Long cross with three pellets in each angle, annulet in two quarters and after POSVI.
3.43 gm., 27 mm.
North #1424 or #1427; Seaby #1836.

Classification: North, Vol. 2, p. 56 is a bit confused as to the differences between #1424 and #1427. Otherwise this coin is very easy to assign to the "annulet issue" of 1422-1427.

Callimachus
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ZBLITRA1D+R.jpg
a.ANONYMOUS AE Quarter-Litra 241-222 BC73 views
D/ Helmeted hd. of Diana r.
R/ Dog walking r.; in ex. ROMA

Syd. 22
Rugser
RIC_146_cuarto_follis_Maximiano.jpg
A111 -20 - MAXIMIANO (1er. Reinado 286 - 305 D.C.)16 viewsCuarto Follis post-reforma 19 mm 2.05 gr.
M.AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS – Emperador asociado por Diocleciano para que gobierne como “Augusto de Occidente”, hasta 305 D.C. cuando abdica.

Anv: "IMP C MA VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI" – Genio vistiendo Modius en la cabeza, estante a izq., portando patera en mano der. y cornucopia en izq."SIS" en exergo.

Acuñada: 305 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI #146 Pag.471 – Cohen VI #185 Pag.511 - Sear RCTV IV #13307A Pag.165
mdelvalle
Cuarto_Follis_Maximino_II_Antioch_Vagi_2955.jpg
A116-30 -Acuñacion Civica Anonima Semi-Autonoma (311 - 312 D.C.)39 viewsAE15 ¼ de Follis o Nummus 19 x 15 mm 1.2 gr.
Moneda tradicionalmente atribuida a Julian II hasta que J.Van Heesch en su artículo “The last Civic Coinages and the Religious Police of Maximinus Daza”, publicado en el Numismatic Chronicle vol.153 Pags. 66 y subsiguientes (1993), realiza un detallado estudio de este tipo de acuñación cívica anónima del cuarto siglo, donde demuestra que estas monedas se acuñaron bajos los auspicios de Maximino II Daya conmemorando “La Gran Persecución” de los Cristianos y por consiguiente la Victoria Pagana, al honrar con ellas a los antiguos dioses grecorromanos Júpiter, Apolo, Tyche, y Serapis. Recordemos que en dicha persecución (desde finales del 311 a finales del 312 D.C.) se cerraron Iglesias, encarcelando y/o desterrando a los cristianos. Esta campaña fue particularmente fuerte en Nicomedia, Antioquia y Alejandría, los tres centros principales del Imperio de Oriente. Estas persecuciones menguaron al año siguiente posiblemente como resultado de la preocupación de Maximino II al provocar abiertamente a los Emperadores Asociados de Occidente Constantino I y Licinio I.

Anv: "IOVI CONS - ERVATORI" – Júpiter semidesnudo, sentado en un trono a izquierda, portando globo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda.
Rev: "VICTOR - IA AVGG" – Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando guirnalda en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y hoja de palma en la izquierda. "ANT" en exergo y "B" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 311 - 312 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia (Off. 2da.)

Referencias: Cohen Vol.VIII #53 Pag.49 (Julián II) (10f) - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7952 Pag.94 – Vaggi #2955 - J.Van Heesch “The last Civic Coinages and the Religious Police of Maximinus Daza (1993)” #2.
mdelvalle
Abdera_Griffin_QuadripartiteSquare_Hermonaktos_AE10_1_3g.jpg
Abdera griffin, AE 1026 viewsAbdera, griffin / quadripartite square, AE10. Abdera, Thrace, ca. 390 - 352 BC
10mm, 1.3g. magistrate Hermonaktos. obv: griffin seated left, right forepaw raised
rev: EPMONAKTWN; quadripartite linear frame with pellet within each quarter. ex areich, photo credit areich
Podiceps
Abdera_Griffin_QuadripartiteSquare_Hermonaktos_AE10_1_3g.jpg
Abdera, griffin / quadripartite square, AE1040 viewsAbdera, Thrace, ca. 390 - 352 BC
10mm, 1.3g
magistrate Hermonaktos
obv: griffin seated left, right forepaw raised
rev: EPMONAKTWN; quadripartite linear frame with pellet within each quarter
areich
IMG_1890.JPG
Abdera, Thrace Tetrobol40 viewsAR Tetrobol
Size: 16mm, Weight: 2.87 grams, Die Axis: 3h

Abdera, Thrace
411 - 375 BCE

Obverse: Griffin to left, forelegs raised.

Reverse: Wreathed bust of Dionysos to left, MOΛΠAΓOPHΣ around, all within linear frame and shallow incuse square.

Notes:
- Abdera was was repopulated by citizens from Teos circa 544 BCE, who brought with them the griffin symbol. The griffin on coins from Teos face right, and on coins from Abdera, left.
- The worship of Dionysos appears to have been important in Abdera, and may have been reinforced by the pre-existence of the cult among the native Thracian population.
- The magistrate's name Molpagores also appears on staters of Abdera, where the punning reverse type is a dancing woman performing the 'molpe' (dancing and singing).

Ex Harlan J. Berk, 2018
Pharsalos
IMG_0002~0.jpg
Abdera, Thrace. ca 425-352 BC58 viewsÆ 10mm. Griffin seated left / EPI DIONUSADOS, quartered square with four pellets.
SNG Copenhagen 371v. BMC 85
Dino
Lincoln_Sullivan_AL_1860-41.JPG
Abraham Lincoln 1860 "Rail Splitter of the West"30 viewsObv: HON. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, Three quarter bust of Lincoln facing right, 1860 below.

Rev: RAIL SPLITTER OF THE WEST, a depiction of a frontier scene with Lincoln splitting rails, while an assistant (Stephan Douglas) calmly holds a wedge in place, a log cabin is seen in the distance.

Issued as a campaign medal for the 1860 Presidential Election. It a has been holed for suspension.

Engraver: Ellis

28 mm, 0°

Sullivan AL 1860-41
Matt Inglima
adr.JPG
Adramytteion, Mysia15 viewsFourth century BC
Bronze AE 12
1.47 gm, 12 mm
Obverse: Head of Zeus three-quarter facing to right
Reverse: Eagle standing on altar, wings closed, Grain Ear before, AΔΡΑ above.
Sear 3803;
Weber 4949;
Babelon (Traite) plate 170, 16
Jaimelai
sear_2440_2011-02-13.jpg
AE assaria Andronicus II and Michael IX SB 244025 viewsObverse: Three quarter length of Andronicus II bearded on l., and of Michael IX, beardless on r., wearing stema, div and panelled loros of simplified type, between them labarum on long shaft. Both emperors in r. and l. hand respectively hold sc. cr.
Reverse: In Legend in four lines AVTO/KPATO/PECPW/MAIW
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1295-1320 CE
Sear 2440
20mm/ gm

1 commentswileyc
sb2102.jpg
AE billion trachy John III SB 2102 type N108 viewsObverse: hP- theta V barred, Three quarter length figure of virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; star to lower left and right in field.
Reverse: IW, full-length figure of emperor on l., and St. Theodore bearded and nimbate, holding between them sheathed sword, point downward, resting on shield. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-peice, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds labarum -headed scepter in r. hand. Saint wears short military tunic and breast plate, holds spear in l. hand.
Mint: Magnesia
Sear 2102, DOC
25mm, 3.02g
wileyc
sear_1901.jpg
AE follis Alexios I SB 190114 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, raising r. hand in benediction, in l. hand book of Gospels to l., IC to r. XC, Border of large pellets
Reverse: Three quarter length of the Virgin orans facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium on either side of nimbus M-(theta) or MP-Theta V.,border of lg pellets
Mint: Constantinople
Date: pre reform 1081-1092 CE
Sear 1901 H pl.20-21 Class K Anonymous folles
21mm 4.07
wileyc
sb166725mm623g.jpg
AE follis Theophilus SB 166715 viewsObv: Theta,EOFIL' bASIL', three quarter length figure facing, wearing loros and crown surmounted by tufa, holds labarum in r. hand and gl. cuir. in l.
Rev: +thetaEO/FILE AVG/OVSTE SV/NICAS four lines
Mint: Constantinople
Date:829-842 CE
25mm, 6.23g
SB 1667
wileyc
U8077F1OAYSITVV.jpg
AE14 Mesembria 4th century BC5 viewsAE14 Mesembria, Thrace (Black Sea area) 4th century BC., - crested Corinthian helmet facing / M-E-T-A in four quarters of radiate wheel (1.75 grams, 15/14 mm) Mesembria mint 350 AD., SNG BM 274 SNG Stancomb 228 SNG Cop. 654, Fine, nice green patinaNORMAN K
grynion.jpg
Aeolis, Grynion Æ12.20 viewsObv: Three-quarter facing head of Apollo, turned slightly left, wearing laurel wreath.
Rev: ΓΥΡ, mussel shell.
SNG Copenhagen 205; BMC 1.
3rd Century BC.
1 commentsancientone
Aeolis_Larissa_1.PNG
Aeolis, Larissa Phrikonis7 viewsAeolis, Larissa Phrikonis Circa 4th Century B.C.

Obverse: Horned, three-quarter facing female head, turned slightly right, wearing necklace

Reverse: bull's head right

9mm
Macedonian Warrior
Aeolis_Larissa_2.PNG
Aeolis, Larissa Phrikonis Circa 4th Century B.C6 viewsAeolis, Larissa Phrikonis Circa 4th Century B.C.

Obverse: Horned, three-quarter facing female head, turned slightly right, wearing necklace

Reverse:bull's head right

9mm
Macedonian Warrior
aeolis1OR.jpg
Aeolis, Larissa Phrikonis,103 viewsAeolis, Larissa Phrikonis, Circa 4th Century B.C. AE, 9mm 0.85g, Weber 5563
O: Horned, three-quarter facing female head, turned slightly right, wearing necklace
R: ΛA, bull's head right
2 commentscasata137ec
Macedon_Akanthos_Desneux_110_gf.jpg
Akanthos, 470-430 BC. AR Tetradrachm 5 viewsMacedon, Akanthos. 470-430 BC. AR Tetradrachm (16.64 gm) Attic stdd. Lion r. attacking bull, kneeling l., head raised, dotted border. ΔI (magistrate) above. Ex: laurel branch w/ 3 leaves to l. / ΑΚΑ-ΝΘ-Ι-ΟΝ around raised quadripartite square, quarters raised and granulated.  gVF.   Pegasi 123 #59. AMNG III 2 #23, plate VII #4; HGC 3.1 #385; Desneux Type H/C #110 (dies D106/R99). cf SNG ANS 7 #12-15; CNG 72 #227. Rare (none on acsearch or CoinArchives). Anaximander
38854q00_Seleukid_Kingdom,_Alexander_I_Balas,_150_-_145_B_C__owl.jpg
Alexander I Balas, Owl; AE 1615 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Alexander I Balas, 150 - 145 B.C. Bronze AE 16, Houghton and Lorber II 1794, SNG Spaer -, Fair, Antioch mint, 3.948g, 16.4mm, obverse diademed head of Alexander right, dot border; reverse “ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ”, owl standing three-quarters right, head facing, uncertain control marks in ex. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
AAESb_small.png
Alexander III 'the Great' Æ1926 viewsKINGS OF MACEDON. Alexander III 'the Great' (336-323).

Macedonian mint. 336-323 BC.

19mm., 3.99g.

Macedonian shield with head of Herakles ornamenting boss facing three-quarters right in centre, five double crescent-like ornaments around

B - A (BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY) flanking. Macedonian officer's helmet facing with ear flaps and crest from side to side; grain-ear

References: SNG Alpha Bank 849 (?); Price 2806 (?)

AAES
RL
alexpen.jpg
Alexander III (1249 - 1286 A.D.)35 viewsAR Penny
Scotland, Second Coinage Class MB2
O: ม ΛLЄXΛ(ND)ЄR DЄI GRΛ, crowned head left
R:  + RЄX SCO TOR VM, long cross pattée, with 24 points on mullets in quarters.
Berwick Mint
.99g
23mm
Burns 45 (fig. 179); Stewart & North 14; SCBI 35 (Ashmolean & Hunterian) 231; SCBC 5054
2 commentsMat
005~3.JPG
Alexander the Great - Bronze Quarter Unit35 views336-323 B.C.
1.58 gm, 12 mm
Obv.: Head of Heracles, beardless, wearing lionskin, right; dotted border
Rev.: AΛE / ΞANΔΡOΥ above and beneath club right; bow and quiver below; linear border.
Price 267; Sear 6745v.
Jaimelai
ATGmosaic.jpg
Alexander the Great, The Battle of Issus River21 viewsThis mosaic depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius, probably the Battle of the Issus River in November of 333 B.C. It is in opus vermiculatum, with over one and a half million tesserae, none larger than 4 mm., in four colors: white, yellow, red, and black. The minuteness of the tesserae enables incredibly fine detail and painterly effects, including remarkable portraits of Alexander and Darius.

The border of this huge mosaic consists of large stones in a dentate pattern . In the corners are rosettes. Within the border along the bottom of the picture is a blank brown stripe, which some consider to be part of the picture, balancing the white expanse of sky at the top, while others argue that it is simply part of the frame.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by the two protagonists: On the left, Alexander, with his head uncovered, rushes forward on his horse Bucephalus. He holds a spear with which he has skewered a Persian soldier, who has rushed to the defence of Darius. With Alexander appear his helmeted Macedonian soldiers, although little remains of them due to damage of the left side of the mosaic. On the right Darius, wearing a Persian cap, stretches out his hand to his wounded defender, while his charioteer whips the horses to flee toward the right. Around him are his Persian soldiers who mill in confusion in the background, their faces filled with fear and determination. One Persian, however, to the right of the dying defender of Darius, is intent upon Alexander, and holds his sword in his hand, ready to attack.

There are many details which emphasize the terror and confusion of the battle. The horse of the Persian defender of Darius collapses beneath him while he writhes in agony on Alexander's spear. Below Darius in his chariot, a Persian soldier, staring in horror at this scene, attempts to hold a rearing horse. The hindquarters of this horse project into the middle ground of the picture, giving it a sense of depth. To the right, a soldier is being crushed under the wheels of Darius' chariot. His face is reflected in the shield which he holds. Further to the right appear the terrified horses of the chariot team, trampling upon another unfortunate Persian.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by diagonals. The center is dominated by the intersecting diagonals of the Persian speared by Alexander and the Persian restraining the rearing horse. Two other sets of intersecting diagonals are provided by the figures of Darius and his charioteer and by Alexander and the wounded Persian. The lances in the background of the picture also carry on the diagonal motif.

The setting of the battle is very stylized. In the background appears a tree with bare twisted limbs whose diagonals continue the unifying compositional motif of the mosaic. The tree also serves as a formal vertical counterweight to the Persian king and his charioteer, who rise above the battle fray. In the foreground are discarded weapons and rocks, which serve to define the space between the viewer and the battle scene.

The Alexander mosaic is thought to be based on a painting which Philoxenus of Eretria created for King Cassander of Macedonia. The painting is described by Pliny the Elder as representing "the battle of Alexander with Darius." Certain inconsistencies in the mosaic point to its derivation from another source. In the center of the composition appears a helmeted head to the right of the rearing horse. Two lance shafts come from the left and abruptly stop behind this he‡d. To the right of the same head appears a head of a horse and beneath this are the hindquarters of another horse, neither of which is logically completed. Among the four horses of Darius' chariot there are parts of a white horse which do not fit together anatomically. Above these horses is a Persian soldier who appears to have two right hands, one on his head and the other raised in the air. These details provide evidence that the mosaicist misunderstood details of the original.

Nevertheless, the overall effect of the mosaic is masterful. The expert blending of the colors of the tesserae and the careful control of the overall composition create a scene which comes to life with all the horror and confusion of battle. The Alexander mosaic is a truly great work, unmatched in the history of Roman art.

See: http://www.hackneys.com/alex_web/pages/alxphoto.htm
Cleisthenes
850D65C3-F08A-425E-A3C2-34CFB7A004B4.jpeg
Alfonso I of Aragon, 1104-1134 AD.10 viewsBillon dinero of Toledo. Obverse: Head left encircled by text. Reverse: Cross pattee with pierced stars in first and fourth quarters, encircled by text.Celticaire
anastassolidfull.png
Anastasius solidus20 viewsAnastasius ( 491-518 ) , AV Solidus , 491-498 , Constantinople. Off . H. Right : B. three-quarters face , holding a spear and shield. Reverse: VICTORI -A AVCCCH / CONOB Victory standing left, holding a long cross. On the right, a star. Sear, 3; O.D. 3g ; M.I.B. 4 4,37gChance Vandal
Andronicus_III_DOC_Cl__XIX.JPG
Andronicus III, DOC Cl. XIX16 viewsPaleologos monogram
ΔMH ANΔP
Three quarter length figures of St. Demetrius and Andronicus holding staff surmounted by flour de lis
Thessalonica
AE assarion, 18mm, 0.93g
novacystis
lg_Follis.jpg
Anonymous Class C, time of Michael IV32 viewsAnonymous Class C, time of Michael IV
AE Follis - / 28.5mm / -
+EM M A N OV HA - Three quarter length figure of Christ Antiphonetes standing facing, wearing nimbus cr., pallium and colobium, raising right hand in benediction, book of Gospels in left hand. IC in left field, XC in right
- Jeweled cross with pellet in each extremity, in the angles IC - XC / NI - KA
Mint: Constantinople (1034-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1825
Scotvs Capitis
sear_1825.jpg
Anonymous Follis, Class C; Sear 182515 viewsAnonymous Follis, Æ Follis, Class C, 8g, 31mm. Obv. ΕΜΜΑΝΟΥΗΛ three-quarter length figure of Christ facing. Rev. Jewelled cross, IC XC NI KA in the quarters. Sear BCV 1825Podiceps
anon_follis_class_k_res.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS K27 viewsattributed to ALEXIUS I, Comnenus ( 1081-1118 )
Anonymous AE Follis Class K (overstruck or doublestruck) 26 mm; 8.21 g
O: Bust of Christ facing
R: Three-quarter length figure of the Virgin orans facing
(Alexius I, 1081 - 1118 A.D.)
laney
Antiochus_VI~2.jpg
Antiochus VI 144 - 142/1 B.C.16 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VI, 144 - 142 or 141 B.C. Serrated, Ae 21.9~23.2mm. 4.29g. Antioch mint. Obv: Laureate and radiate head of Antiochus right. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ EΠIΦANOΥΣ ΔIONΥΣOΥ, panther walking left, broken arrow in mouth, right forepaw raised, ΣTA above hindquarters, cornucopia right. SNG Spaer 1773, SGCV II 7083, SC 2007b, Houghton 241.ddwau
Zegelstempel_Obv1.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Medieval, Seal matrix c.15th century61 viewsWeapon divided in 4 quarters: Q1+4 shows 5 diagonally arranged diamonds; Q2+3 climbing lion to left. Found near Halle ( Flemish-Brabant ).Bohemond
prnbzw~0.jpg
Aphrodite and Ares on Cilician AR Stater of Satrap Pharnabazos173 views
Circa 380-374/3 B.C.(21mm, 10.39g, 11h). Struck circa 380-379 B.C. Casabonne series 3; Moysey Issue 3, 3-5 var. (dolphin on obv.); SNG France 246 var. (rev. legend). Obverse Head of nymph facing three-quarters left. Reverse Helmeted head of Ares left, Aramaic PRNBZW to left. Near EF, toned, struck from a slightly worn obverse die.

Ex CNG.

There is still an ongoing debate whether who represent the obverse and reverse of this coin type of Pharnabazos. The obverse obviously was inspired by the renowned Syracusan tetradrachm of Kimon, whose three-quarter facing head of the nymph Arethusa was widely copied throughout the ancient world. A handful of ancient poleis adopted this style to represent their local nymph or goddess on their coins. A perfect example is the numerous coins of Larissa in Thessaly representing the local nymph of the same name. It is possible to assume then that the obverse of our coin might be another female deity other than Arethusa. A current opinion holds that the obverse represents Aphrodite, the goddess of love; and the reverse depicts Ares, the god of war. The two were known in ancient mythology as lovers, and commonly paired together on ancient coins. Of special note on this coin is the reverse: while most coins of this type display static male heads with little originality, the reverse die is probably from a special issue marked by superior style and executed with extreme delicacy. It has been suggested (Leu Auction 81, lot 317) that the head of Ares may be a disguised portrait of Pharnabazos himself.

1 commentsJason T
071.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 14 - Silver Quarter Obol39 views540/535 – 519/512 B.C.
0.27 gm, 5.6 mm
Obv.: Upright anchor with loop eye
Rev: Swastika in incuse square with arms bent left, two dolphin/fish in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 568, 14

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (540/535 -519/512 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. A group of dots under the stock (probably two).
Rev.: Schematic image of a swastika (with arms bent to the left) in concave sectors forming a square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
001~4.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 18 - Silver Quarter Obol57 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
0.26 gm, 6.42 mm
Obv.: Anchor
Rev: Swastika in incuse square with arms bent right, two dolphin/fish in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 570, 18

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512 -480/478 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with relatively thick flukes and stock.
Rev.: Swastika with relatively thick arms bent to the left or right in an incuse square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
2 commentsJaimelai
ap~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 18 - Silver Quarter Obol13 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
0.18 gm, 5 mm
Obv.: Upright Anchor
Rev: Swastika in incuse square with arms bent right, two lines (dolphin/fish) in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 570, 18; p. 266, 2
HGC 3.2, 1326

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512 -480/478 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with relatively thick flukes and stock.
Rev.: Swastika with relatively thick arms bent to the left or right in an incuse square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
ap18d.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 18 - Silver Quarter Obol14 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
Silver Quarter Obol
0.29 gm, 6.0 mm
Obv.: Upright/Inverted Anchor with big flukes with dots under stock
Rev: Swastika in incuse square with winged arms bent right, two lines (dolphin/fish or crayfish claws) in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 570, 18; p. 266, 1;
HGC 3, 1326 (hemiobol);
SNG Bulgaria II, 94 var. (hemiobol, no “A”)

Two dots under the stock of this coin may indicate that it is a hemiobol although the weight, 0.29 grams, is closer to the Aeginetan quarterobol standard of 0.25 grams (hemiobol is 0.51 grams).

Topalov Type 18: Quarterobols (as per the system of Aegina (0.25 g)) – “Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish” (519/512 -480/478 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with relatively big flukes and stock. A group of dots under the stock (probably one l. and one r.).
Rev.: Schematic image of swastika (with arms bent to the right) in a concave square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.
Jaimelai
AP.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 18 var. - Silver Quarter Obol22 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
0.20 gm, 5.49 mm
Obv.: Anchor with A to left
Rev: Swastika with arms bent right, two lines (dolphin/fish) in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 570, 18 var.; p. 266, 1

Topalov Type 18: Quarter obols (?) Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512-480/478 B.C.)
Obv: Upright anchor with relatively big flukes and stock. A group of dots under the stock (probably one l. and one r.).
Rev.: Schematic image of swastika (with arms bent to the right) in a concave square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector

Topalov, Stavri. Apollonia Pontica. Contribution to the Study of the Coin Minting of the City 6th-1st c. B.C.
Jaimelai
ap2.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 18 var. - Silver Quarter Obol14 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
0.22 gm, 5 mm
Obv.: Anchor with A to left
Rev: Swastika with arms bent right, two lines (dolphin/fish) in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 570, 18 var.; p. 266, 1

Topalov Type 18: Quarter obols (?) Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512-480/478 B.C.)
Obv: Upright anchor with relatively big flukes and stock. A group of dots under the stock (probably one l. and one r.).
Rev.: Schematic image of swastika (with arms bent to the right) in a concave square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector

Topalov, Stavri. Apollonia Pontica. Contribution to the Study of the Coin Minting of the City 6th-1st c. B.C.
Jaimelai
Aragón_ME-1845.jpg
Aragón: Jaime II el Justo (1291-1327) BI Dinero, Barcelona (ME-1845; Crusafont 180-3)11 viewsObv: +:IACOBVS: REX:; Crowned bust left
Rev: B´AQINONA; Cross pattée; three pellets and annulet in alternating quarters
Quant.Geek
Aragón_ME-1870.jpg
Aragón: Pedro IV el Ceremonioso (1336-1387) BI Obol, Barcelona (ME 1870; Crusafont 233)10 viewsObv: Crowned bust left
Rev: Cross pattée; three pellets and annulet in alternating quarters
Quant.Geek
Arpi.JPG
Arpi, Apulia30 views325-275 BC
AE20 (20mm, 7.07g)
O: Laureate head of Zeus left; [thunderbolt] behind.
R: Kalydonian boar running right; spearhead above, [Α]ΡΠΑΝ[ΟΥ] below.
SNG ANS 639; SNG Cop 605; HN Italy 642; Sear 569; BMC 1, 4
ex Andre C

Situated about 20 miles inland from the Adriatic Sea, Arpi was an ancient city which legend tells us was founded by the hero Diomedes. Arpi allied with Rome at the end of the 4th century BC, and supplied them with infantry and cavalry in the war against Pyrrhus.
After the annihilation of the Roman army at Cannae in 216 Arpi defected to the Carthaginian cause, and Hannibal made the city his winter headquarters in 215. However upon his departure to move his army south the Roman consul Quintus Fabius Maximus retook the city in 213, and Arpi never again regained its’ former importance.
Enodia
Cuneiform.jpg
Assyria: Išme-Dagān (1776-1736 BCE) Cuneiform Foundation Cone, Isin29 views1) ᵈiš-me-ᵈda-gan
2) nita-kala-ga
3) lugal-i-si-in.Ki-na
4) lugal-an-ub-da-límmu-ba-ke₄
5) u₄ nibru.Ki
6) uru-ki-ág-
7) den-1í1-1á-
8) gú-bi
9) mu-un-du₈
10) éren-bi kaskal-ta
11) ba-ra-an-zi-ga-a
12) bàd-gal-
13) ì-si-in.Ki-na
14) mu-un-dù
15) bàd-ba
16) ᵈiš-me-ᵈda-gan
17) ᵈen-líl-da á-an-gal
18) mu-bi-im

1-4) Išme-Dagān, mighty man, king of Isin, king of the four quarters,
5-11) when he cancelled the tribute of Nippur, the city beloved of the god Enlil, (and) relieved its men of military service,
12-14) he built the great wall of Isin.
15-18) The name of that wall is 'Išme-Dagan is a great ... beside the god Enlil.'
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Athalaric.jpg
Athalaric - Ravenna - quarter siliqua29 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). AR quarter siliqua (11 mm, 0.60 g) in the name of Justinian I, minted in Ravenna 527-534. Obverse: diademed bust right, D N IVSTI-NIAN AVC. Reverse: DN/ATHAL/ARICVS/RIX within wreath. Metlich 59.
Jan
AthensTetradrachmNewStyle.jpg
Attica, Athens Silver Tetradrachm, New Style, c. 115/114 B.C.35 viewsAttica, Athens Silver Tetradrachm, New Style, c. 115/114 B.C.
31.4mm, 16.61 grams.
Obv: Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet decorated with a palmette and gryphon.
Rev: Owl standing three-quarters right, head facing, on amphora, cluster of grapes on vine in right field, Δ on amphora, ΠE below.
Ref: Thompson 633g.
About Extremely Fine.
1 commentsmjabrial
Athens_hemiobol_comb.jpg
Attica, Athens Hemiobol113 viewsATTICA, ATHENS
AR Hemiobol.
454(?)–415 BC.

O: Head of Athena right with frontal eye, in crested Attic helmet adorned with olive leaves above visor / R: AQE, owl standing three-quarters r, olive sprig behind, all in incuse square.

Svoronos pl. 17, 52–56. SNG Cop 59–61, Sear sg2531 VF

4 commentsSosius
G_024_Athen_fac.jpg
Attica, Athens, Athena, Owl, Transitional Pi-Style Tetradrachm17 viewsAttica. Athens
Silver tetradrachm, Ca. 353-297 BC
Transitional Pi-Style
Av: Head of Athena right with profile eye in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor
Rv: ΑΘΕ, owl of later style standing three-quarters right, olive sprig and crescent moon behind
AR, 17.01g, 23mm
Ex Pegasi Numismatics, 1999
1 commentsshanxi
061117c.jpg
Aurleian 270-275 C.E.24 viewsAurelian, Antoninianus, Rome mint
Obverse - IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Bust, three quarters in front, battleship, right
Reverse - RESTITVTOR ORBIS.Woman standing right presenting wreath to emperor, standing left holding sceptre
Star Q in ex. Rome mint. RIC 140.
23 mm diam. 3.6 g
NORMAN K
B_033_Theophilus_830-842-AD_AE-Follis__ThEOFIL___bASIL___ThEO-FILE_AVG-OVStE_SV-nICAS_SB-1667-p-320_Constantinopolis_Q-001_6h_25-27,5mm_8,42g-s.jpg
B 033 Theophilus (830-842 A.D.), SB 1667, AE Follis, Constantinopolis, +ThEO/FILE AVG/OVStE SV/nICAS in four lines, #162 viewsB 033 Theophilus (830-842 A.D.), SB 1667, AE Follis, Constantinopolis, +ThEO/FILE AVG/OVStE SV/nICAS in four lines, #1
avers: ThEOFIL' bASIL', Crowned, three-quarter length figure of Theophilus facing, pellets on the crown, wearing loros, holding labarum and cross on globe.
reverse: +ThEO/FILE AVG/OVStE SV/nICAS in four lines.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 25-27,5mm, weight: 8,42g, axis: 6h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: A.D., ref: SB 1667, p-320,
Q-001
quadrans
B_033_Theophilus_830-842-AD,_AE-Follis,_ThEOFIL___bASIL__,_ThEO-FILE_AVG-OVStE_SV-nICAS,_SB-1667,_p-320,_Constantinopolis,_Q-002,_6h,_24,5-25,5mm,_3,75g-s.jpg
B 033 Theophilus (830-842 A.D.), SB 1667, AE Follis, Constantinopolis, +ThEO/FILE AVG/OVStE SV/nICAS in four lines, #248 viewsB 033 Theophilus (830-842 A.D.), SB 1667, AE Follis, Constantinopolis, +ThEO/FILE AVG/OVStE SV/nICAS in four lines, #2
avers: ThEOFIL' bASIL', Crowned, three-quarter length figure of Theophilus facing, pellets on the crown, wearing loros, holding labarum and cross on globe.
reverse: +ThEO/FILE AVG/OVStE SV/nICAS in four lines.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 24,5-25,5mm, weight: 3,75g, axis: 6h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: A.D., ref: SB 1667, p-320,
Q-002
quadrans
B_059_Anonim-Follis,_SB_1901,_AE-Follis,_Class_K,_(Alexius_I__(1081-1118_A_D_)),_Constantinopolis,_Q-001,_6h,_20,5-22,5mm,_4,09g-s.jpg
B 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1901, AE-Follis, Class K, MP/QV//--, (Alexius I. (1081-1118 A.D.), Constantinopolis, Mary, three-quarter length figure, #198 viewsB 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1901, AE-Follis, Class K, MP/QV//--, (Alexius I. (1081-1118 A.D.), Constantinopolis, Mary, three-quarter length figure, #1
averse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and rising right hand in benediction, in left hand, to scroll, to left IC to right XC, border of large pellets.
reverse: MP-QV to left and right of Mary, three-quarter length figure, nimbate, hands raised, all inside border of large pellets.
exergue: MP/QV//--, diameter: 20,5-22,5mm, weight: 4,09g, axis: 6h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 1068-1071 A.D., ref:SB 1901,
Q-001
quadrans
Baduila_quarter_siliqua.jpg
Baduila - Ticinum - quarter siliqua48 viewsBaduila (-552), Ostrogothic king (541-552). AR quarter siliqua (11 mm, 0.41 g) minted in Ticinum in the name of Justinian I. Obverse: diademed bust right, (…)NV IIVC. Reverse: D N BADVILA REX in four lines within wreath. Metlich 68.1 commentsJan
Baduila_quarter_siliqua_ab.jpg
Baduila - Ticinum - quarter siliqua76 viewsBaduila (-552), Ostrogothic king (541-552). AR quarter siliqua (10 mm, 0.36 g) in the name of Justinian I, minted in Ticinum. Obverse: bust right with cross-topped diadem, D N IVSTIN-IVS PF AVC. Reverse: Monogram of Baduila, D above, N below, all within wreath. Metlich 67b, r3 (< three coins listed by Metlich).

Ex Inasta Auction 47, lot 421, 2012
1 commentsJan (jbc)
Zeus_BCC_LT21.jpg
BCC LT2141 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
1st - 3rd Cent CE?
Obv: Three quarter facing
portait of Zeus (or possibly Serapis?).
Rev: Blank
11.0mm. 1.58gm.
v-drome
BCC_LT76_Zeus_portrait.jpg
BCC LT7612 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
1st to 4th Century CE?
Obv: Three quarter facing
portrait of Zeus, or Mask?
Rev: Uncertain object,
orientation unknown.
9 x 9.759 x 1.5mm.
Weight: 0.94gm. Axis:90?
cf. BCC LT21 or LT2
v-drome
constantineII_London287.jpg
BEAT TRA-NQLITAS. 
Globe on altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX; RIC VII London 28718 viewsConstantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D. 19mm, 3.48g. 
 London Mint, Officina 1, 323-324 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS IVN N C. 
Helmeted, cuirassed bust left wearing paludamentum. 
Reverse: BEAT TRA-NQLITAS. 
Globe on altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX in three lines. Above, three stars. Globe is quartered, with a dot in each quarter. 
Field Marks: None. 
Exergue: PLON 
Reference: RIC VII London 287. Although its origin is not recorded, this coin has the light green patina typical of an English find. Ex MoremothPodiceps
Mudie Princess Charlotte.JPG
BHM 0940. Death of Princess Charlotte 1817. Mudie.162 viewsObv. Draped bust of Princess Charlotte with roses in her hair, three-quarters right HRH PRINCESS CHARLOTTE AUGUSTA
Rev. Britannia seated left weeping, British lion at her feet, urn and broken column behind DIED NOV VI MDCCCXVII in Ex: WEEP BRITAIN THOUGH HAS LOST THE EXPECTANCY AND ROSE OF THE FAIR STATE
BHM 940, Eimer 1097.
AE49 by T Webb & G Mills. Struck by Mudie, not part of his National Series.

The Princess was the only child of George Prince of Wales (later Prince Regent then George IV) and Caroline of Brunswick, born on 7th January 1796. She married Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg on 2nd May 1816 at Carlton House, but died in childbirth on 6th November the following year.
1 commentsLordBest
aimeryDeLusignanm40.jpg
Billion denier Aimery de Lusignan 1197-1205 CE and later to 1220.13 viewsObverse: Cross pattee, annulet in first and fourth quarters. AMALRICVS REX o
Reverse: + DE IERVSALEM holy Sepulchre
Mint: Jerusalem
Date: 1197-1205 CE
Longuet p. 171, Malloy 40.
16mm, .34g

Most likely minted during the period of the Third Crusade (1190-92) or later up to near 1225 or so. Hoards show that these debased deniers were issued in large numbers, and often recoined. Weights ranged from .20 to .70 grams and up to around 33% silver. The allusion to the previous fortunes of the Kingdom are represented by the Holy Sepulcher which had previously been in Latin Christian hands.
wileyc
Boeotia,_Thebes.jpg
Boeotia, Thebes12 viewsAE17
221-197 B.C.
17mm, 3.91g
GCV-2413

Obverse:
Head of Persephone three quarter face to right wreathed with corn.

Reverse:
BOIΩTΩN
Poseidon naked, standing left, right foot set on rock, and holding trident.
rubadub
Boiotia_Orchomenos_8mm_0_62g.jpg
Boiotia, Orchomenos, obol39 views8mm, 0.62g
obv: wheat grain
rev: large square incuse quartered perpendicularly, with additional diagonal line

(BCD Boiotia 186)
areich
Amphitheatre 1.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Amphitheatre42 viewsThe Amphitheatre at Caerleon is the best preserved in Britain. Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300. Isca is still used today and has been mutated into Usk, which is the name of a town and river in the local area.maridvnvm
Amphitheatre 2.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Amphitheatre32 viewsThe Amphitheatre at Caerleon is the best preserved in Britain. Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300. maridvnvm
Amphitheatre 5.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Amphitheatre30 viewsThe Amphitheatre at Caerleon is the best preserved in Britain. Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300. maridvnvm
Amphitheatre 4.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Amphitheatre33 viewsThe Amphitheatre at Caerleon is the best preserved in Britain. Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300. maridvnvm
Amphitheatre 3.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Amphitheatre36 viewsThe Amphitheatre at Caerleon is the best preserved in Britain. Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300. maridvnvm
Inscription.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Inscription to Gaius Valerius Victor - Standard Bearer67 viewsA plaque with inscription found at Caerleon. Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300.

D M
G VALERIVS G F
GALERIA VICTOR
LVGDVNI SIG LEG II AVG
STIP XVII ANNOR XLV CV
RAI AGENT ANNIO PERPETVO H

DIS MANIBVS
GAIVS VALERIVS GAI FILLVS
GALERIA (TRIBV) VICTOR
LVGDVNI SIGNIFER LEGIONIS II AVGVSTAE
STRIPENDIORVM XVII ANNORVM XLV CV-
RAIM AGENTE ANNIO PERPETVO HEREDE

"To the spirits of the departed; Gaius Valerius Victor, son of Gaius, of the Galerian voting tribe, from Lugdunum, standard-bearer of the Second Augustan Legion, of 17 years; service, Aged 45, set up under the charge of Annius Perpetuus, his heir."
maridvnvm
Decoration.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Wall Section48 viewsA section of interior wall found at Caerleon and decorated to attempt to illustrate how it may have looked.

Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300.
maridvnvm
Bruttium,_Brettii,_Under_Hannibal_(215-205_BC),_AR-quarter_shekel,_Tanit-Demeter_l_,_Horse_r_,_SNG_Cop_369,_HN_Italy_2020,__Q-001,_0h,_13,5mm,_1,67g-s.jpg
Bruttium, Brettii, Under Hannibal, (215-205 B.C.), AR-Quarter Shekel, SNG Cop 369, -/-//--, Free horse standing right,231 viewsBruttium, Brettii, Under Hannibal, (215-205 B.C.), AR-Quarter Shekel, SNG Cop 369, -/-//--, Free horse standing right,
avers: Head of Tanit-Demeter left, wreathed with grain, in pendant earring and necklace.
reverse: Free horse standing right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 1,67g, axes: 0h,
mint: Bruttium, Brettii, date: 215-205 B.C., ref: SNG Cop 369, Robinson, NC 1964, p. 53, 3., HN Italy 2020.,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Bruttium_Kroton_SNG-ANS380.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton.20 viewsBruttium, Kroton. c. 370 BC. AR Stater (7.68 gm). Head of Hera Lakinia facing three-quarters, wearing stephanos adorned with honeysuckle & griffin heads. / Herakles Epitrapezios seated l. on rock w/ lionskin, holding wine cup, letter Ϙ by ankle. Bow & club crossed above. KPOT & tripod to l. ME in field above arm. VF. CNG EA 1999. SNG ANS 380; Dewing 512; HN Italy 2162; HGC 1 1463; SNG Lockett 629var (Δ overstruck on E of Rᵪ); SNG Cop 1800var (same).Christian T
constantine_tich_asen.jpg
BULGARIA Second Empire Konstantin I Asen. 1257–127710 views
Æ Trachy, Tarnovo mint.
Av: Large cross; traces of IC XC in upper quarters, stars in lower quarters

Rv: Konstantin I enthroned facing, holding labarum and globus cruciger; manus Dei to upper right.

Rare 1,92 gr 25,5 mm

Dochev, Katalog 0630; Raduchev & Zhekov Type 1.4.8; Youroukova & Penchev 41.
Britanikus
RZ-1_11_16.jpg
Bulgaria, Second Empire: Mihail Asen III Šišman (1323–1330) Æ Trachy, Veliko Turnovo (Raduchev & Zhekov 1.11.16; Youroukova & Penchev 68; Dobrinić & Dimnik 8.2.3; Dochev 1890-1910)54 viewsObv: Cross with suppendaneum; IC XC in upper quarters, stars in lower quarters
Rev: Šišman tamgha; stars and dots flanking base
Dim: 19mm, 1.67 g, 6h

This particular retrograde IC XC variation and dot placement between tamgha is not present in Dochev.
1 commentsSpongeBob
1_13_44.jpg
Bulgaria: Ivan Aleksandar (1331–1371) Æ Trachy (Raduchev & Zhekov Type 1.13.44)24 viewsObv:
Rev: Large equilateral cross with extensions at the edges, with symmetrical embellishments at the bottom in the form of acanthus leaves. IC XC in the above quarters of the cross



King John Alexander, right, with a man
with propudules. He is dressed in divatism
and maniakion. Through his chest and left
the hand is a lemon. In her right hand
holds a skipper with a cross, with a handle,
and in the left - an object with a vague image,
in any case a round with a cross
or anesikkakia. On both sides of the
the guru has monograms: * and the grievance
of the title ць.уь - Lf.

Quant.Geek
image00692.jpg
Bulgaria: Ivan Aleksandar (1331–1371) Æ Trachy (Raduchev & Zhekov Type 1.13.50var)43 viewsObv: Half-length facing bust of Ivan Aleksandar standing facing, holding cross-tipped scepter and akakia
Rev: Cross pattée with tendrils emanating from base; pellet in upper quarters
SpongeBob
image01675.jpg
Bulgaria: Ivan Aleksandar (1331–1371) Æ Trachy (Youroukova & Penchev-105var)53 viewsObv: Cross set on acanthus base; IC XC in upper quarters; triple pellets above each of the leaves
Rev: Imperial double-headed eagle facing, with wings displayed
SpongeBob
A17-116.jpg
Bulgaria: Ivan Šišman (1371-1393) AE Trachy (Dochev pl. 38, 2)35 viewsObv: Crossed cross; triple pellets in quarters
Rev: Monogram across field
SpongeBob
Youroukova_Penchev-41.jpg
Bulgaria: Konstantin I Asen (1257-1277) Æ Trachy, Veliko Turnovo (Raduchev & Zhekov 1.4.8-9; Youroukova & Penchev 41)15 viewsObv: IC XC in field; Large cross; stars in lower quarters
Rev: КО/СТ/ АN/Δ - Ц А/С/Ѣ/N in two columnar groups; Konstantin seated facing on throne, holding labarum and globus cruciger; manus Dei to upper right
Quant.Geek
JUSTINIAN_I_QUARTER_FOLLIS.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - Justinian I36 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - Justinian I (527-565) AE Quarter-Follis (I = 10 Nummi or decanummium) Obv: D N IVSTINIANVS P P AV - Diademed bust of Justinian right, draped and cuirassed Rev: Large I. Cross above, ANNO to left, XXXV (AD 562) to right. Exe: CON Constantinople mint. 3.48 g. SB-167.dpaul7
BYZ_NICEPHORAS_III_S1888.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - Nicephorus III37 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - Nicephorus III (1078-1081 AD) AE Follis. Struck in Constantinople. Obverse: Three-quarter length figure of Christ standing facing, wearing nimbus cross, pallium and colobium, and raising r. hand in benediction; in l hand, book of Gospels; in field l., IC over large star; in field r., XC over large star. Reverse: Cross, with globule at each extremity; at centre, circle containing star of eight rays. Sear 1888.
*NOTE: This coin appears to have been overstruck on another issue!
dpaul7
Sear-2373(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282-1328) AE trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2373; DOC 811; LPC 212.14; PCPC 246; Lianta 687)16 viewsObv: Ⓐ/Γ to left, Δ/MH/TP or variation to right; Full-length figure of St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate and sagion; right hand holds spear; left hand holds shield
Rev: Three-quarter-length figure of bearded emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar-piece and jeweled loros of simplified type; right hand holds scepter cruciger; left hand holds globus cruciger; Manus Dei in upper right field, two stars in left field
Quant.Geek
Sear-2373.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282-1328) AE trachy, Thessalonica (Sear-2373; DOC 811; LPC 212.14; PCPC 246; Lianta-687)16 viewsObv: Ⓐ/Γ to left, Δ/MH/TP or variation to right; Full-length figure of St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate and sagion; right hand holds spear; left hand holds shield
Rev: Three-quarter-length figure of bearded emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar-piece and jeweled loros of simplified type; right hand holds scepter cruciger; left hand holds globus cruciger; Manus Dei in upper right field, two stars in left field
SpongeBob
Sear-2327.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282-1328) BI Tornese, Class III Constantinople Mint (Sear-2327, DOC V-558,559)31 viewsObv: Andronicus standing facing, holding cross-tipped scepter and akakia, being crowned by Manus Dei to upper right; Bs on cloak
Rev: Large B over cross pattée; traces of pellets in quarters
SpongeBob
Sear-2327var.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282-1328) BI Tornese, Constantinople (Sear-2327var; DOC 558-9; PCPC 94B)13 viewsObv: Andronicus standing facing, holding cross-tipped scepter and akakia; manus Dei to upper right; ; sigla: ᗷ | ᗺ
Rev: Large B over cross pattée with pellets in quarters
Quant.Geek
Sear-2334.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282-1328) Trachy, Constantinople (Sear-2334)52 viewsObv: Bust of the Virgin, arms spread, within the walls of Constantinople with 6 groups of triple towers, sigla in lower fields A - X
Rev: Christ standing on the right, facing three-quarters lefty, holding Book of Gospels, placing right hand on the head of Andronikos prostrate in proskynesis, Greek legend in fields IC - XC (right) and ANDRONIKOS EN HO DESPOTIS O PALLO (left)
SpongeBob
Sear-2366.JPG
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282-1328) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2366; Grierson 1433; LPC 208.8)13 viewsObv: Long cross with wing to left
Rev: Three-quarter length figures of Andronicus left, and St. Demetrius right with large cross between them
Quant.Geek
Sear-2366(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282-1328) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2366; Grierson 1433; LPC 208.8)3 viewsObv: Long cross with wing to left
Rev: Three-quarter length figures of Andronicus left, and St. Demetrius right with large cross between them
Dim: 21mm, 1.04 g
Quant.Geek
Sear-2368.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282-1328) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2368; DOC 841-44; Lianta 695-96)18 viewsObv: Three-quarter-length figure of St. Michael, beardless and nimbate
Rev: ΔHMHT - ANΔ; Half-length figure of St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate on left, and of bearded emperor; between them large patriarchal cross. Saint and emperor hold in right and left hand respectively scepter cruciger
Dim: 22mm, 1.29g, 6h

ex Prue Morgan Fitts Collection

Quant.Geek
Sear-2385.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282-1328) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2385; DOC V 745-8; LPC 220.24; PCPC 221; Lianta 673-674)16 viewsObv: Two wings with six-pointed star above and below
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of emperor in portico, wearing stemma, divitision, and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in right hand , and in left hand anexikakia
1 commentsQuant.Geek
AndronicusII-Unpublished-001.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282-1328) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Unpublished) 7 viewsObv: ΔHMHT - ANΔ; Half-length figure of St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate on left, and of bearded emperor; between them large patriarchal cross. Saint and emperor hold in right and left hand respectively scepter cruciger
Rev: Three-quarter-length figure of Michael IX, beardless on left, crowned by Andronicus II, bearded. Michael holds in right hand scepter cruciger, and in left anexikakia. Andronicus holds in left hand scepter cruciger. Both emperors wear stemma, divitision, collar-piece and loros. Star in left field
Quant.Geek
Sear-2448.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus with Michael IX (1282-1328) Æ Assarion, Constantinople (Sear 2448; DOC V.700; PCPC 180; LPC 98.49; Lianta 803)14 viewsObv: Long Cross pattee, small X at intersection, B B in upper and lower quarters
Rev: +AVTOKPATOPЄCPOMAIШN forming outer circle of legend; Three-quarter-length figure of Andronicus II, bearded on left, and of Michael IX, beardless on right, wearing stemma; between them labarum on long shaft; Both emperors place free hand upon chest

SpongeBob
Sear-2448(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus with Michael IX (1282-1328) Æ Assarion, Constantinople (Sear 2448; DOC V.700; PCPC 180; LPC 98.49; Lianta 803)8 viewsObv: Long Cross pattee, small X at intersection, B B in upper and lower quarters
Rev: +AVTOKPATOPЄCPOMAIШN forming outer circle of legend; Three-quarter-length figure of Andronicus II, bearded on left, and of Michael IX, beardless on right, wearing stemma; between them labarum on long shaft; Both emperors place free hand upon chest
Quant.Geek
Sear-2430.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus with Michael IX (1282-1328) Æ Assarion, Constantinople (Sear-2430; DOC-647)18 viewsObv: Andonicus and Michael standing facing, holding labarum between them
Rev: Cross pattée; pellets in quarters
SpongeBob
PCPC-234.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus with Michael IX (1282-1328) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (DOC 774-777; LPC 80; PCPC 234)33 viewsObv: Large cross pattée; stars in upper quarters, B B in lower
Rev: Half-length facing busts of Andronicus and Michael, holding between them a large patriarchal cross between them
1 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-2458.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus with Michael IX (1282-1328) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica Mint (Sear 2458; DOC 778-779; LPC 232.6; PCPC 235)13 viewsObv: Two concentric circles bisected by vertical band
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of Andronicus II and of Michael IX, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and loros; between them haloed cross on long shaft. Both emperors hold in right and left hand respectively scepter cruciger
Quant.Geek
Sear-2458(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus with Michael IX (1282-1328) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica Mint (Sear 2458; DOC 778-779; LPC 232.6; PCPC 235)10 viewsObv: Two concentric circles bisected by vertical band
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of Andronicus II and of Michael IX, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and loros; between them haloed cross on long shaft. Both emperors hold in right and left hand respectively scepter cruciger
Quant.Geek
Sear-2458(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus with Michael IX (1282-1328) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica Mint (Sear 2458; DOC 778-779; LPC 232.6; PCPC 235)16 viewsObv: Two concentric circles bisected by vertical band
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of Andronicus II and of Michael IX, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and loros; between them haloed cross on long shaft. Both emperors hold in right and left hand respectively scepter cruciger
Quant.Geek
Sear-2436.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus with Michael IX (1294-1320) Æ Assarion, Constantinople (Sear-2436; DOC class X, 681-2; PCPC 169)30 viewsObv: IC XC in field. Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate. Legend inside two borders;
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of Andronicus II, bearded on left and of Michael IX, beardless on right, wearing stemma, divistion, and loros; between them patriarchal cross on long shaft. Both emperors place free hands upon chest.
SpongeBob
Sear-2436(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus with Michael IX (1294-1320) Æ Assarion, Constantinople (Sear-2436; DOC class X, 681-2; PCPC 169)8 viewsObv: IC XC in field. Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate. Legend inside two borders;
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of Andronicus II, bearded on left and of Michael IX, beardless on right, wearing stemma, divistion, and loros; between them patriarchal cross on long shaft. Both emperors place free hands upon chest.

ex Prue Morgan Fitts Collection; ex Leonard O. Greenfield Collection
Quant.Geek
Sear-2487.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Æ assarion (Sear-2487; DOC 929; LPC 240.11; PCPC 261; Lianta-839)10 viewsObv: St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, seated upon throne without back; holds sword across knees
Rev: Three-quarter-length figure of Andronicus wearing stemma, holding lis and cruciform scepter; stars in field
SpongeBob
Sear-2487(1).JPG
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Æ assarion (Sear-2487; DOC 929; LPC 240.11; PCPC 261; Lianta-839)12 viewsObv: St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, seated upon throne without back; holds sword across knees
Rev: Three-quarter-length figure of Andronicus wearing stemma, holding lis and cruciform scepter; stars in field
Quant.Geek
Sear-2481.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Æ Assarion, Constantinople (Sear 2481; DOC V Class IV 908-12; LPC 126.13; PCPC 205; Lianta 831)10 viewsObv: Cross ancrée with pellet in each angle
Rev: AVTOKPATOP POMAIШN (or similar, sometimes retrograde); Three-quarter length figure of Andronicus facing, bearded, wearing crown and chlamys, holding cross-scepter in right hand and holding left in front of him
Quant.Geek
Sear-2481(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Æ Assarion, Constantinople (Sear 2481; DOC V Class IV 908-12; LPC 126.13; PCPC 205; Lianta 831)13 viewsObv: Cross ancrée with pellet in each angle
Rev: AVTOKPATOP POMAIШN (or similar, sometimes retrograde); Three-quarter length figure of Andronicus facing, bearded, wearing crown and chlamys, holding cross-scepter in right hand and holding left in front of him

Quant.Geek
Sear-2481(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Æ Assarion, Constantinople (Sear 2481; DOC V Class IV 908-12; LPC 126.13; PCPC 205; Lianta 831)9 viewsObv: Cross ancrée with pellet in each angle
Rev: AVTOKPATOP POMAIШN (or similar, sometimes retrograde); Three-quarter length figure of Andronicus facing, bearded, wearing crown and chlamys, holding cross-scepter in right hand and holding left in front of him
Quant.Geek
Sear-2482.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Æ Trachy, Constantinople (Sear 2482; LPC 234.2; PCPC 257; Lianta 834)11 viewsObv: Ⓐ to left, Δ/M/T to right. Half-length figure of St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, wearing armor; right hand holds spear.
Rev: A M above St. Michael. Three-quarter-length figure of St. Michael, beardless and nimbate, on left, turning right, and with left hand raised in blessing over the head of the emperor, who holds two patriarchal crosses. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-piece and jeweled loros of simplified type. Saint wears tunic, breastplate and sagion.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2482(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Æ Trachy, Constantinople (Sear 2482; LPC 234.2; PCPC 257; Lianta 834)12 viewsObv: Ⓐ to left, Δ/M/T to right. Half-length figure of St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, wearing armor; right hand holds spear.
Rev: A M above St. Michael. Three-quarter-length figure of St. Michael, beardless and nimbate, on left, turning right, and with left hand raised in blessing over the head of the emperor, who holds two patriarchal crosses. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-piece and jeweled loros of simplified type. Saint wears tunic, breastplate and sagion.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2482(3).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Æ Trachy, Constantinople (Sear 2482; LPC 234.2; PCPC 257; Lianta 834)13 viewsObv: Ⓐ to left, Δ/M/T to right. Half-length figure of St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, wearing armor; right hand holds spear.
Rev: A M above St. Michael. Three-quarter-length figure of St. Michael, beardless and nimbate, on left, turning right, and with left hand raised in blessing over the head of the emperor, who holds two patriarchal crosses. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-piece and jeweled loros of simplified type. Saint wears tunic, breastplate and sagion.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2483.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2483; DOC V Class III, 919-20; LPC 234.3; PCPC 270; Lianta 835)25 viewsObv: Patriarchal cross with winged shaft
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of Andronicus on left, and beardless and nimbate St. Demetrius; between them cross on long shaft; Andronicus wears stemma, divitision, collar-piece and loros; right hand holds scepter cruciger; St. Demetrius holds in left hand spear; Star in cloud in upper center field
SpongeBob
Sear-2483(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2483; DOC V Class III, 919-20; LPC 234.3; PCPC 270; Lianta 835)10 viewsObv: Patriarchal cross with winged shaft
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of Andronicus on left, and beardless and nimbate St. Demetrius; between them cross on long shaft; Andronicus wears stemma, divitision, collar-piece and loros; right hand holds scepter cruciger; St. Demetrius holds in left hand spear; Star in cloud in upper center field
Quant.Geek
Sear-2483(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2483; DOC V Class III, 919-20; LPC 234.3; PCPC 270; Lianta 835)2 viewsObv: Patriarchal cross with winged shaft
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of Andronicus on left, and beardless and nimbate St. Demetrius; between them cross on long shaft; Andronicus wears stemma, divitision, collar-piece and loros; right hand holds scepter cruciger; St. Demetrius holds in left hand spear; Star in cloud in upper center field
Dim: 20mm, 1.3 g
Quant.Geek
Sear-2486.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2486; DOC 927-8; LPC 236.6; PCPC 271; Lianta-836)8 viewsObv: ΓΑΙ to left; ΔΗΤ to right; Half-length figure of St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate and sagion; right hand holds spear; left hand holds shield
Rev: Three-quarter-length figure of bearded emperor wearing stemma, divistion, cruciger place and loros, holding in both hands large patriarchal cross
SpongeBob
Sear-2486(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2486; DOC 927-8; LPC 236.6; PCPC 271; Lianta-836)11 viewsObv: ΓΑΙ to left; ΔΗΤ to right; Half-length figure of St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate and sagion; right hand holds spear; left hand holds shield
Rev: Three-quarter-length figure of bearded emperor wearing stemma, divistion, cruciger place and loros, holding in both hands large patriarchal cross

From the Iconodule Collection
Quant.Geek
Sear-1568.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Constantine V Copronymus (741-775) Æ Follis, Syracuse (Sear-1568; DOC 18; Anastasi 421)18 viewsObv: Three-quarter length figure of Constantine V, bearded, facing, wearing chlamys and crown with cross, holding in right hand, akakia
Rev: Same type as obverse, but with Leo IV, beardless
SpongeBob
Sear-2264.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Michael VIII Palaeologos (1261-1282) Æ Trachy, Constantinople (Sear 2264; DOC V 64-5; PCPC 25; Donald-Bendall C.7)17 viewsObv: MP - ΘV in upper field; Full-length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, three quarters left
Rev: Full-length figure of emperor on left, and of St. George, beardless and nimbate; between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-piece and jeweled loros of simplified type; right hand holds scepter cruciger. Saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion
Quant.Geek
Sear-2264(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Michael VIII Palaeologos (1261-1282) Æ Trachy, Constantinople (Sear 2264; DOC V 64-5; PCPC 25; Donald-Bendall C.7)13 viewsObv: MP - ΘV in upper field; Full-length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, three quarters left
Rev: Full-length figure of emperor on left, and of St. George, beardless and nimbate; between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-piece and jeweled loros of simplified type; right hand holds scepter cruciger. Saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion
Quant.Geek
Sear-2274.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Michael VIII Palaeologos (1261-1282) Æ Trachy, Constantinople (Sear 2274; DOC V, 86-90; Bendall-Donald C.15; PCPC 36; Lianta 539-40)7 viewsObv: MP - ΘV in field; Full-length figure of Virgin, nimbate, orans, standing three quarters; B B in field
Rev: Χ/Μ/ΔЄC/ΠΤ to left, Ο/Π/ΑΛ/ЄΛ to right, or variation; Emperor seated upon throne without back, wearing stemma, divitision, collar-piece and paneled loros of simplified type; right hand holds labarum headed scepter; left hand holds globus surmounted by patriarchal cross
Quant.Geek
Sear-2274(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Michael VIII Palaeologos (1261-1282) Æ Trachy, Constantinople (Sear 2274; DOC V, 86-90; Bendall-Donald C.15; PCPC 36; Lianta 539-40)12 viewsObv: MP - ΘV in field; Full-length figure of Virgin, nimbate, orans, standing three quarters; B B in field
Rev: Χ/Μ/ΔЄC/ΠΤ to left, Ο/Π/ΑΛ/ЄΛ to right, or variation; Emperor seated upon throne without back, wearing stemma, divitision, collar-piece and paneled loros of simplified type; right hand holds labarum headed scepter; left hand holds globus surmounted by patriarchal cross
Quant.Geek
Sear-2300.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Michael VIII Palaeologos (1261-1282) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2300)16 viewsObv: Large ornate cross; stars in quarters
Rev: Half-length facing figures of Michael, holding labarum, and St. Demetrius, holding spear, holding between them a model of Thessalonica; star above
Quant.Geek
Sear-2304.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Michael VIII Palaeologos (1261-1282) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2304; LBC 595)10 viewsObv: Half-length figure of St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate and sagion; seated upon throne without back; holds sword across knees
Rev: Three-quarter-length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simple type and saigon; right hand holds large patriarchal cross; left hand holds anexikakia
SpongeBob
Sear-2309.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Michael VIII Palaeologos (1261-1282) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2309; Bendall-Donald T.16; PCPC 84; Lianta 598-600)16 viewsObv: Large lily
Rev: Χ/Μ/Δ/Є/C/Π/Τ to left, Ο/ΠΑ/OΛ/Γ/O/S to right. Three-quarter-length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar-piece and panelled loros of simplified type; right hand holds large long cross; left hand holds anexikakia. Lily in left field.
SpongeBob
Sear-2309(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Michael VIII Palaeologos (1261-1282) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2309; Bendall-Donald T.16; PCPC 84; Lianta 598-600)10 viewsObv: Large lily
Rev: Χ/Μ/Δ/Є/C/Π/Τ to left, Ο/ΠΑ/OΛ/Γ/O/S to right. Three-quarter-length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar-piece and panelled loros of simplified type; right hand holds large long cross; left hand holds anexikakia. Lily in left field.
Quant.Geek
Sear-1888.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Nicephorus III (1078-1081) Æ Follis, Constantinople (Sear-1888)11 viewsObv: IC-XC to left and right of three-quarter length figure of Christ standing facing, wearing nimbus cross, holding book of gospels and raising right hand, large star to left and right
Rev: C - Φ / N - Δ in the four corners of a cross with a large dot at the ends of each arm, circle in centre containing large star of eight rays
SpongeBob
Sear-1888(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Nicephorus III (1078-1081) Æ Follis, Constantinople (Sear-1888)7 viewsObv: IC-XC to left and right of three-quarter length figure of Christ standing facing, wearing nimbus cross, holding book of gospels and raising right hand, large star to left and right
Rev: C - Φ / N - Δ in the four corners of a cross with a large dot at the ends of each arm, circle in center containing large star of eight rays
SpongeBob
Sear-1888(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Nicephorus III (1078-1081) Æ Follis, Constantinople (Sear-1888)13 viewsObv: IC-XC to left and right of three-quarter length figure of Christ standing facing, wearing nimbus cross, holding book of gospels and raising right hand, large star to left and right
Rev: C - Φ / N - Δ in the four corners of a cross with a large dot at the ends of each arm, circle in center containing large star of eight rays
SpongeBob
Sear-1667.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Theophilus (829-842) Æ Follis, Constantinople (Sear-1667)44 viewsObv: ΘEOFIL bASIL Three-quarter length figure facing, wearing loros and crown surmounted by tufa, holding labarum and globus cruciger.
Rev: + ΘEOFILE AVGOVSTE SV hICAS. Legend in 4 lines.
1 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-1667(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Theophilus (829-842) Æ Follis, Constantinople (Sear-1667; DOC 15a)21 viewsObv: ΘEOFIL bASIL Three-quarter length figure facing, wearing loros and crown surmounted by tufa, holding labarum and globus cruciger.
Rev: + ΘEOFILE AVGOVSTE SV hICAS. Legend in 4 lines.
Quant.Geek
Sear-1667(3).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Theophilus (829-842) Æ Follis, Constantinople (Sear-1667; DOC 15a)9 viewsObv: ΘEOFIL bASIL Three-quarter length figure facing, wearing loros and crown surmounted by tufa, holding labarum and globus cruciger.
Rev: + ΘEOFILE AVGOVSTE SV hICAS. Legend in 4 lines.
Quant.Geek
Sear-1667(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Theophilus (829-842) Æ Follis, Constantinople (Sear-1667; DOC 15a)11 viewsObv: ΘEOFIL bASIL Three-quarter length figure facing, wearing loros and crown surmounted by tufa, holding labarum and globus cruciger.
Rev: + ΘEOFILE AVGOVSTE SV hICAS. Legend in 4 lines.
Quant.Geek
Sear-1825.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class C Follis, Attributed to Michael IV (Sear-1825)36 viewsObv: EMMA NOVHL around, IC-XC to right and left of Christ, with nimbate cross behind head, three-quarter length figure standing, raising right hand, holding book of gospels in left
Rev: IC-XC/NI-KA in the angles of a jeweled cross with dot at each end
SpongeBob
Sear-1825(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class C Follis, Attributed to Michael IV (Sear-1825)23 viewsObv: EMMA NOVHL around, IC-XC to right and left of Christ, with nimbate cross behind head, three-quarter length figure standing, raising right hand, holding book of gospels in left
Rev: IC-XC/NI-KA in the angles of a jeweled cross with dot at each end
Quant.Geek
Sear-1825(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class C Follis, Attributed to Michael IV (Sear-1825)25 viewsObv: EMMA NOVHL around, IC-XC to right and left of Christ, with nimbate cross behind head, three-quarter length figure standing, raising right hand, holding book of gospels in left
Rev: IC-XC/NI-KA in the angles of a jeweled cross with dot at each end
Quant.Geek
Sear-1901(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class K Follis, Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus (Sear 1901; DOC K.1)8 viewsObv: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, IC; to right, XC. Border of large pellets
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of the Virgin orans facing, nimbate, wearing pallium and maphorium; to left of nimbus, M; to right, Θ
Dim: 27 mm, 5.42 g
Quant.Geek
Sear-1901.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class K Follis, Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus (Sear 1901; DOC K.1)8 viewsObv: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, IC; to right, XC. Border of large pellets
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of the Virgin orans facing, nimbate, wearing pallium and maphorium; to left of nimbus, M; to right, Θ
Dim: 23 mm, 5.24 g
Quant.Geek
Sear-1901(Countermarked).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class K Follis, Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus (Sear 1901; DOC K.1)12 viewsObv: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, IC; to right, XC. Border of large pellets; Mardin Hoard Countermark #10 (عدل‎) and #17 (لله)
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of the Virgin orans facing, nimbate, wearing pallium and maphorium; to left of nimbus, M; to right, Θ
Quant.Geek
Sear-1901A.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class K Follis, Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus (Sear-1901; DOC K.1)60 viewsObv: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, IC; to right, XC. Border of large pellets.
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of the Virgin orans facing. She is nimbate and wears pallium and maphorium; to left of nimbus, M; to right, Θ.
1 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-1901(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class K Follis, Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus (Sear-1901; DOC K.1)20 viewsObv: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, IC; to right, XC. Border of large pellets.
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of the Virgin orans facing. She is nimbate and wears pallium and maphorium; to left of nimbus, M; to right, Θ.
Quant.Geek
heraclius~1.jpg
Byzantine Heraclius quarter siliqua - UNIQUE8 viewsHaraclius, AR quarter siliqua, mint of Carthage.
10 mm ; 0.25 gr.
Obv. D.N.ERACAIO PP AV (or similar). Crowned, dr. and cuir. bust facing, beardless.
Rev. Cross potent, with star in each angle.

D.O. ..., BMC ..., T ...., R ...., BN ...(but now in BN), MIB 150 ; Sear 871a

Unique
Tanit
DOC_III-Bb.jpg
Byzantine Imitation: Anonymous (ca 11th Century) Æ Follis, Unknown Mint (DOC III Bb; Zervos 9-10)23 viewsObv: IC to left, XC with pellet above to right; Bust of Christ facing, with cross nimbus having quincunx (⁙) in each arm and pellet in each upper quarter, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left hand holds book, with ⁙ on cover, from beneath.
Rev: IS-XI IAZ-IIЄ IAZ-IIЄ to left and right above and below of cross; cross on base and two steps, pellet at each end of upper arms
Dim: 25mm, 6.78g
Quant.Geek
Justinianus D.jpg
Byzantine Justinian I - Solidus110 viewsJustinian I (AD 527-565). Gold solidus. Constantinople, ca. AD 527-537. D N IVSTINI-ANVS PP AVG, Helmeted, cuirassed bust three-quarters right, holding spear over right shoulder, shield on left shoulder / VICTORI-A AVGGG S, angel standing facing, holding long cross in right hand and globus cruciger in left, star in right field, CONOB in exergue.

DO 3f. MIB 5. Sear 137.
1 commentsTanit
image00517.jpg
BYZANTINE, Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341) Assarion, Constantinople (Sear-2481)517 viewsObv: Three-quarter length figure of Andronicus facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre. Legend around - ANAPONIK AVTOKPATO (or similar, sometimes retrograde)
Rev: Cross anchored, with pellet in each angle.
SpongeBob
Byzt--2-s.jpg
Byzantine, Anonymous Follis, SB 1901, AE-Follis, Class K, MP/QV//--, (Alexius I. (1081-1118 A.D.), Constantinopolis, Mary, three-quarter length figure, #1186 viewsAnonymous Follis, SB 1901, AE-Follis, Class K, MP/QV//--, (Alexius I. (1081-1118 A.D.), Constantinopolis, Mary, three-quarter length figure, #1
averse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and rising right hand in benediction, in left hand, to scroll, to left IC to right XC, border of large pellets.
reverse: MP-QV to left and right of Mary, three-quarter length figure, nimbate, hands raised, all inside border of large pellets.
exergue: MP/QV//--, diameter: 20,5-22,5mm, weight: 4,09g, axis: 6h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 1068-1071 A.D., ref:SB 1901,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
heraclius~2.jpg
Byzantine, Heraclius, quarter siliqua - UNIQUE19 viewsHaraclius, AR quarter siliqua, mint of Carthage.
10 mm ; 0.25 gr.
Obv. D.N.ERACAIO PP AV (or similar). Crowned, dr. and cuir. bust facing, beardless.
Rev. Cross potent, with star in each angle.

D.O. ..., BMC ..., T ...., R ...., BN ...(but now in BN), MIB 150 ; Sear 871a

Unique
Tanit
Byzanz_5.jpg
BYZANTINE, Michael IV, Class C Follis, AD 1034-104131 viewsMichael IV Class C Follis. 1034-1041 AD. EMMA NOVHL around, IC-XC to right and left of Christ, with nimbate cross behind head, three-quarter length figure standing, raising right hand, holding book of gospels in left / IC-XC/NI-KA in the angles of a jewelled cross with dot at each end. SB 1825.Franz-Josef M
Vlasto_984.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum. Time of Hannibal, c. 212-209 BC. Nomos54 views3.98gg. (5h). Obv: Naked youth on horseback right, holding reins and carrying filleted palm; ΣΩKAN - NAΣ below. Rx: Taras astride dolphin left, holding aphlaston in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm; eagle standing with wings spread behind; TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 984. HN Italy 1082. SNG ANS 1272. Perfectly struck; Mint State.
Ex Philip T. Ashton Collection. Ex Berk 130, 6 January 2003, lot 81.

Hannibal used the region around Tarentum and Metapontum as winter quarters during his occupation of southern Italy. He installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half shekel standard.
3 commentsLeo
95.JPG
CAMPANIA, Neapolis11 viewsNeapolis, Campania, 1.29g (quarter unit), 317/310-270 BC. Head of Apollo left, NEAPOLITWN before, dotted border/ Forepart of Achelous Sebethos as a man-faced bull to right, dolphin above, dotted border. MSP I, 309-316 var.Molinari
IMG_2518.JPG
CAMPANIA: Neapolis12 viewsQuarter unit. Taliercio-; MSP I-; Unpublished.Molinari
5.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria19 viewsQuarterdeck
Mainmast shrouds
Juancho
4.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria17 viewsMaindeck
Quarterdeck
Poopdeck
Mainmast
Juancho
3.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria14 viewsMaindeck
Quarterdeck
Poopdeck
Mainmast
Juancho
DSC07280.JPG
Caracalla Tetradrachmai - 4x - with US Quarter - obverse8 views4 x Tetradrachmai of the Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217 AD)

The three (3) on the top, the ones at 12 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock around the US Quarter Dollar were struck at the Mint at Antioch, Syria.

The one on the bottom, at 6 o'clock directly below the US Quarter Dollar is from Tyre, Phoenicia. - note the murex shell between the legs of the eagle on this coin, also the eagle is standing on a club rather than on the thigh and leg of a sacrificial animal like it is on the other three from Antioch. The Murex shell and the club were used as symbols of Tyre.
rexesq
DSC07299.JPG
Caracalla Tetradrachmai - 4x - with US Quarter - obverse7 views4 x Tetradrachmai of the Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217 AD)

The three (3) on the top row are from the Mint at Antioch, Syria.
The one on the bottom row to the left of the US Quarter Dollar is from Tyre, Phoenicia.
rexesq
DSC07295.JPG
Caracalla Tetradrachmai - 4x - with US Quarter - reverse7 views4 x Tetradrachmai of the Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217 AD)

The three (3) on the top row are from the Mint at Antioch, Syria.

The one on the bottom row to the left of the US Quarter Dollar is from Tyre, Phoenicia. - note the murex shell between the legs of the eagle on this coin, also the eagle is standing on a club rather than on the thigh and leg of a sacrificial animal like it is on the other three from Antioch. The Murex shell and the club were used as symbols of Tyre.
rexesq
DSC07292.JPG
Caracalla Tetradrachmai - 4x - with US Quarter - reverse9 views4 x Tetradrachmai of the Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217 AD)

The three (3) on the top row are from the Mint at Antioch, Syria.

The one on the bottom row to the left of the US Quarter Dollar is from Tyre, Phoenicia. - note the murex shell between the legs of the eagle on this coin, also the eagle is standing on a club rather than on the thigh and leg of a sacrificial animal like it is on the other three from Antioch. The Murex shell and the club were used as symbols of Tyre.
rexesq
DSC07287.JPG
Caracalla Tetradrachmai - 4x - with US Quarter - reverse8 views4 x Tetradrachmai of the Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217 AD)

The three (3) on the top, the ones at 12 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock around the US Quarter Dollar were struck at the Mint at Antioch, Syria.

The one on the bottom, at 6 o'clock directly below the US Quarter Dollar is from Tyre, Phoenicia. - note the murex shell between the legs of the eagle on this coin, also the eagle is standing on a club rather than on the thigh and leg of a sacrificial animal like it is on the other three from Antioch. The Murex shell and the club were used as symbols of Tyre.
rexesq
20171103_110731.jpg
Caracalla, AR Denarius, 196-198 AD.24 viewsObverse: M AVR ANTON - CAES PONTIF. Bust of Caracalla, bareheaded, draped on the right, seen three quarters behind.
Reverse: PRI-NCIPI - IVVEN- [TVTIS]. Caracalla standing on the left, holding a scepter in the right hand and a baton on the left; behind him, a trophy.
References: RIC 13a, RSC 505. R2.
17mm and 2.63 grams.
1 commentsCanaan
greek12.jpg
Caria, Pixodaros Ar Didrachm31 views(340-334 BC)
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo three-quarters facing right.
Rev.: Zeus standing right, holding labrys and spear.
1 commentsMinos
Rhodes_Hemidrachm.jpg
Carian Islands, Rhodes, Hemidrachm 304 - 167 B.C.31 viewsObv, Head of Helios three quarter face to the right, hair loose. Rev, Rose, with bud on right. P - O in lower field.
B.M.C. 18. 247, 189-91
1 commentsPhiloromaos
IMG_0009_(800x399).jpg
Carian Satraps, Pixodaros, ca 341-336/582 viewsAR didrachm
Ob: Laureate Apollo, three quarters facing, right, himation fastened with brooch at neck
Rx: ΠIXΩΔAPOY; Zeus of Labraunda standing right, holding spear in left hand & double-bladed axe over right shoulder.
7.02g 21mm

SNG Keckman I, 280, Sammlung Karl 35-40

ex Pegasi Numismatics Auction XXII (20.04.2010) lot 167
5 commentsDino
9965.jpg
Carrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, Lindgren 2557122 viewsCarrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, 193-211 AD
Av.: CEΠTIMIOC [CE]OY.... , naked (laureate?) bust of Septimius Severus right
Rv.: ..Λ]OY KAPPH ΛKA... , front view of a tetrastyle temple, the temple of the moon god Sin, in the middle a sacred stone on tripod, on top of stone: crescent, standards (with crescents on top) on both sides inside the building; another crescent in the pediment.
Lindgren 2557 ; BMC p. 82, #4

The city and the region played an important role in roman history.

Carrhae / Harran, (Akkadian Harrânu, "intersecting roads"; Latin Carrhae), an ancient city of strategic importance, an important town in northern Mesopotamia, famous for its temple of the moon god Sin, is now nothing more than a village in southeastern Turkey with an archeological site.
In the Bible it is mentioned as one of the towns where Abraham stayed on his voyage from Ur to the promised land. Abraham's family settled there when they left Ur of the Chaldeans (Genesis 11:31-32).
Inscriptions indicate that Harran existed as early as 2000 B.C. In its prime, it controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions about 1100 BC, under the name Harranu, or "Road" (Akkadian harrānu, 'road, path, journey' ).
During the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its lasts king, Ashur-uballit II, being besiged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon at 609 BC. Harran became part of Median Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
The city remained Persian untill in 331 BC when the soldiers of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great entered the city.
After the death of Alexander on 11 June 323 BC, the city was claimed by his successors: Perdiccas, Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes. These visited the city, but eventually, it became part of the Asian kingdom of Seleucos I (Nicator), the Seleucid empire, and capital of a province called Osrhoene (the Greek term for the old name Urhai).
The Seleucids settled Macedonian veterans at Harran. For a century-and-a-half, the town flourished, and it became independent when the Parthian dynasty of Persia occupied Babylonia. The Parthian and Seleucid kings both needed the buffer state of Osrhoene which was part of the larger Parthian empire and had nearby Edessa as its capital. The dynasty of the Arabian Abgarides, technically a vassal of the Parthian "king of kings" ruled Osrhoene for centuries.

Carrhae was the scene of a disastrous defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the Parthians. In 53 BC. Crassus, leading an army of 50.000, conducted a campaign against Parthia. After he captured a few cities on the way, he hurried to cross the Euphrates River with hopes of receiving laurels and the title of “Emperor”. But as he drove his forces over Rakkan towards Harran, Parthian cavalry besieged his forces in a pincers movement. In the ensuing battle, the Roman army was defeated and decimated. The battle of Carrhae was the beginning of a series of border wars with Parthia for many centuries. Numismatic evidence for these wars or the corresponding peace are for instance the "Signis Receptis" issues of Augustus and the “Janum Clusit” issues of Nero.
Later Lucius Verus tried to conquer Osrhoene and initially was successful. But an epidemic made an annexation impossible. However, a victory monument was erected in Ephesus, and Carrhae/Harran is shown as one of the subject towns.
Septimius Severus finally added Osrhoene to his realms in 195. The typical conic domed houses of ancient Harran can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum.
Harran was the chief home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings. Sin was one of the great gods of the Assurian-Babylonian pantheon.
Caracalla gave Harran the status of a colonia (214 AD) and visited the city and the temple of the moon god in April 217. Meanwhile the moon god (and sacred stones) had become a part of the Roman pantheon and the temple a place to deify the roman emperors (as the standards on both sides of the temple indicate).

Caracalla was murdered while he was on his way from Temple to the palace. If this had been arranged by Macrinus - the prefect of the Praetorian guard who was to be the new emperor – is not quite clear. On the eighth of April, the emperor and his courtiers made a brief trip to the world famous temple of the moon god. When Caracalla halted to perform natural functions, he was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Julius Martialis, who had a private grudge against the ruler, because he had not been given the post of centurion.

In 296 AD Roman control was again interrupted when nearby Carrhae the emperor Galerius was defeated by the king Narses / the Sasanid dynasty of Persia. The Roman emperor Julianus Apostata sacrificed to the moon god in 363 AD, at the beginning of his ill-fated campaign against the Sassanid Persians. The region continued to be a battle zone between the Romans and Sassanids. It remained Roman (or Byzantine) until 639, when the city finally was captured by the Muslim armies.

At that time, the cult of Sin still existed. After the arrival of the Islam, the adherents of other religions probably went to live in the marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates, and are still known as Mandaeans.
The ancient city walls surrounding Harran, 4 kilometer long and 3 kilometer wide, have been repaired throughout the ages (a.o. by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century), and large parts are still standing. The position of no less than 187 towers has been identified. Of the six gates (Aleppo gate, Anatolian, Arslanli, Mosul, Baghdad, and Rakka gate), only the first one has remained.

A citadel was built in the 14th century in place of the Temple of Sin. This lies in the south-west quarter of the ancient town. Its ruin can still be visited.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
c~0.jpg
Carthage AR Quarter Shekel 38 viewsCARTHAGE, Second Punic War. Circa 220-205 BC. AR Quarter Shekel (14mm, 1.80 g). Wreathed head of Tanit left / Horse standing right. MAA 78; SNG Copenhagen 335. Good VF, find patina.1 commentsTLP
64035p00_copy.jpg
Carthage, Second Punic War, c. 216 - 205 B.C.21 views
64035. Silver quarter shekel, Robinson NC 1964, p. 44, group I, 3; SNG Cop 348 -349; Alexandropoulos 78; HN Italy 2015, VF, scratches, 1.733g, 13.6mm, 45o, Carthage mint, c. 216 - 205 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wreathed with grain, wearing necklace and earring, dot border; reverse horse standing right, dot border; ex Ancient Eagles;
MagisterRiggs
CelticBritain_Atrebatis_SCBI-Mack72.jpg
Celtic Britain, Atrebates & Regni, Commius16 viewsCeltic Britain, Atrebates & Regni, Commius. c. 55-45 BC. AV Quarter Stater (1.40 gm). Anepigraphic. Celicized and devolved head of Apollo r. / Disjointed triple-tailed horse r., wheel below, with three pellets in rings around. VF. Bt. Apollo Coins 1999. SCBI Mack 72; Van Arsdell 228; BMC 519; Bean QcTM 1-1a; CCI 67.0065. cf. Spink SCBC 65 (for type). ℞ is similar to Spink SCBC 67; Mack 83; Van Arsdell 353ff.Christian T
Screenshot_2018-08-13_14_17_35.png
Celtic Britain, Durotriges Tribe, Silver 'Badbury Rat' Quarter Stater.1 views30 B.C. - 30 A.D. 10.08g - 12.3mm, Axis 12h.

Obv: Traces of three men in a boat.

Rev: Thunder bolt crossing field terminating in rings, pellets beside, radial sun/clam shell above, rings to left,
and to the right is a rat object.

ABC 2214; VA 1260; Spink 368.
Christian Scarlioli
Remi_quarter_stater.jpg
Celtic Gaul - The Remi EL 1/4 stater45 viewsCeltic Gaul - The Remi
EL 1/4 stater - 1.48 g, 11mm
c. 100 BC
Celticized head
Celtic horse galloping r.
Castelin 516 var.

The Remi were one of the staunchest Roman allies in Belgica, fighting alongside Caesar during the Gallic Wars.
Ardatirion
Cantii.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Cantii, 45-40 BC27 viewsCantii tribe 45-40 BC
AV Quarter Stater
Weight: 1,43 g
Size: 11 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Plain.
Rev: Stylized Roman trophy.
Ref: VA 145-1, BMC 435-44.50
Jorge C
Chach_Kanka_98.jpg
Central Asia, Chach: Anonymous (700-800AD) AE Cash, Kanka Mint (Shagalov & Kuznetsov, #98)41 viewsObv: Three-Quarter portrait of the ruler facing right, surrounded by a belt of the rim. Ruler with large almond-shaped eyes, a straight, narrow nose, small mouth, and a peculiar form of hairstyle. On the neck, a massive decoration is suspended in the center. Above the shoulders and head, a crescent moon with a dot. Behind the head, a Sogdian legend consisting of a single word.
Rev: Tamgra surrounded by Sogdian legend - ZNH pny tkyn c'cynk xw
SpongeBob
DSC06140_cut.JPG
Ceylon 1870 - one Cent 22 viewsCeylon 1870 - one Cent w/ US quarter dollar for size.
Bronze.
Queen Victoria
rexesq
ceylon.JPG
Ceylon 1870 - one Cent18 viewsCeylon 1870 - one Cent w/ US quarter dollar for size.
Bronze.
Queen Victoria
rexesq
charlesvii.jpg
Charles VII le Victorieux, (1422 - 1461 A.D.)38 viewsAR Blanc à la Couronne
O: +KAROLVS FRANCORVM REX (castle), royal coat-of-arms within in trilobe; three crowns around; O pointed; annulet under sixth letter.
R: +SIT:NOME:DNI:BENEDIC:TV (castle), cross pattée with crowns and lis in opposing quarters; all within quadrilobe; O pointed; annulet under sixth letter.
25mm
2.53g
Duplessy 519A; Ciani
1 commentsMat
cheron.JPG
Cherronesos Hemidrachm 480-350 BC43 viewsOBV:Forepart of lion facing right, head turned.
REV: Quadripartite incuse square, pellet and bunch of grapes in sunken quarters,
BMC 11 (ref. Wildwinds)

A near XF coin but flatly struck at 3 o'clock so that details of the lion's mane are not evident. The chisel marks around the lion's eyes and face are still sharp and clear. My oldest coin.
2 commentsdaverino
IMG_2282.JPG
Cherronesos, Thrace, c. 400 - 338 B.C.28 viewsSilver hemidrachm, SNG Dreer 107, Weber -; McClean -, BMC Thrace -, Dewing -, SNG Cop -, SNG Milan -, SNG Lockett -, SNG Dreer -, SNG Berry, F, small edge split, 2.312g, 12.8mm, Cherronesos mint, c. 400 - 338 B.C.; obverse lion forepart right, head turned back left, tongue protruding; reverse quadripartite incuse with alternating shallow and deeper sunken quarters, pellet in one sunk quadrant, I over pellet in the opposite sunk quadrant

ex Forvm
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Cherronesos,_Thrace,_c__400_-_350_B_C_.jpg
Cherronesos, Thrace, c. 400 - 350 B.C. Silver Hemidrachm.107 viewsObverse ; lion forepart right, head turned back left.
Reverse ; Quadripartite incuse square with alternating raised and sunken quarters; X and pellet in one , Λ and pellet in opposite sunken quarter.
Cherronesos mint. Circa ; 400 - 350 B.C.; 2,28 gr 17 mm. Superb Choice Extremely Fine.

SNG Cop 824-843var (Beizeichen). Very Rare.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
CHERSONESOS_Hemi.jpg
Cherronesos, Thrace, ca. 480-350 B.C. Silver Hemidrachm.84 viewsObverse ; lion forepart right, head turned back left.
Reverse ; Quadripartite incuse square with alternating raised and sunken quarters; dot under A Gamma monogram , grain ear in opposite sunken quarter.

2.38 gr , 12.5 mm. Choice Extremely Fine, Scarce.

SNG Cop 824-843var (Beizeichen)

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
4211_(1)_4212.jpg
Chersonesos, Hemidrachm, Dot over A/Dot9 viewsAR Hemidrachm
Greek Provincial
Chersonesos, Thrace
Issued: 400 - 350BC
12.5 x 11.0mm
O: NO LEGEND; Forepart of lion, right, head reverted.
R: NO LEGEND; Quadripartite incuse square with dot over A in one quarter and dot in the opposite quarter.
McClean 4057; BMC Thrace 15.
Holding History
1/20/15 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
64D2DC99-659C-437C-8E0C-E41CF9310DA9.png
Chersonesos, Thrace, c. 400 - 338 B.C.12 viewsSilver hemidrachm, BMC Thrace p. 186, 46 (S); McClean II -; Weber II -; Dewing -; SNG Cop -, VF, obverse off center, tight flan, Chersonesos (Sevastopol, Ukraine), 2.204g, 12.5mm, c. 400 - 338 B.C.; obverse lion forepart right, head turned back left, tongue protruding; reverse quadripartite incuse square with alternating shallow and deeper sunken quarters, pellet, and S or M under pellet in the sunk opposite quadrants; rareMark R1
16mm203g.jpg
Christian lead amulet First Bulgarian Empire (681 - 1018).21 viewscross with dots in each quarter
16mm 2.03g
wileyc
Cilicia_Satraps_Balkros_Issos_SNG-France420.jpg
Cilicia, Satraps. Balkros8 viewsBalkros. 333-323 BC. AR Stater (10.90 gm) of Issos. Baaltars seated l., grapes and grain ear before, holding lotus head scepter. I (=Issos) beneath seat. B (=Balkros) behind. / Facing bust of Athena, three-quarter facing to left, wearing triple crested Attic helmet. EF.  Triton III #592. SNG France 420 (same dies); Casabonne series 2 (D12/R1); SNG Levante -; Traité, Tf. CXIII, 13. Christian T
prnbzw.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos. Satrap Pharnabazos II. AR Stater.21 viewsCirca 380-374/3 B.C.(21mm, 10.39g, 11h). Struck circa 380-379 B.C. Casabonne series 3; Moysey Issue 3, 3-5 var. (dolphin on obv.); SNG France 246 var. (rev. legend). Obverse Head of nymph facing three-quarters left. Reverse Helmeted head of Ares left, Aramaic PRNBZW to left. Near EF, toned, struck from a slightly worn obverse die.

Ex CNG.

There is still an ongoing debate whether who represent the obverse and reverse of this coin type of Pharnabazos. The obverse obviously was inspired by the renowned Syracusan tetradrachm of Kimon, whose three-quarter facing head of the nymph Arethusa was widely copied throughout the ancient world. A handful of ancient poleis adopted this style to represent their local nymph or goddess on their coins. A perfect example is the numerous coins of Larissa in Thessaly representing the local nymph of the same name. It is possible to assume then that the obverse of our coin might be another female deity other than Arethusa. A current opinion holds that the obverse represents Aphrodite, the goddess of love; and the reverse depicts Ares, the god of war. The two were known in ancient mythology as lovers, and commonly paired together on ancient coins. Of special note on this coin is the reverse: while most coins of this type display static male heads with little originality, the reverse die is probably from a special issue marked by superior style and executed with extreme delicacy. It has been suggested (Leu Auction 81, lot 317) that the head of Ares may be a disguised portrait of Pharnabazos himself.
Jason T
collage2~11.jpg
Cilicia, Uncertain101 viewsCILICIA
AR Obol (11mm, 0.74 g)

Head of Herakles left, lion's skin tied around neck
Three-quarter facing female bust, head turned slightly left, wearing veil and necklace

SNG Levante 220
*SNG Berry 1282 to Nagidos under Pharnabazos (Thank you Frank)
From the David Herman Collection
Ex-CNG
5 commentsarizonarobin
civic issue.jpg
Civic Issue under Maximinus II49 viewsAnonymous Civic Issue during the time of Maximinus II, AE Quarter Follis, c.310-312, Antioch, Officina 10
GENIO AN_TIOCHENI
Tyche, turreted and veiled, seated facing on rock, river-god Orontes swimming in front
APOLLONI-SANCTO
Apollo standing facing, head left, patera in right hand, lyre in left
I in right field
SMA in exergue
16mm x 17mm, 1.65g
RIC VI, --; Vagi 2954
purchased 09/09/2007
Note: The Civic Issues of Antioch, Alexandria and Nicomedia were thought to have been produced by Julian II when RIC VI was written, therefore the entire series is missing. This series was produced during the period of Christian persecution by Maximinus II, Diocletian and Galerius and the Antioch issues portray important local statues: the Tyche erected by Eutychides (a pupil of Lysippus), the Apollo by Bryaxis of Athens and possibly the Zeus Nikephoros of the Temple of Apollo at Daphne which Antiochos IV commissioned for his great festival of 167 BC.

Historical information from Coinage of the Roman Empire, Vol II, p.516 by David Vagi
Johnny
Civil_Wars_RIC_121.jpg
Civil Wars of 68-69 Clasped Hands73 viewsCivil Wars of 68-69 AD AR denarius. 3.49 g. Minted by pro-Vitellian forces in Southern Gaul.
O: FIDES EXERCITVVM, two clasped hands.
R: FIDES PRAETORIANORVM, two clasped hands.
-BMC 65; Martin 7; RIC² 121 (Group IV) , Ex Jonathan P. Rosen, Ex Auktion Myers/Adams 7, New York 1974, Nr. 269.

The message of a unified fidelity, or loyalty, of the 'armies' (FIDES EXERCITVVM) and the praetorians (FIDES PRAETORIANORVM) would only be an effective propaganda tool if it was distributed among the praetorians.

David R Sear, writing in RCV, agrees with Kraay (Num. Chron 1949, pp 78.) that this interesting, anonymous civil war issue was produced on behalf of Vitellius, to be used as 'bribe money' to suborn the soldiers, as well as the Praetorian Guard, loyal to Otho in the capital. "In March 69 AD, Vitellian commander Fabius Valens entered Italy from Southern Gaul at the head of a small band of secret agents. Their mission was to infiltrate the capital, especially the ranks of the Praetorians, with the object of disseminating pro-Vitellian propaganda and dissociating the guards from their allegiance to Otho. These coins, struck in advance in Southern Gaul, would thus have played a vital role as 'bribe money'. Despite these covert activities, the Praetorians remained loyal to their Emperor, though all was to be for naught, as the following month, the invading army of Vitellius was victorious at the battle of Bedriacum, and Otho took his own life" - David R Sear

Here is the ad from the New york times December 1, 1974 page 208, advertising the Myers/Adams auction 7:
Several thousand foreign coin collectors are expected here next weekend for the biggest event on their winter calendar, the third annual New York International Numismatic Convention. The three‐day show will be held in the Albert Hall of the Americana Hotel, Seventh Avenue between 52d and 53rd Streets. It will open at 11 A.M. on Friday, with the exhibit area and the dealer bourse to remain open till 8 P.M. On Saturday the hours are 10 A.M. to 8 P.M., and on Sunday from 11 A.M. to 6 P.M. There will be an admission charge of 50 cents, for which a badge will be issued that will be good for all three days.
As its title indicates, the show emphasizes foreign numismatics to the point of almost excluding U.S. material. This holds true in exhibits as well as in the bourse and throughout the convention program. All of the exhibits are, again, invitational—noncompetitive—and were selected to assure representation of a wide range of international numismatic interests.

One symbol of the convention's success is that the, number of exhibitors and dealers has grown each year. This year there will be 67 bourse tables, roughly a quarter of them occupied by dealers from Europe and Canada; the remainder will be taken by leading U.S. dealers who have established reputations as specialists in ancient and foreign coins.
The convention will have two auctions, both described in some detail in this column a couple of weeks ago. The first, a “prologue” to the convention, will he the Myers/ Adams auction of ancient Greek and Roman coins at 7 P.M. on Thursday. The second, a two‐session sale of foreign coins and paper money, will be conducted by Henry Christensen, Inc., at 7 P.M. on Friday and 1:30 P.M. on Saturday.
3 commentsNemonater
sb1825classc26mm1017g.jpg
Class C follis, sb1825, attributed to Michael IV, 1034-1041 CE17 viewsObverse: EMMANOVHA - Three -quarter length of Christ Antiphonetes standing facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, raising rt hand in benediction in L. hand book of Gospels, in field to L., IC barred, to r., XC barred.
Reverse: IC-XC/ NI-KA - Jewelled cross with pellet at each end divides inscription into four equal parts, IC--XC/NI--KA
Mint: Contantinople
Date: 1034-1041 CE
26mm, 10.17g
SB 1825 Class C follis



The Obverse is Christ as Antiphonetes, "the guarantor." A famous icon of Christ was so named because, according to a miracle story, it had been held as loan collateral by a creditor. The Byzantine empress Zoë (r. 1028–50) had coins struck with the Antiphonetes image and kept an icon of the type close at hand. "I myself have often seen her, in moments of great distress, clasp the sacred object in her hands, contemplate it, talk to it as if it were indeed alive, and address it with one sweet term of endearment after another," wrote court historian Michael Psellos (1018–ca. 1081).

Source: Icon with Christ Antiphonetes [Byzantine] (1979.217) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
wileyc
sb1825classc.jpg
Class C follis, sb1825, attributed to Michael IV, 1034-1041 CE24 viewsObverse: EMMANOVHA - Three -quarter length of Christ Antiphonetes standing facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, raising rt hand in benediction in L. hand book of Gospels, in field to L., IC barred, to r., XC barred.
Reverse: IC-XC/ NI-KA - Jewelled cross with pellet at each end divides inscription into four equal parts, IC--XC/NI--KA
Mint: Contantinople
Date: 1034-1041 CE
25mm, 6.06g
SB 1825 Class C follis



The Obverse is Christ as Antiphonetes, "the guarantor." A famous icon of Christ was so named because, according to a miracle story, it had been held as loan collateral by a creditor. The Byzantine empress Zoë (r. 1028–50) had coins struck with the Antiphonetes image and kept an icon of the type close at hand. "I myself have often seen her, in moments of great distress, clasp the sacred object in her hands, contemplate it, talk to it as if it were indeed alive, and address it with one sweet term of endearment after another," wrote court historian Michael Psellos (1018–ca. 1081).

Source: Icon with Christ Antiphonetes [Byzantine] (1979.217) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
wileyc
sb1825classC23mm473g.jpg
Class C follis, sb1825, attributed to Michael IV, 1034-1041 CE22 viewsObverse: EMMANOVHA - Three -quarter length of Christ Antiphonetes standing facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, raising rt hand in benediction in L. hand book of Gospels, in field to L., IC barred, to r., XC barred.
Reverse: IC-XC/ NI-KA - Jewelled cross with pellet at each end divides inscription into four equal parts, IC--XC/NI--KA
Mint: Contantinople
Date: 1034-1041 CE
23mm, 4.73g
SB 1825 Class C follis



The Obverse is Christ as Antiphonetes, "the guarantor." A famous icon of Christ was so named because, according to a miracle story, it had been held as loan collateral by a creditor. The Byzantine empress Zoë (r. 1028–50) had coins struck with the Antiphonetes image and kept an icon of the type close at hand. "I myself have often seen her, in moments of great distress, clasp the sacred object in her hands, contemplate it, talk to it as if it were indeed alive, and address it with one sweet term of endearment after another," wrote court historian Michael Psellos (1018–ca. 1081).

Source: Icon with Christ Antiphonetes [Byzantine] (1979.217) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
wileyc
sb1825classc28nn29g.jpg
Class C follis, sb1825, attributed to Michael IV, 1034-1041 CE25 viewsObverse: EMMANOVHA - Three -quarter length of Christ Antiphonetes standing facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, raising rt hand in benediction in L. hand book of Gospels, in field to L., IC barred, to r., XC barred.
Reverse: IC-XC/ NI-KA - Jewelled cross with pellet at each end divides inscription into four equal parts, IC--XC/NI--KA
Mint: Contantinople
Date: 1034-1041 CE
28mm, 10.29g
SB 1825 Class C follis
wileyc
sb1825classc30mm562g.jpg
Class C follis, sb1825, attributed to Michael IV, 1034-1041 CE11 viewsObverse: EMMANOVHA - Three -quarter length of Christ Antiphonetes standing facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, raising rt hand in benediction in L. hand book of Gospels, in field to L., IC barred, to r., XC barred.
Reverse: IC-XC/ NI-KA - Jewelled cross with pellet at each end divides inscription into four equal parts, IC--XC/NI--KA
Mint: Contantinople
Date: 1034-1041 CE
30mm, 5.62g
SB 1825 Class C follis
wileyc
sb1825classc29mm773g.jpg
Class C follis, sb1825, attributed to Michael IV, 1034-1041 CE14 viewsObverse: EMMANOVHA - Three -quarter length of Christ Antiphonetes standing facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, raising rt hand in benediction in L. hand book of Gospels, in field to L., IC barred, to r., XC barred.
Reverse: IC-XC/ NI-KA - Jewelled cross with pellet at each end divides inscription into four equal parts, IC--XC/NI--KA
Mint: Contantinople
Date: 1034-1041 CE
29mm, 7.73g
SB 1825 Class C follis
wileyc
sb1825_29mm_520g.jpg
Class C follis, sb1825, attributed to Michael IV, 1034-1041 CE16 viewsObverse: EMMANOVHA - Three -quarter length of Christ Antiphonetes standing facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, raising rt hand in benediction in L. hand book of Gospels, in field to L., IC barred, to r., XC barred.
Reverse: IC-XC/ NI-KA - Jewelled cross with pellet at each end divides inscription into four equal parts, IC--XC/NI--KA
Mint: Contantinople
Date: 1034-1041 CE
29mm, 5.20g
SB 1825 Class C follis
wileyc
Class_K_Anonymous.jpg
Class K Anonymous22 views(Attributed to Alexius I)
AE Follis
Constantinople mint, 1081-1092 A.D.
23mm, 4.03g
BCV- 1901

Obverse:
IC XC
Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand book of the gospel; Border of large pellets.

Reverse:
M Θ
Three-quarter length figure of the virgin orans facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; Border of large pellets.
rubadub
COLOGNE QUARTER STUBER 1765.jpg
COLOGNE - MAXIMILIAN FRIEDRICH138 viewsCOLOGNE - MAXIMILIAN FRIEDRICH (1761-1784) Cu. 1/4-Stuber. Obverse with crowned monogram; reverse with value and date 1765 in floreate cartouche. Reference: KM#161.dpaul7
JCT_Congregation_Shaarey_Zedek.JPG
Congregation Shaarey Zedek (Detroit, Michigan)76 viewsAE token, 35 mm., 1930/31.

Obv: • CONGREGATION • SHAAREY ZEDEK / • שַׁעֲרֵי צֶדֶ הבבמת בית, within border around beaded rim, • Dec 12 1862 • / DETROIT, beneath building in center.

Rev: BLESSED BE HE WHO COMETH IN THE NAME OF THE LORD, within border around reeded rim, design at bottom, candelabra in center flanked by CHAN-UKAH, 5622-5691 beneath.

Ref: None known.

In 1861 seventeen followers of traditional Judaism withdrew from the Beth El Society in Detroit to found the “Shaarey Zedek Society.” It was located at Congress and St. Antoine (from 1865 to 1903); at Winder and Brush (from 1903 to 1913); at Willis and Brush (from 1913 to 1930), rented temporary quarters (from 1930-1932) and at Chicago Boulevard and Lawton (from 1932 to 1962) before moving to its current home on Bell Road in Southfield in 1962. It incorporated in 1904.
Stkp
sb1836ossb1825.jpg
Constantine IX Class D follis, sb1836, Constantine over struck on a Michael IV Class C follis14 viewsObverse: Christ seated facing on throne with back, wearing nimbus cr., pallium and colobium, and holding book of gospels with hands; in field to l., IC and to r., XC both barred..
Reverse: IS XS/bASILE/bASIL in three lines; above -+-
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1042-1055 CE
29mm, 5.77g



over struck on a Class C follis


Class C follis, sb1825, attributed to Michael IV, 1034-1041 CE
Obverse: EMMANOVHA - Three -quarter length of Christ Antiphonetes standing facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, raising rt hand in benediction in L. hand book of Gospels, in field to L., IC barred, to r., XC barred.
Reverse: IC-XC/ NI-KA - Jewelled cross with pellet at each end divides inscription into four equal parts, IC--XC/NI--KA
Mint: Contantinople
Date: 1034-1041 CE
wileyc
092006_03.jpg
Constantius Chlorus72 viewsI think it is:
Constantius Chlorus
305-306 AD
Siscia RIC 167
Constantius I AE Denarius or quarter follis.
Ob: IMP C CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Rv: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI SIS, Genius standing left with modius on head with clamys over shoulder, holds patera and cornucopuia
Ex: SIS
1 commentsScotvs Capitis
constantius#1.JPG
Constantius I quarter-follis 38 viewsOBV: CONSTANTIUS AVG, Laureate bust right, REV: GENIO POPULI ROMANI, Genius standing left with Cornucopia, patera, and chlamys
SIS in exergue
RIC 168a (ref: Wildwnds)
daverino
corduba~0.jpg
Corduba, Spain, quarter unit, Venus / Eros3 viewsCorduba, Spain, Mid 1st Century B.C. Bronze quarter unit, SNG BMC Spain 1636 ff., SNG Cop 462, 3.704g, 17.8mm, 315o, obverse CN IVLI L F Q, head of Venus right, three pellets behind; reverse CORDVBA, winged Eros standing slightly left, torch in right, cornucopia in left, three pellets left. Ex FORVMPodiceps
corduba.jpg
Corduba; Venus/ Eros13 viewsCorduba, Spain, Mid 1st Century B.C. Bronze quarter unit, SNG BMC Spain 1636 ff., SNG Cop 462, F, 5.241g, 19.3mm, 45o, obverse CN IVLI L F Q, head of Venus right, three pellets behind; reverse CORDVBA, winged Eros standing slightly left, torch in right, cornucopia in left, three pellets left; green patina with earthen fill highlighting. Ex FORVMPodiceps
tr_bhmd.jpg
County of Tripoli, Bohemond V, 1233 - 1251 Billon denier 42 viewsCounty of Tripoli, Bohemond V, 1233 - 1251 Billon denier
O : + BAMVND' COMS, cross pattée, three pellets in upper right quarter
R : + CIVITAS TRIPOL, eight pointed star, annulets between the rays
CCS 19
Vladislav D
104.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond II (1137-1152), Early Period (c.1137-1147), Æ Pougeoise45 viewsCounty of Tripoli, Raymond II (1137-1152), Early Period (c.1137-1147), Æ Pougeoise, Tripoli mint , [RAIMVNDI COMITIS], small cross pattee, annulet in each angle, rev., [+MONETA TRIPOLIS], large cross potent, a pellet in two quarters, trefoil of pellets in others, CCS 3 Vladislavs D
103.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond II (1137-1152), Early Period (c.1137-1147), Æ Pougeoise94 viewsCounty of Tripoli, Raymond II (1137-1152), Early Period (c.1137-1147), Æ Pougeoise, Tripoli mint , [RAIMVNDI COMITIS], small cross pattee, annulet in each angle, rev., [+MONETA TRIPOLIS], large cross potent, a pellet in two quarters, trefoil of pellets in others, CCS 3 1 commentsVladislavs D
tr_rmd.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III (1152-87), Æ Pougeoise, (c.1173-1187)26 viewsCounty of Tripoli, Raymond III (1152-87), Æ Pougeoise, (c.1173-1187)
O : + CIVITAS fortified gateway, five rows of masonry, five crenellations, large divided door
R : + TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommetée, circle in center, crescent and pellet in each quarter
CCS 13
Vladislav D
trr.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise46 viewsCounty of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise 16-17 mm
O : + CIVITAS fortified gateway, five rows of masonry, five crenellations, large divided door
R : + TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommetée, circle in center, crescent and pellet in each quarter
County of Tripoli 'Castle' copper type 1 (var), Metcalf 525-528.
Vladislav D
tripoli_r.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise40 viewsCounty of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise 17 mm
O : + CIVITAS fortified gateway, five rows of masonry, five crenellations, large divided door
R : + TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommetée, circle in center, crescent and pellet in each quarter
County of Tripoli 'Castle' copper type 1 (var), Metcalf 525-528.
Vladislav D
30.jpg
County of Tripoli. Bohemund V (1233-1251) New style Castle Coppers , ca. 1235 an later .41 viewsCounty of Tripoli. Bohemund V (1233-1251) New style Castle Coppers , ca. 1235 an later .
Æ Pougeoise, 0,54 g ; 14-16 mm
O: +CIVITAS
Cross pommetee , pellet in center , pellet in each quarter
R:+TRIPOLIS
towered gateway
CCS 21
Ex Lanz .
Vladislavs D
580AA151combo.png
Cr 44/7 AR Sestertius Anonymous30 viewsO: Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, IIS [= 2 and Semi]
R: The Dioscuri galloping right; below, ROMA in linear frame
0.81 gms; 13.50 mm
Broad flan, toned

A bit light, but achieving a consistent weight in casting flans was one of the challenges with this small coin at a time when the silver weight was still a critical component of acceptance.

Although the quarter-denarius seems like it should have been a very handy coin, saving the need to carry two large As and the Semis, the silver sestertius was minted only sporadically and then was discontinued. Accordingly, they are relatively rare, and I have to say this one is very nice.
2 commentsPMah
MAntDeL14.jpg
Crawford 544/29, Marc Antony, for Legio XIV, Denarius, 32-31 BC.84 viewsMarc Antony, for Legio XIV (Gemina Martia Victrix), Patras mint (?), 32-31 BC.,
Denarius (16-17 mm / 3,63 g),
Obv.: above: [AN]T AVG , below: [III VI]R R P C , under oar right, filleted scepter or mast with fluttering banners on prow.
Rev.: LEG - XIV , Aquila (legionary eagle) between two military standards.
Crawf. 544/29 ; Bab. (Antonia) 123 ; BMC 208 ; Sear 369 ; Syd. 1234 .

Die Legio XIV wurde 41 v. Chr. von Augustus aufgestellt. Sie war seit 9 n. Chr. in Moguntiacum (Mainz) stationiert und kämpfte später unter Claudius in Britannien, wo sie 60 oder 61 n. Chr. half, Boudicca niederzuwerfen. Später war die Legion u. a. in Vindobona (Wien) und Carnuntum stationiert. Sie war an den Usurpationen des Saturninus und Regalianus beteiligt.

Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix was a legion of the Roman Empire, levied by Octavian after 41 BC. The cognomen Gemina (twin in Latin) suggests that the legion resulted from fusion of two previous ones, one of them possibly being the Fourteenth legion that fought in the Battle of Alesia. Martia Victrix (martial victory) were cognomens added by Nero following the victory over Boudica. The emblem of the legion was the Capricorn, as with many of the legions levied by Augustus.
Invasion of Britain
Stationed in Moguntiacum, Germania Superior, since AD 9, XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix was one of four legions used by Aulus Plautius and Claudius in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43, and took part in the defeat of Boudicca in 60 or 61. In 68 it was stationed in Gallia Narbonensis.
Rebellion on the Rhine
In 89 the governor of Germania Superior, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, rebelled against Domitian, with the support of the XIVth and of the XXI Rapax, but the revolt was suppressed.
Pannonian defense
When the XXIst legion was lost, in 92, XIIII Gemina was sent in Pannonia to substitute it, camping in Vindobona (Vienna). After a war with the Sarmatians and Trajan's Dacian Wars (101-106), the legion was moved to Carnuntum, where it stayed for three centuries. Some subunits of Fourteenth fought in the wars against the Mauri, under Antoninus Pius, and the legion participated to the Parthian campaign of Emperor Lucius Verus. During his war against the Marcomanni, Emperor Marcus Aurelius based his headquarters in Carnuntum.
In support of Septimius Severus
In 193, after the death of Pertinax, the commander of the Fourteenth, Septimius Severus, was acclaimed emperor by the Pannonian legions, and above all by his own. XIIII Gemina fought for its emperor in his march to Rome to attack usurper Didius Julianus (193), contributed to the defeat of the usurper Pescennius Niger (194), and probably fought in the Parthian campaign that ended with the sack of the capital of the empire, Ctesiphon (198).
In support of imperial candidates
In the turmoil following the defeat of Valerian, tXIIII Gemina supported usurper Regalianus against Emperor Gallienus (260), then Gallienus against Postumus of the Gallic empire (earning the title VI Pia VI Fidelis — "six times faithful, six times loyal"), and, after Gallienus death, Gallic Emperor Victorinus (269-271).
5th century
At the beginning of the 5th century, XIIII Gemina still stayed at Carnuntum. It probably dissolved with the collapse of the Danube frontier in 430s. The Notitia Dignitatum lists a Quartodecimani comitatensis unit under the Magister Militum per Thracias; it is possible that this unit is XIV Gemina.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
cse-046LG.jpg
CRUSADER STATES . County of Edessa. Baldwin II , Second reign (1108-1118) . Æ Follis.51 viewsCRUSADER STATES . County of Edessa. Baldwin II , Second reign (1108-1118) .
Æ Follis. 26.6mm, 5.93g . Heavy issue .
Obverse :In three lines ΒΑΛΔ/ΟVINO/KOMH
Reverse :Cross pommee with rays in each quarter.
Usual flan edge split .Trace of an undertype.
Porteous, NC 1975 Class 4 no. 40 ff; Schlumberger Pl. I, 3; CCS 8; Metcalf 107 .
Vladislav D
ccs8.jpg
CRUSADER STATES . County of Edessa. Baldwin II , Second reign (1108-1118) . Æ Follis. 16 viewsCRUSADER STATES . County of Edessa. Baldwin II , Second reign (1108-1118) .
Æ Follis. Heavy issue .
Obverse :In three lines ΒΑΛΔ/ΟVINO/KOMH
Reverse :Cross pommee with rays in each quarter.
Trace of an undertype.
Porteous, NC 1975 Class 4 no. 40 ff; Schlumberger Pl. I, 3; CCS 8; Metcalf 107 .
Vladislav D
MISC_Crusaders_Antioch_Bohemond_III_Metcalf_Class_C.JPG
Crusader States: Principality of Antioch. Bohemond III (1163-1201)87 viewsMetcalf Class C 388-391; Malloy 65-67

Billon Denier, struck circa 1163-1188, 18 mm

Obv: +BOANVNDVS [A ornamented with annulets, retrograde N’s], helmeted and mailed head left, crescent and star on either side.

Rev: +ANTIOCNIA [A’s ornamented with annulets, retrograde N’s], cross pattée, crescent in second quarter.

The Principality of Antioch was a crusader state created in 1098 during the First Crusade by Normans from Italy. In 1268, Baibars, the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, took the city.

Bohemond (1144–1201), the “Stammerer” or the “Stutterer,” was the son of Constance of Antioch, the daughter of Bohemond II, by her first husband Raymond II of Poitiers, who was killed at the Battle of Inab in 1149 toward the end of the Second Crusade. She ruled as regent from 1149 until 1163, when Bohemond, with the assistance of King Baldwin III of Jerusalem, forced her to step down.

In 1164, Bohemond was captured by Nur ad-Din Zengi, who ruled the Syrian province of the Seljuk Empire, at the Battle of Harim. He was freed for a large ransom due to the intervention of King Amalric I of Jerusalem and Emperor Manuel I Comnenus. In 1192, after the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem following the battle of Hattin, Bohemond signed a truce with Saladin. Due to the truce, he remained neutral during the Third Crusade.

Bohemond clashed with Levon I of Armenia, who aspired to expand his kingdom. He was captured by Levon and forced to cede the Principality to Levon. However, the Antiochenes named Bohemond’s eldest son, Raymond IV of Tripoli, as their prince. Bohemond and Levon ultimately reconciled, and Raymond married Levon’s neice, Alice, who died shortly after giving birth to their son, Raymond-Roupen. Bohemond died in 1201 and the succession was disputed between his second son, Bohemond IV, and his grandson, Raymond-Roupen.
Stkp
chios.jpg
Crusader. Chios. Maona Society (1347-1385) AE Denaro39 viewsCrusader. Chios. Maona Society (1347-1385) AE Denaro
Obverse : Three-towered castle façade , five rosettes around.
Reverse : Cross pattée; rosettes in each quarter.
Lunardi S15; Sclumberger pl. XV, 22.
Rare
1 commentsVladislav D
image00704.jpg
Crusaders , Principality of Antioch, Anonymous AE follis , 1120-1140 .44 viewsCrusaders , Principality of Antioch, Anonymous AE follis , 1120-1140 .
1,42g
OA ΠETPOC to left and right in monogram form . Half-length figure of St. Peter , holding long cross on left shoulder .
No legend . Cross Moline with three pellets in each quarter
Schl. XIX, 1; CCS 12a. Slocum 105
Ex. Charles Jackson ; Ex. John Slocum collection , Sothebys London sale 6-7 March 1997 lot 105 ( illustrated Pl.4). Ex Jean Elsen Sale .
Vladislav D
antch.jpg
Crusaders . Principality of Antioch . Anonymous AE . Early 13th century AD34 viewsCrusaders . Principality of Antioch . Anonymous AE . Early 13th century AD
18mm ; 1,0g.
Obverse : Knight on horseback right, holding banner .
Reverse : Voided long cross pattée; A-N-T-O in quarters .
Slocum 108 ; Metcalf 483 ; Schlumberger Pl. III, 11 (knight on horseback riding left ) ; CCS 136 ( Levon II of Armenia 1198-1219)
Ex. Lanz
Very Rare .
1 commentsVladislav D
8.jpg
Crusaders . Principality of ANTIOCH . Bohemond III ( 1163-1201.)47 viewsPrincipality of ANTIOCH
Bohemond III ( 1163-1201.)
Denier ‘helmet’ type,
Obv.: +BOANVNDVS, helmeted bust left, pellet
below star in right field, crescent left field.
Rev.: +ANTIOCHIA, cross with crescent in second
quarter. CCS 65 for type
Vladislav D
ccs_52.jpg
Crusaders . Principality of ANTIOCH . Bohemond III ( 1163-1201.) 33 viewsCrusaders . Principality of ANTIOCH . Bohemond III ( 1163-1201.) Denier
Early experimental type
Obv.: +BOAHVHDVS, bearded ,helmeted bust right in chain mail , cross on helmet , crescent upward left , star right .
Rev.: +ANTIOCHIA, cross with crescent upward in first quarter.
CCS 52 ; Metcalf 359
Very Rare .
Vladislav D
60FE2328-A416-43E5-A692-4C40DE8B58B3.jpeg
Crusaders . Principality of ANTIOCH . Bohemond III ( 1163-1201.)15 viewsCrusaders . Principality of ANTIOCH . Bohemond III ( 1163-1201.) Denier
Early experimental type
Obv.: +BOAHVHDVS, bearded ,helmeted bust right in chain mail , cross on helmet , crescent upward left , star right .
Rev.: +ANTIOCHIA, cross with crescent upward in first quarter.
CCS 52 ; Metcalf 359
Very Rare .
Vladislav D
Bohemond_II.jpg
Crusaders . Principality of Antioch, Bohemond II 1126-1130 AE-Follis 52 viewsCrusaders . Principality of Antioch, Bohemond II 1126-1130 AE-Follis
20 mm 4.46 g. Antioch mint
Reverse: BA / IN / VN / ΔOC in quarters of cross
Obverse: Nimbate bust of St. Peter facing, holding cross over left shoulder
Metcalf 102-105 ; CCS 10a
Vladislav D
bh.jpg
Crusaders . Principality of Antioch, Bohemond II 1126-1130 AE-Follis19 viewsCrusaders . Principality of Antioch, Bohemond II 1126-1130 AE-Follis
21 mm , 3.66 g. Antioch mint
Obverse: Nimbate bust of St. Peter facing, holding cross over left shoulder
Reverse: BA / IN / VN / ?OC in quarters of cross
Metcalf 102-105 ; CCS 10
Vladislav D
139435.jpg
Crusaders .Principality of Antioch . Roger of Salerno, Regent (1112-1119), Æ Follis 32 viewsCrusaders .Principality of Antioch . Roger of Salerno, Regent (1112-1119), Æ Follis first type, overstruck on Tancred’s fourth type .
19mm, 2.18 g
Obverse : Christ nimbate, right hand raised in benediction, remnants of the underlying Tancred follis can be seen in the letters IC below the figure of Christ and near the rim in the lower right quadrant .
Reverse : Cross, DNE / SAL / FT / RO (Domine salvum fac tuum Rogerium) in quarters .
Metcalf 86ff ; CCS 7
Ex. CNG 139, Lot: 435. ( 05/10/2006 ) ; Ex. The Trappendreher Collection ; Ex. Baldwin's Auction 68 - 28th-29th September 2010 , lot 3803 .
Vladislav D
ars.jpg
Crusaders .Principality of Antioch . Roger of Salerno, Regent (1112-1119), Æ Follis first type .29 viewsCrusaders .Principality of Antioch . Roger of Salerno, Regent (1112-1119), Æ Follis first type, overstruck on Tancred’s fourth type .
21 mm /2,69 g
Obverse : Christ nimbate, right hand raised in benediction, remnants of the underlying Tancred follis can be seen in the letters IC below the figure of Christ and near the rim in the lower right quadrant .
Reverse : Cross, DNE / SAL / FT / RO (Domine salvum fac tuum Rogerium) in quarters .
Metcalf 86ff ; CCS 7
Vladislav D
cse-080LG.jpg
Crusaders .Principality of Antioch . Tancred (1104-1112). AE-Follis 43 viewsCrusaders. Principality of Antioch. Tancred (1104-1112). AE-Follis 4th type overstruck on 3rd type

Obverse: Bust of Christ, nimbate, between IC-XC

Reverse: Cross, in the quarters TA/NK/P/H.

weight 3.72g – diameter 22.9mm

Ref.: Schlumberger Pl. II, 8; Malloy et al. 6; Metcalf 81

Ex BYZANTIUM COINS
Vladislav D
JMr9w5Qw3nHZFTy72xYiM4aDgfH6jS.jpg
Crusaders .Principality of Antioch . Tancred (1104-1112). AE-Follis 44 viewsCrusaders .Principality of Antioch . Tancred (1104-1112). AE-Follis
3.92g, 23mm
Obverse: Bust of Christ, nimbate, between IC-XC
Reverse: Cross, in the quarters TA/NK/P/H.
Metcalf 81-85, Malloy-5
Vladislav D
Medieval.jpg
Crusaders, Antioch16 viewsCRUSADERS, Antioch. Anonymous. Circa 1136-1149. Æ Fractional Denier .

+PRICEPS (S retrograde), cross pattée; pellet in each quarter / +ANTIOCHIE , altar with five legs with chalice in center; cross above, pellets in quarters, open oval below.

Metcalf, Crusades 465; CCS 21.
Belisarius
CRUSADERS__Antioch__Bohémond_III_(1163-1201),_AR-denar,_BOANVNDVS,_ANTIOCHIA,_Metcalf,379-80,_CCS_67d_Q-001_h,_18mm,_1,08g-s.jpg
Crusaders, Antioch, Bohémond III. (1163-1201A.D.), AR-denar, Antioch, ✠ ANTIOCHIA, Cross pattée, #1123 viewsCrusaders, Antioch, Bohémond III. (1163-1201A.D.), AR-denar, Antioch, ✠ ANTIOCHIA, Cross pattée, #1
avers: ✠ BOANVNDVS, Helmeted head left, wearing chain mail; crescent to left, star to right.
revers: ✠ ANTIOCHIA, Cross pattée, with crescent in first quarter.
diameter: 17,5-18,0mm, weight: 1,08g, axis: 4h,
mint: Antioch, mint mark: ,
date:1200-1246 A.D., ref: Metcalf, Crusades, 379-80, Malloy CCS 67d.
Q-001
"Bohemond III of Antioch (1144 – 1201), also known as the Stammerer or the Stutterer, was Prince of Antioch from 1163 to his
death. He was a son of Constance of Antioch by her first husband Raymond of Poitiers. His name is sometimes spelled
Bohemund."
quadrans
1.jpg
CRUSADERS, EDESSA. BALDWIN I. 1098-1100. Æ FALS, 27MM18 viewsPorteous Class 1. Facing bust of Christ Pantocrator; IC [XC] across field / Cross saltire, with globes at top end of post and ends of crossbar, set on base; B Λ Δ N in quarters. Porteous Class 1, 5; Metcalf, Crusades -;Gerda D
31337q00.jpg
Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois40 viewsCrusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois
uneven strike, 0.808g, 18.2mm, 270o, Clarentza mint, obverse + ROBT P AChE, cross pattée, annulet left in upper right quarter; reverse + CLARENCIA, castle tournois .
CCS 70
Ex Alex G. Malloy Ex A.J. Seltman Ex FORUM
Vladislavs D
31394q00.jpg
Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois31 viewsCrusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois
uneven strike, 0.743g, 19.4mm, Corinth mint .
Obverse : + IOhS P ACh'E, cross pattée, crescent right in upper right quarter .
Reverse : + CLARENCIA, castle tournois .
CCS 73 (this coin) , of great rarity .
Ex Alex G. Malloy Ex A.J. Seltman Ex FORUM
This is the line drawing coin in Malloy, Preston and Seltman's "Coins of the Crusader States."
Vladislav D
gles.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Guy of Lusignan, Lord of Cyprus, 1192 - 1194 Billon denier32 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Guy of Lusignan, Lord of Cyprus, 1192 - 1194 . Billon denier

Reverse : + DE CIPRO cross , pellets in upper right and lower left quarter, crescents in upper left and lower right angle .
Obverse : + REX GVIDO, gateway with battlements, star inside .
CCS 3
Vladislav D
gl.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Guy of Lusignan, Lord of Cyprus, 1192 - 1194 Billon denier36 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Guy of Lusignan, Lord of Cyprus, 1192 - 1194 Billon denier
reverse + DE CI•PRO, cross pattée , annulet in upper right and lower left quarter, pellet in upper left and lower right angle
obverse + REX GVIDO, gateway with battlements, star inside
CCS 3
Vladislavs D
24.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Henry II, 1285 - 1306 and 1310 - 1324 Billon denier39 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Henry II, 1285 - 1306 and 1310 - 1324 Billon denier
reverse + IhRL' m E D' ChIPR', lion of Cyprus rampant left
obverse + hEnRI:REI:DE:, cross pattée, pellet in each quarter.
CCs 66
Vladislavs D
68129q00.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Hugh I , 1205-1218 35 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Hugh I , 1205-1218
Billon denier . 0.750g ; 16.3mm
Obverse: + • hVGO • REX •, cross pattée, crescent in upper left and lower right quarters, annulets in upper right and lower left quarter, pellet stops in legend .
Reverse : + • CYPRI •, gateway with battlements; struck with clashed dies, fragment of another coin attached to reverse .
CCS 12 ; Metcalf Class IV .
Ex Alex G. Malloy ; Ex A.J. Seltman ; Ex FORUM .
1 commentsVladislav D
cy.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Hugh I , 1205-1218 , under regency of Gautier de Montbeliard 1205-121058 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Hugh I , 1205-1218 , under regency of Gautier de Montbeliard 1205-1210 . Billon Denier.
0.59g
obverse + VGONIS RE, cross with crescent and pellet in 1st and
4th quarter and pellet in 2nd and 3rd quarter.
reverse + DE CIPRO, Gateway.
Ref:Schl.VI.5, Cox "Tripolis hoard" class 1, Ash.463, CCL 18.1-9, CCS 9a
Very Rare .
Vladislav D
26s.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II, 1369 - 138233 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II, 1369 - 1382
obverse + PIERE. ROI D, Lion of Cyprus rampant left
reverse + IERUALEM, cross pattée, pellet in each quarter
CCS 104-106 ; Seltman, Num. Circ. (Feb 1968), p. 37.
Ex John J. Slocum Collection / Sotheby's Auction 10-14-99 lot 197
Vladislavs D
25s.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II, 1369 - 138234 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II, 1369 - 1382
obverse + PIERE. ROI D, Lion of Cyprus rampant left
reverse + IERUALEM, cross pattée, pellet in each quarter
CCS 104-106 ; Seltman, Num. Circ. (Feb 1968), p. 37.
Ex John J. Slocum Collection /Sotheby's Auction 10-14-99 lot 197
Vladislavs D
23.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II, 1369 - 138226 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II, 1369 - 1382
reverse + IERUALEM, cross pattée, pellet in each quarter
obverse + PIERE. ROI D, Lion of Cyprus rampant left
CCS 104-106 ; Seltman, Num. Circ. (Feb 1968), p. 37
Vladislavs D
p2.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II, 1369 - 138233 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II, 1369 - 1382
obverse + PIERE. ROI D, Lion of Cyprus rampant left
reverse + IERUALEM, cross pattée, pellet in each quarter
CCS 104-106 ; Seltman, Num. Circ. (Feb 1968), p. 37.
Vladislavs D
109.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II, 1369 - 138231 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II, 1369 - 1382
reverse + IERUALEM, cross pattée, pellet in each quarter
obverse + PIERE. ROI D, Lion of Cyprus rampant left
CCS 104-106 ; Seltman, Num. Circ. (Feb 1968), p. 37.
Vladislavs D
27.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II, 1369 - 138230 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II, 1369 - 1382
reverse + IERUALEM, cross pattée, pellet in each quarter
obverse + PIERE. ROI D, Lion of Cyprus rampant left
CCS 104-106 ; Seltman, Num. Circ. (Feb 1968), p. 37
Vladislavs D
tripoli_sidon.jpg
Crusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 . AE - Pougeoise53 viewsCrusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 .
AE - Pougeoise . 15mm.
Obverse : Uncertain blundered Arabic legend, cross pommeté, pellets in upper left and lower right quarters.
Reverse : uncertain blundered Arabic legend, six-rayed chrismon pommeté .
CCS 35 .
Very Rare .
Vladislav D
9C6D2C04-80EC-4212-8765-A3B60EB50585.jpeg
Crusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 . AE - Pougeoise .25 viewsCrusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 .
AE - Pougeoise . 0.63 g
Obverse : Uncertain blundered Arabic legend, cross pommeté, pellets in upper left and lower right quarters.
Reverse : uncertain blundered Arabic legend, six-rayed chrismon

CCS 35 .
Ex Byzantium Coins, Wolfgang Leimenstoll, Gundelfingen, April 2011.
Ex Erich Wäckerlin collection
Ex Münzen & Medaillen GmbH
Auction 47 lot 67
Vladislav D
trsid.jpg
Crusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 . AE - Pougeoise47 viewsCrusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 .
AE - Pougeoise . 14-17 mm ; 0,5 g
Obverse : Uncertain blundered Arabic legend, cross pommeté, pellets in upper left and lower right quarters.
Reverse : uncertain blundered Arabic legend, six-rayed chrismon pommeté .
CCS 35 .
Very Rare .
Vladislav D
sd.jpg
Crusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 . AE - Pougeoise 31 viewsCrusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 .
AE - Pougeoise . 16 mm , 0.53 g
Obverse : uncertain blundered Arabic legend, six-rayed chrismon pommeté .
Reverse : Uncertain blundered Arabic legend, cross pommeté, pellets in upper left and lower right quarters.

CCS 35 .
Very Rare .
Vladislav D
ccs_4.jpg
Crusaders. Lordship of Beirut. John of Ibelin (1205-1236), Billon Denier31 viewsCrusaders. Lordship of Beirut. John of Ibelin (1205-1236), Billon Denier
Obverse : + IOhANNЄS around cross pattée, pellets in second and third quarters .
Reverse : + DE BЄRITI around castle
CCS 4
Extremely rare
Vladislav D
Crusades-378.jpg
Crusaders: Bohémond III (1163-1201) AR Denier, Antioch (Metcalf, Crusades-378)50 viewsObv:+ BOAИVHDVS, helmeted and mailed head left; crescent before, star behind
Rev:+ AИTI:OCHIA, cross pattée; crescent in second quarter
1 commentsSpongeBob
CCS-6.jpg
Crusaders: Tancred, Regent (1101-1112) Æ Follis, Antioch (Metcalf, Crusades-71; CCS-6)24 viewsObv: St. Peter standing facing, raising hand and holding cross-tipped scepter
Rev: Cross; D S F T in quarters
1 commentsSpongeBob
CCS-5.jpg
Crusaders: Tancred, Regent (1101-1112) Æ Follis, Antioch (Metcalf, Crusades-81; CCS-5)13 viewsObv: IC XC (Ιησούς Χριστός; Jesus Christ); Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator, nimbate, wearing tunic and cloak, holding Gospels
Rev: Cross pattée with pellet at end of each bar; TA NK P H in quarters; fleuronné at base
SpongeBob
Cyprus_14_Piastre_1901_img.jpg
Cyprus, 1/4 Piastre , 190113 viewsObv:- VICTORIA QUEEN, Queen facing left wearing a coronet with a decoration of oak leaves and scrolls; date below.
Rev:- CYPRUS . QUARTER PIASTRE, 1/4 within a circle of beads and in a circle the inscription
Mintage 72000
Engraver - Wyon Leonard Charles at Royal Mint, London

KM 1.20

Part of a large, mixed world lot I bought on a whim.
maridvnvm
caracalla_AR_antoninianii_quarter_01.JPG
D - Caracalla AR Antoninianii31 viewsTwo different bust type Caracalla Silver Antoninianii - both have different ' VENUS VICTRIX ' reverses - next to a U.S.A. State Quarter for size comparison.
-----
Lower Left: Caracalla AR Antoninianus, Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed, seen from the front.
5.2 grams. - *This coin is in a plastic flip in these shots.
------------------------------------
Top Right: Caracalla AR Antoninianus, Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind.
5.5 grams.
rexesq
BohemondV_M19_16mm49g.jpg
Denier of Bohemond V 1233-51 AD16 viewsBillion denier
Obv: +BAMVND COMS
cross patted three pellets in second quarter
Rev: +CIVITAS TRIBOL
eight pointed star, annulets between rays
Mint: Tripoli
Date: 1233-1251AD
14/16mm
.49g
Malloy 19
wileyc
Romulus.jpg
Divus Romulus.21 viewsDivus Romulus. Died AD 309. Æ Quarter Follis (17mm, 2.01 g, 12h). Rome mint, 3rd officina. Struck under Maxentius, circa AD 310. Bare head right / Domed shine with doors ajar, surmounted by eagle; RT. RIC VI 239. VF, dark green patina, flan flaws on obverse.1 commentsAncient Aussie
10001541.jpg
DYNASTS of LYCIA,Perikles AR Stater circa 380-360 BC 9.77g SNG von Aulock 425326 viewsHead of Perikles facing three-quarters left with flowing hair,.Rev warrior advancing right wearing Corinthian helmet,brandishing sword and shield.
Stacks & Bowers NYINC LOT 21039.
NGC AU,4/5 4/5
One of four obverse dies.
Grant H
SCBC-866.jpg
Early Anglo-Saxon, Kingdom of Northumbria: Æthelred II, 1st reign (ca. 841-850) Æ Styca Phase II, Group A, Eoferwic (York) Mint (SCBC-866; Pirie, Guide 3.10d)8 viewsObv: +EDELRED REX around central six-limbed cross
Rev: +LEOFDEτИ around central cross pattée with pellets in quarters
SpongeBob
__3_(29).JPG
East India Co. - Quarter Anna - 1833 - Scales7 viewsE.I.C.
Bronze Quarter Anna, 1833 AD / AH 1249
Scales reverse.
rexesq
__3_(30).JPG
East India Co. - Quarter Anna - 1833 - Scales.8 viewsE.I.C.
Bronze Quarter Anna, 1833 AD / AH 1249
Scales reverse.
rexesq
East_India_Company_Quarter_Anna_1835_img.jpg
East India Company - Quarter Anna - 183545 viewsPart of a large, mixed world lot I bought on a whim. maridvnvm
s-l400_(87).jpg
East India Company - Quarter Anna - 1835 - obv8 viewsEast India Co
Quarter Anna - 1835
rexesq
s-l400_(88).jpg
East India Company - Quarter Anna - 1835 - rev.3 viewsE.I.C.
Quarter-Anna - 1835
rexesq
EB0033_scaled.JPG
EB0033 Persephone / Ajax28 viewsOpuntia, Lokris, Quarter Stater, 369-338 BC.
Obverse: Head of Persephone right, wearing earring and necklace, head
wreathed with corn-leaves.
Reverse: OΠON-TIΩN, Ajax advancing right, holding sword and large shield; coiled serpent on shield, broken spear on ground.
References: SEAR 2330.
Diameter: 15mm, Weight: 2.76g.
Ex: Superior Stamp & Coin.
2 commentsEB
EB0068b_scaled.JPG
EB0068 Helios / Rose7 viewsRhodes, CARIA, AR Didrachm, c.250-229 BC.
Obverse: Helios Radiate Head Three Quarter Face.
Reverse: MNAΣIMAXOΣ above, P O below, Rose on its stem, with a button on the right; in the field, left, Athena Niképhore standing left.
References: Pz. 2704, Delpierre 2764, SNG Cop.765, BMC 143.
Diameter: 21mm, Weight: 6.495g.
Ex: Ariagno Collection.
EB
EB0181b_scaled.JPG
EB0181 Arethusa / Wheel5 viewsSyracuse, SICILY, AE 17, Before 357 BC.
Obverse: Head of Artemis-Arethusa left, [dolphin behind].
Reverse: ΣΥΡΑ, Wheel with four spokes, dolphins in lower quarters.
References: SG 1186; BMC 2.243; SNGCop 314.
Diameter: 17mm, Weight: 3.42g.
EB
EB0945_scaled.JPG
EB0945 Zeno / Victory37 viewsZeno 474-491, AU Solidus, Constantinople Mint.
Obverse: D N ZENO PERP AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed three-quarter facing bust, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman spearing a fallen enemy.
Reverse: VICTORI-A AVGGG and officina letter Γ, Victory standing left, holding long jewelled cross, star in right field. Mintmark CONOB.
References: RIC X 910.
Diameter: 20.5mm, Weight: 4.435g.
2 commentsEB
EB1004_scaled.JPG
EB1004 Christ / Jewelled Cross4 viewsMichael IV Class C Follis. 1034-1041 AD.
Obverse: EMMA NOVHL around, IC-XC to right and left of Christ, with nimbate cross behind head, three-quarter length figure standing, raising right hand, holding book of gospels in left.
Reverse: IC-XC/NI-KA in the angles of a jewelled cross with dot at each end.
References: SB 1825.
Diameter: 28.5mm, Weight: 7.099g.
EB
edipen.jpg
Edward I (1272 - 1307 A.D.)40 viewsAR Penny
O: + ЄDWR’ ANGL’ DИS’ hУB, crowned and draped facing bust.
R:  / CIVI | TAS | LOИ | DOИ, long cross pattée; trefoils in quarters.
1.43g
19mm
 SCBI 39 (North), 60; North 1015; SCBC 1386.
4 commentsMat
edwardii.jpg
Edward II (1307-1327 A.D.)33 viewsAR Penny
Class 15b
O: EDWAR R ANGL DNS HYB, Crowned facing bust.
R:VILL SCI EDMVNDI, Voided long cross pattée; three pellets in quarters
17.8mm
1.03g
Bury St Edmunds (1320 - c.1333)
Spink # 1462. North 1067.
4 commentsMat
ediv.jpg
Edward IV (1461-1470 A.D.)32 viewsAR Groat
Light Coinage
O: ЄDWΛRD’ DI · GRΛ’ RЄX · ΛnGL’ · Z FRΛnC (saltire stops), crowned facing bust, with trefoil on breast and quatrefoil to left and right of neck; all within tressure of arches, with lis in spandrels.
R: POSVI DЄVm · Λ DIVTOR Є’ · mЄVm/ CIVI TΛS LOn DOn (saltire stops), long cross pattée, with three pellets in each quarter.
im: Crown
London mint, Struck 1466-1467.
3.03g
25mm
North 1568; SCBC 2000
2 commentsMat
Edwin_Booth_1970_HOF_Medal.JPG
Edwin Booth, 1970 NYU Hall of Fame Medal33 viewsObv: EDWIN THOMAS BOOTH - 1833 - 1893, three-quarter portrait to left of actor Edwin Booth.

Rev: THE HALL OF FAME FOR GREAT AMERICANS AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY - "TO BE, OR NOT TO BE" Edwin Booth as Hamlet.

Designed by: Agop Agopoff (1905 - 1983) - Mint: Medallic Art Company

Bronze, 44.5 mm
Matt Inglima
Babylon_in_Egypt.jpg
Egypt, Babylon299 viewsThis elegant red and white banded brickwork is about all that remains on the surface to mark the Roman fortress of ‘Babylon in Egypt’. The Roman structure was started during the reign of Trajan on the site of an earlier Egyptian stronghold which marked the border between Lower and Middle Egypt. The fortress remained an important strategic outpost down through Byzantine times. In the fifth century the Legio XIII Gemina was stationed here. During the Arab conquest of Egypt in 640/1, Babylon endured a seven month siege before its capture.

These days most of the extensive Babylon complex lies buried under the streets of the Christian quarter of Old Cairo. The nearby medieval Coptic Orthodox Church of the Virgin Mary is popularly known as the ‘Hanging Church’ because its nave was built suspended over two towers of the Roman fort.
1 commentsAbu Galyon
elagabalus_ar-denrius_abundantia_3_0gr_w-quarter_o_07.JPG
Elagabalus (AD 218 - 222) AR Denarius - Abundantia8 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Silver Denarius of Emperor Varius 'Elagabalus' Antoninus.
Struck at the Rome Mint.

obv: IMP ANTONINUS PIUS AUG - Laureate bust of Emperor facing right, draped.

rev: ABUNDANTIA AUG - Abundantia standing facing left, emptying the contents of a cornucopia. Star in right field.

3.0 Grams, 21mm.
-----------------------------------
*Notes: Large flan for an Elagabalus AR Denarius. Photos with U.S. Quarter (25 cents) for size comparison.
-----------------------------------
rexesq
elagabalus_ar-denrius_abundantia_3_0gr_w-n-q_o_06_r_03_001.JPG
Elagabalus (AD 218 - 222) AR Denarius - Abundantia16 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Silver Denarius of Emperor Varius 'Elagabalus' Antoninus.
Struck at the Rome Mint.

obv: IMP ANTONINUS PIUS AUG - Laureate bust of Emperor facing right, draped.

rev: ABUNDANTIA AUG - Abundantia standing facing left, emptying the contents of a cornucopia. Star in right field.

3.0 Grams, 21mm.
-----------------------------------
*Notes: Large flan for an Elagabalus AR Denarius. Photos with U.S. Quarter (25 cents) for size comparison.
-----------------------------------
rexesq
elagabalus_ar-denrius_abundantia_3_0gr_w-quarter_o_04.JPG
Elagabalus (AD 218 - 222) AR Denarius - Abundantia7 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Silver Denarius of Emperor Varius 'Elagabalus' Antoninus.
Struck at the Rome Mint.

obv: IMP ANTONINUS PIUS AUG - Laureate bust of Emperor facing right, draped.

rev: ABUNDANTIA AUG - Abundantia standing facing left, emptying the contents of a cornucopia. Star in right field.

3.0 Grams, 21mm.
-----------------------------------
*Notes: Large flan for an Elagabalus AR Denarius. Photos with U.S. Quarter (25 cents) for size comparison.
-----------------------------------
rexesq
elagabalus_ar-denrius_abundantia_3_0gr_o_04_r_03.JPG
Elagabalus (AD 218 - 222) AR Denarius - Abundantia27 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Silver Denarius of Emperor Varius 'Elagabalus' Antoninus.
Struck at the Rome Mint.

obv: IMP ANTONINUS PIUS AUG - Laureate bust of Emperor facing right, draped.

rev: ABUNDANTIA AUG - Abundantia standing facing left, emptying the contents of a cornucopia. Star in right field.

3.0 Grams, 21mm.
-----------------------------------
*Notes: Large flan for an Elagabalus AR Denarius. Photos with U.S. Quarter (25 cents) for size comparison.
-----------------------------------
4 commentsrexesq
e1seaby2561OR.jpg
Elizabeth I sixpence, Seaby 256165 viewsElizabeth I sixpence, 1566 A.D. AR, 26mm 3.07g, Seaby 2561
O: ELIZABETH D G ANG FR ET HI REGINA, crowned bust of Elizabeth I left, rose behind, portcullis mintmark.
R: POSVI DEV ADIVTOREM MEV. Quartered royal arms over long cross fourchee.

*purchased for my wife's birthday...but I am cointing it in my collection ;)
1 commentscasata137ec
Elizabeth_I_sixpence.jpg
Elizabeth I, 1558 - 160371 viewsEngland, Elizabeth I, 1558 - 1603. Silver sixpence, Spink 2578B, North 2015, tun mintmark, VF, light scratches, toned, Tower mint, weight 2.838g, maximum diameter 27.5mm, die axis 270o, 1592. Obverse: ELIZAB D'G' ANG'FR:ET:HIB REGI, crowned bust left, rose behind; Reverse POSVI DEV ADIVTOREM MEV (I have made God my helper), quartered coat-of-arms (passant lions and fleurs-de-lis) on long cross fourchée, 1592 above shield; ex A.H. Baldwin & Sons Ltd., Autumn Argentum Auction 2009. Ex FORVM.

Elizabeth I, 1558 - 1603
Elizabeth Tudor is considered by many to be the greatest monarch in English history. When she became queen in 1558, she was twenty-five years old, a survivor of scandal and danger, and considered illegitimate by most Europeans. She inherited a bankrupt nation, torn by religious discord, a weakened pawn between the great powers of France and Spain. She was only the third queen to rule England in her own right; the other two examples, her cousin Lady Jane Grey and half-sister Mary I, were disastrous. Even her supporters believed her position dangerous and uncertain. Her only hope, they counseled, was to marry quickly and lean upon her husband for support. But Elizabeth had other ideas.
She ruled alone for nearly half a century, lending her name to a glorious epoch in world history. She dazzled even her greatest enemies. Her sense of duty was admirable, though it came at great personal cost. She was committed above all else to preserving English peace and stability; her genuine love for her subjects was legendary. Only a few years after her death in 1603, they lamented her passing. In her greatest speech to Parliament, she told them, 'I count the glory of my crown that I have reigned with your love.'

http://englishhistory.net/tudor/monarchs/eliz1.html
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Seasr-2157.jpg
Empire of Nicaea: Anonymous (ca. 1222-1258) Æ Tetarteron, Magnesia (Sear-2157; DOC 9)10 viewsObv: Ο ΛΓΙΟC ΘЄΟΔΟΡΟC, in two columnar groups. Three-quarter-length figure of St. Theodore, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds in right hand sword, resting over shoulder, and in left, shield
Rev: Ornate cross, with saltire cross at center and set upon floral scroll
Dim: 18 mm, 1.70 g
Quant.Geek
Sear-2089.jpg
Empire of Nicaea: John III Ducas-Vatatzes (1221-1254) AE Trachy, Magnesia Mint (Sear-2089; LBC 219-223; DOC 35)12 viewsObv: Δ X in upper field; Three-quarter-length figure of St. Michael, wearing short military tunic, breastplate and sagion; right hand holding sword, resting over shoulder; left hand holds globus
Rev: IШ ΔЄCΠOTHC. IC XC in upper field; Full-length figure of emperor on left, crowned by Christ, bearded and nimbate; Emperor wears stemma division, and chlamys; right hand hold anexikakia; left hand holds globus cruciger; Christ holds Gospel in left hand

SpongeBob
Sear-2102.jpg
Empire of Nicaea: John III Ducas-Vatazes (1222-1254) Æ Trachy, Magnesia (Sear 2102; DOC IV, Type N 48; Lianta 247-48)21 viewsObv: MP - ΘV in upper field. Three-quarter-length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans; Star to left and right in lower field
Rev: IШ to left, Λ/Θ/Є/Δ to right; Full-length figure of emperor on left, and of St. Theodore, bearded and nirnbate; between them sheathed sword, point downward, resting on shield; Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-piece and panelled loros of simplified type; right hand hold labarum-headed scepter, Saint wears short military tunic and breastplate; left hand holds spear
Quant.Geek
ELIZABETH_I_HALF-GROAT.jpg
ENGLAND - ELIZABETH I86 viewsENGLAND - ELIZABETH I (1558-1603) AR half-groat. Tower Mint, London, made 1594-1596. Obv.: Crowned bust left, 2 pellets behind; E. D. G. ROSA SINE SPINA. Rev.: Quartered coat of arms on long cross fourchee; CIVITAS LONDON. Reference: North 2016; Seaby 2579. 0.764 g., 17.3 mm.dpaul7
Screenshot_2018-08-24_12_18_49.png
England, House of Tudor, Queen Elizabeth I, Silver Penny, 6th Issue. Metal Detecting find from Yorkshire.1 viewsTower 1595-98 A.D. 0.46g - 13.7mm, Axis 1h.

Obv: E • D • G • ROSA • SINE • SPINA - (Key Mintmark) Crowned bust left.

Rev: CIVITAS LONDON - Long cross fourchee over quartered shield of arms.

Spink 2680.
Christian Scarlioli
Misc_England_Edward_I_(corrected_+).JPG
England. Plantagenet. Edward I (1272-1307)54 viewsNorth 1018-19; Spink 1389-90

AR penny, new coinage (struck post 1279), Fox System class 3c-d, (1280-1281), London mint. 1.43 g. 19.59 mm. max., 180°.

Obv: + (cross potent) EDW R’ ANGL’ DNS hyB (round E; barred A; normal barred Ns; composite S; incurved tail on h; thin-wedge contractive marks), Crowned facing bust (crown with straight trifoliate side-fleurs; arrowhead intermediate ornaments; drapery of two triangular pieces).

Rev: CIVI-TAS LON-DON (rounded C; barred A; composite S; normal barred Ns), Long cross; trefoil of three pellets in each quarter.
2 commentsStkp
MISC_England_Edward_I_Canterbury_Class_10ab1.jpg
England. Plantagenet. Edward I (1272-1307) 8 viewsNorth 1039/1; Spink 1409B

AR penny, new coinage (struck post 1279), Fox System class 10ab1b (1301), Canterbury mint. 1.42 g.18.92 mm. max., 0°.

Obv: + (cross patteé) + EDWAR ANGL DNS hYB (=EDWARDVS REX ANGLIE DOMINVS HYBERNIE = Edward, King of England, Lord of Ireland) (round E; unbarred As; normal barred Ns; non-composite S; no contractive marks), Crowned facing bust (crown with straight bifoliate side-fleurs).

Rev: CIVI-TAS-CAN-TOR (rounded Cs; unbarred As; non-composite S; normal barred N), Long cross; trefoil of three pellets in each quarter.
Stkp
imgonline-com-ua-2to1-VfqVLAT3Aybs.jpg
England. PLANTAGENET. Edward I. 1272-1307. AR Penny. Circa 1302-1303.17 viewsCanterbury mint. (19mm, 1.40 g, 9h). New Coinage type, class 10ab3, +EDWARD R ANGL DNS hYB, crowned facing bust, star on breast; crown with tall thin ornaments; interlocked W and broken S in legend / Voided long cross; three pellets in quarters. SCBI 39 (North), 533; North 1037/1; SCBC 1408. Ruslan K
antwerp_coinweight.jpg
English; Edward IV gold quarter ryal; reverse A, hand (for Antwerp)40 viewsEnglish Coin Weight, c. 1470. English coin weight, aF, brown patina, Antwerp mint, 1.852g, 19.6mm, obverse quatrefoil pattern similar to 1.9g English Edward IV gold quarter ryal; reverse A, hand (for Antwerp). Produced in the Low Countries. Found in the UK. Ex FORVMPodiceps
elizabeth_i_res.jpg
ENGLLAND--ELIZABETH I18 views1560-1561 AD. (S 2558; second issue)
13.0 x 14.0 mm; 0.5 g
O: Elizabeth I right
R: Quartered royal arms over long cross fourche
Mintmark: Cross crosslet
Yorkshire find 2010.



laney
DSCN7952.JPG
Euboea, Chalcis, 369-313 B.C. AE12mm15 viewsEuboea, Chalcis, 369-313 B.C.

Obv. Head of Hera, three-quarter face to r., wearing diadem, surmounted by five disks (representing the planets?).

Rev. Eagle flying right, carrying snake/Serpent in talons and beak.

Ref. Sear 2488.
Lee S
EudesIII_R4522_1192_1218.jpg
Eudes(Odo) III, Duchy of Burgundy; 1192-1218 14 viewsDenier Fragmented Cross and Fleur de lis
Obverse: +ODO DVX BVRG : DIE
Reverse: = DIVIONENSIS
cross with an arrow at 1 and 4(quarter)
Mint: Dijon
R.4522, Boudeau 1203
Date:1192-1218
19mm
1.04g
wileyc
FF_Valence_Bishops_PDA_4690_2.JPG
France (Feudal): Valence (Bishops of Valence and Die), 12th – 13th Century38 viewsPoey d’Avant 4690, Roberts 4782 var., Boudeau 1021, Belaubre 965

AR denier, 18 mm.

Obv: + VRBS VALENTIAI, angel with spread wings, resembling an eagle, facing.

Rev: + S APOLLINARS, cross with annulet in second quarter.

In 1275 the bishoprics of Valence and Die were merged. The reverse legend refers to St. Apollinaris, who is the patron saint of the cathedral in Valence.

Valence deniers are found in significant quantities in coin hoards from the Crusader possessions in the east. For this reason, the emission is also catalogued as Metcalf (Crusades & Latin East), 39-40, Metcalf Group Di. It is possible that some of the cruder varieties, such as this, are in fact eastern imitations of the French issue.
Stkp
FF_Melgeuil.jpg
France (Feudal): County of Melgueil (Languedoc), Bishops of Maguelonne (ca. 1080-1120)6 viewsRoberts 4336 var. (central pellet), Boudeau 753 var. (same), Poey d'Avant 3842 var. (same) cf. LIIIV, 17

AR denier, Narbonne mint, .94 g., 18.44 mm. max., 270°

Obv: RAMVNDS (=Raymond; degenerate legend), cross formed from a fasces and bishop's mitres, pellet in upper left quarter.

Rev: NAIDONA (=Narbonne; degenerate legend), four annulets.

The obverse legend refers to Raymond, the first bishop who first issued these coins. The three large bars at 3 o'clock are the "M", the "o" at 8 o'clock is the "D,". and the other letters correspond accordingly. The fasces is a symbol of Rome, and the mitres symbolize the ecclesiastical authority of the bishop, whose ultimate authority resides in Rome.
Stkp
FRANCE_-__HENRY_IV_silver_quarter_ECU_1603_K_Bordeaux.jpg
FRANCE - Henry IV88 viewsFRANCE - Henry IV (1589-1610) Silver 1/4-Ecu, K mintmark (Bordeaux). 1 Year Type for this mint. Obv.: Crowned French shield flanked by II - II. SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM K and privyt marks below shield. Reverse shows cross surrounded by HENRICUS IIII D 8 G FRAN ET NAVA REX 1603 Reference: KM #A29. The reverse was damaged because the coin had been made into a pin.dpaul7
valence.jpg
France, Valence - Bishops of Valence - (1157 - 1276 A.D.)28 viewsAR Denier
O: + VRBS VΛLЄNTIΛI, angel standing facing with wings displayed.
R: S ΛP◊LLINΛRS, cross; annulet in fourth quarter.
.9g
18mm
Robert 4783
1 commentsMat
Dup-377C.jpg
France: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé/le Fol (1380-1422) AR Blanc dit Guénar (Duplessy-377C)13 viewsObv: + kAROLVS FRAnCORV RЄX, shield of France; annulet below initial cross; double annulet-in-annulet stops
Rev: + SIT nOmЄ DnI BnDICTV, cross pattée; crown and lis in opposite quarters; annulet below initial cross; double annulet-in-annulet stops
SpongeBob
FrenchHenryII_11181_1189_comb.jpg
French Henry II Count Of Champagne15 viewsEarly Feudal Comb type from Proving region.
Traders at the famous Champagne fairs gave them wide geographical range.
Count Henry hosted six major fairs in the region.
Obv.: CASTRI PRVVINS. Comb of Champagne, 'V' made of three triangles above, annulet on either side, legend begining at 10hr.
REV: +HENRI COMES Pattee with annulet in all 4 quarters
Date;1181-1197 AD
Mint: Provins
20mm
1.03g
Roberts 4726
wileyc
fed~0.jpg
Friedrich von Pluvoise (1171-1173 A.D.)32 viewsFRANCE, Provincial
Metz (évêché)
AR Denier
O: FRIDERICS, Bareheaded and draped bust left.
R: (rose) METE[N]SIS, Cross path with central pellet; crescent in second quarter, rosette in third quarter.
.76g
15mm
Robert 1; Boudeau 1623; Roberts 8856

AKA Frédéric de Pluvoise
2 commentsMat
Spain_gades_quarto_de_calco.jpg
Gades, Hispania, Quarter calco, 2nd century bc32 views Obv. Face of helios
Rev. Two tunny swimming left
3 commentsSkyler
00092.jpg
Galerius (RIC 169b, Coin #92)14 viewsRIC 169b, Quarter Follis, Siscia, 305-306 AD.
Obv: MAXIMIANVS AVG Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (SIS) Genius standing left holding patera in right, cornucopia in left.
Size: 18.5mm 2.14gm
MaynardGee
GALERIUS-1-ROMAN~0.jpg
Galerius, Siscia RIC VI-169b18 viewsAE Quarter-Folles
Siscia mint, 305-306 A.D.
19mm, 2.02g
RIC VI-169b

Obverse:
MAXIMIANVS AVG
Laureate head right

Reverse:
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
SIS in exergue
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopiae.
rubadub
ID0108_MERGED.jpg
Gallienus - Stag Provincial33 viewsRoman Provincial Coins
Gallienus, Ionia 253-268 AD
Obverse:- AYT K ΠO ΛIKI ΓAΛΛIHNOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind
Reverse:- EΦECIΩN Γ NEΩKO,PΩN (last three letters in exergue), Artemis right, catching stag, pulling it down by the antlers, left knee on animal's hindquarters
Ephesos mint
Bronze AE.
3.174g
(Purchased from Forvm Shop)

20.3mm
nogoodnicksleft
Constantius_I_Bronze_quarter-follis.jpg
GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, RIC 169a Siscia20 viewsConstantius I Chlorus, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D. Bronze quarter-follis, RIC VI 169a, VF, Siscia mint, 1.575g, 18.1mm, 180o, 305 - 306 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius of the Roman people wearing modius, holding cornucopia in left and patera in right, SIS in ex. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVM
Podiceps
maximinus_siscia_171b.jpg
GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, RIC 171a Siscia18 viewsMaximinus II Daia, late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D. Bronze quarter-follis, RIC VI 171b, VF, Siscia mint, 2.275g, 18.7mm, 0o, as Caesar 305 - 306 A.D.; obverse MAXIMINVS NOB C, laureate head right; reverse GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius of the Roman people standing left, wearing modius, holding cornucopia in left and patera in right, SIS in ex; scarce. Some references identify this type as a bronze denarius. Ex FORVMPodiceps
galerius_169b.jpg
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, RIC VI 169b Siscia7 viewsGalerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D. Bronze quarter-follis, RIC VI 169b, VF, Siscia mint, 2.193g, 19.1mm, 0o, 305 - 306 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera in right, cornucopia in left, SIS in ex. This type is no longer considered rare (R2) due to significant finds. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Sirmium_ab.jpg
Gepids/Ostrogoths - Sirmium - quarter siliqua115 viewsGepids independently or under Ostrogothic rule in the name of Anastasius, 1/4-siliqua (16 mm, 0.81 g), minted in Sirmium 491-518 AD. Obverse: diademed head right, DN ANST-SIVS PP C . Reverse: VICTORIA (AVGGG) around SRM in open frame, (CO)NO in exergue. Apparently missing in major references. Two similar coins sold in auctions: NAC 33 (2006) lot 693 and Rauch 81 (2007) lot 816.

2 commentsJan (jbc)
Gepids2_ab.jpg
Gepids/Ostrogoths - Sirmium - quarter siliqua88 viewsGepids under Ostrogothic rule in the name of Anastasius, 1/4-siliqua (13 mm, 0.93 g), minted in Sirmium 491-518 AD. Obverse: diademed and cuirassed bust right, DN ANASTASIVS PP AVC. Reverse: INVIT-A ROMA, MD in exergue copying coins from Mediolanum, monogram of Theoderic the great. Ref. MIB 46.

Ex Rauch Auction 92, lot 1503, 2013
Jan (jbc)
Demo-80.jpg
Gepids: Uncertain King (454-552) AR Quarter Siliqua, Sirmium (MEC-1; Demo-80; Stefan-2; COI, p. 43, Fig. 22; Gennari-111b)14 viewsObv: D N VƧ(M over W)VISTΛIWS P P Λ[VC], pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: (star) IИMVIT + IROИVΛ, Theoderic monogram

Imitation of a Ravenna mint Quarter Siliqua of Theoderic in the name of Justinian I

Quant.Geek
Gergis_Troas_AE13_1_84g.jpg
Gergis, Troas, c. 320 - 270 B.C.40 views1.841g, 13.1mm, 0°, Gergis mint
obv: three-quarter facing head of Sibyl Herophile, turned slightly right, wearing laurel wreath and pendanted necklace
rev: ΓEP; Sphinx seated right
SNG Cop 338

ex FORVM
areich
41447_Gergis,_Troas,_c__320_-_270_B_C_.jpg
Gergis; Sybil Herophile/ ΓΕΡ, Sphinx seated right; AE 11.3mm10 viewsGergis, Troas, c. 320 - 270 B.C. Bronze AE 18, SGCV II 4098, SNG Cop 338, BMC Troas p. 55, 9, VF, flaking green patina, Gergis mint, 1.321g, 11.3mm, 0o, c. 400 - 241 B.C.; obverse three-quarter facing head of Sibyl Herophile, turned slightly right, wearing laurel wreath and pendanted necklace; reverse “ΓΕΡ”, sphinx seated right. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
gergis.jpg
Gergis; Sybil Herophile/ ΓΕΡ, Sphinx seated right; AE 1329 viewsTROAS, Gergis; mid 4th cent. B.C. Æ 13, 1.2g. Obv. Laureate head of the Sybil Herophile three quarter face right. Rev. ΓΕΡ, Sphinx seated right. Sear GCV II 40982 commentsPodiceps
IMG_4836.JPG
German Notgeld, Aachen, Rhineland22 viewsCity: Aachen
State: Rhineland
Denomination: 2 Mark
Obverse: STAD . AACHEN – 1920 – in center, 2 MARK
Reverse: ALFRED RETHEL 1816 – 1859, head of German painter Alfred Rethel facing, three-quarters to right.
Date: 1920
Grade: XF
Catalog #:
Matt Inglima
IMG_4823.JPG
German Notgeld: Nürnberg – Fürther Strassenbahn19 viewsCity: Nürnberg – Fürther Strassenbahn
State: Bavaria
Denomination: 20 Pfennig
Obverse: NÜRNBERG – FÜRTHER STRASSENBAHN, 20 PFENNIG within circle in center.
Reverse: PETER VISCHER, bust of sculptor Peter Vischer, facing three-quarters to right.
Date: No Date
Grade: UNC
Catalog #:
Matt Inglima
LarryW2404.jpg
GG, Taras, c. 280 BC (Time of Pyrrhos)168 viewsGold quarter-stater, 11.7mm, 2.13g, aVF
Laureate head Apollo to right, with long hair; AP behind / Eagle with wings spread standing half left atop wingless fulmen; AP and TAPANTINΩN before. RCOA
Ex: Hess-Leu, 27th March 1956, lot 12
Fischer-Bossert p. 370, G59g and pl. 68 (this coin); HN Italy 986; Vlasto 49; SNG ANS 1043
4 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
glass10_2mm_73g.jpg
Glass one-quarter (1/4) dirham weight9 viewsworn Glass/Likely umayyad or abbasid coin weight

Islamic script?
10 by 2mm
.73g
wileyc
Gordian_III_Moesia_Bull_and_Lion~0.JPG
Gordian III Moesia Bull and Lion26 viewsGordian III, AE30 Sestertius, 241 - 242 AD, Moushmov 32, SEAR 3642v, BMC 10v, Boric-Breskovic 288, AMNG I 80
OBV: IMPCAESMANTGORDIANVSAVG, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: PMSC OLVIM, Female figure (Provincia Moesia) standing facing left between bull to left and lion to right
AN III in exergue, Notes: AN III = Regnal year 3, 241-242 CE
Viminacium was a major city of the Roman province of Moesia (today's Serbia), and the capital of Moesia Superior
The Bull & Lion on the reverse are the emblems of Legions VII and IV which were quartered in the province.
30.45mm, 19.1g
Romanorvm
gortyna_01.jpg
Gortyna AR Drachm55 viewsObv: Head of Europa right, hair confined by ampyx and sphendone, outline of round die visible.
Rev: Head of bull three quarters right.
Mint: Crete, Gortyna
Year: 350–330 BC
Ref: Svoronos 37, pl. xiii, 11
Notes: Very rare.
1 commentsoa
BMC_16a_img.jpg
Great Britain - 16 - George VI - Crown - 19377 viewsObv:- GEORGIVS VI D: G: BR: OMN: REX, Bare head left
Rev:- FID: DEF: :IND: IMP DIEU ET MON DROIT / CROWN: 1937, Crowned, quartered shield with supporters
Date:- 1937
Mintage - 419,000
maridvnvm
The_Pnyx_-_Approach_from_the_Agora.JPG
Greece, Athens, The Approach to the Pynx from the Agora246 viewsThe home of democracy, the Pnyx was rebuilt and expanded in the 3rd quarter of the 4th century B.C., probably around 345-335 B.C. A massive, curved, retaining wall was built, as seen in this image. The steps of the old walkway from the Agora are visible and overbuilt by the retaining wall. Great Athenians such as Themistocles, Pericles and Socrates would have walked this path and steps in the heady days of the zenith Athenian democracy. 1 commentsLloyd
Outer_Stone_Wall_of_the_Pnyx.JPG
Greece, Athens, The Pnyx - outer stone retaining wall.242 viewsThe home of democracy, the Pnyx was rebuilt and expanded in the 3rd quarter of the 4th century B.C., probably around 345-335 B.C. A massive, curved, retaining wall was built, as seen in this image. The steps of the old walkway from the Agora are visible and overbuilt by the retaining wall. Great Athenians such as Themistocles, Pericles and Socrates wolud have walked ths path and steps in the heady days of the zenith Athenian democracy. 1 commentsLloyd
Roman_era_residential_area_-_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos - Maritime Quarter Streetscape249 viewsLloyd T
Floor_-_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos - Mosaic Floor in the Maritime Quarter246 viewsInterestingly this mosaic floor features the symbol of Tanit a Carthaginian goddess.Lloyd T
Roman_era_wall_-_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos - Wall in the Maritime Quarter297 viewsRemnant plasterwork and painting illustrates how the coarse stone walls were finished in the residential area that is the Maritime Quarter.1 commentsLloyd T
BILD1285neu.jpg
Greece, Rhodes plan of Lindos159 views1 semicircular exedra
2 relief of a ship
3 medieval stairway
4 medieval headquarter building
5 Byzantine church
6 hellenistic vaults
7 roman temple
8 late hellenistic stairway
9 hellenistic stoa
10 propylaion stairway
11 propylaion
12 temple of athena lindos
13 portico of Psithyros
Franz-Josef M
17586q00.jpg
Greek10 viewsAE hemilitron Syracuse, Sicily 415 B.C.
Ob. head of Arethusa left, hair in a sphendone
Rev. SY-RA in the upper quarters of four spokes, two dolphins in lower quarters
nathan s2
leon.jpg
GREEK42 viewsAR hemidrachm. Chersonessos (Trace). c.386-356 BC. 2,34 grs. Forepart of lion, head facing left / Quadripartite incuse square with alternating raised and sunken quarters, a pellet and E, and five cornered star in opposite sunken quarters.
BMC 43.
1 commentsbenito
caria_kos.jpg
GREEK, Caria, Kos, AE1311 viewsCaria, kos
AE 13mm

obv: head of Helios facing three-quarter right
rev: club and bow in case
seaotter
pixodaros.jpg
GREEK, Caria, Satrap Pixodaros, ca 341-336/5132 viewsAR didrachm
Ob: Laureate Apollo, three quarters facing, right, himation fastened with brooch at neck
Rx: ΠIXΩΔAPOY; Zeus of Labraunda standing right, holding spear in left hand & double-bladed axe over right shoulder.
7.02g 21mm

SNG Keckman I, 280, Sammlung Karl 35-40

ex Pegasi Numismatics Auction XXII (20.04.2010) lot 167
3 commentsDino
LionChersonese.jpg
GREEK, Chersonese lion44 viewsAR 12.7x13.1 mm
Obv. Foreparts of lion, head reverted
Rev. 2 depressed quarters, VE monogram and dot;
cadeuceus?
1 commentsgparch
86219p00.jpg
GREEK, Ephesos, Ionia, c. 500 - 420 B.C.21 viewsGS86219. Silver drachm, SNG Kayhan 140, SNGvA 7819, SNG Cop 210, SNG Tübingen 2758, Traité II, p. 1090, 1867 & pl. CLII, 12; BMC Ionia -, SNG München -, Choice gVF, toned, well centered on a tight flan, weight 3.343 g, maximum diameter 15.1 mm, die axis 0o, Ephesos mint, c. 500 - 420 B.C.; obverse EΦ-EΣI-O-N, bee seen from above; reverse quadripartite incuse square, divided by thin raised bands, incuse quarters rough; rare issue with full ethnicJoe Sermarini
Gaul,_Massalia.jpg
GREEK, Gaul-Massalia after circa 400 B.C. 20 viewsGaul-Massalia after circa 400 B.C.
AR Obol 0.7g 12mm

Obverse: Youthful head of Apollo left.

Reverse: Wheel with four spokes. "M-A" in two of the quarters.

REf: S-72; De la tour 580
Jorge C
Vlasto_984~0.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Taras. Time of Hannibal, c. 212-209 BC. Nomos20 views3.98g. (5h). Obv: Naked youth on horseback right, holding reins and carrying filleted palm; ΣΩKAN - NAΣ below. Rx: Taras astride dolphin left, holding aphlaston in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm; eagle standing with wings spread behind; TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 984. HN Italy 1082. SNG ANS 1272. Perfectly struck; Mint State.
Ex Philip T. Ashton Collection. Ex Berk 130, 6 January 2003, lot 81.
Hannibal used the region around Tarentum and Metapontum as winter quarters during his occupation of southern Italy. He installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half shekel standard.
Leo
Late_Ptolemaic,_c__2nd_-_1st_Centuries_B_C_.jpg
Greek, Late Ptolemaic period, c. 2-1 cent. B.C. UNIQUE? 252 viewsBeirut/Bervtus mint? Late Ptolemaic period, c. 2-1 cent. B.C. Bronze quarter-obol, VF, 1.922g, 12.5mm, 90o.Obv: double cornucopia. Rev: BASIL..., eagle standing left. The style of the flan and the eagle is similar to some late Berytus pieces. The flan is not Cyprus, Kyrene or Alexandria. Ref: Svoronos -; BMC -; SNG Cop -; Paphos II -. UNIQUE? 1 commentsBard Gram Okland
336_-_323_BC_ALEXANDER_III___Quarter-_Obol.JPG
GREEK, Macedonian kingdom, Alexander III the Great, AE Quarter-Obol (2 Chalkoi). Lifetime issue struck 336 – 323 BC at an uncertain mint in Macedonia.41 viewsObverse: No legend. Young male head wearing a taenia (diadem), who is sometimes identified as Apollo, facing right.
Reverse: AΛEΞANĐPOY. Horse prancing right; mint-mark, below horse, torch.
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 4.25gms | Die Axis: 7
Price:338
SCARCE

This coin is a Type 4 (horse type) bronze Quarter-Obol (two chalkoi). This likely was one of Alexander's standard bronze denominations, half the value of his Herakles/weapons bronzes, though not seen as frequently. This specimen features a torch as a mint mark, this mint-mark was included with 34 other mint marks by Price in his work.
*Alex
336_-_323_BC_ALEXANDER_III_AE_Quarter-Obol.JPG
GREEK, Macedonian kingdom, Alexander III the Great, AE Quarter-Obol (2 Chalkoi). Lifetime issue struck 336 – 323 BC at an uncertain mint, possibly Amphipolis.44 viewsObverse: No legend. Head of Herakles, wearing lion skin headdress, facing right.
Reverse: AΛEΞANĐPOY. Eagle facing right, it's head turned to left, standing on a thunderbolt; mint-mark, A in right field before the eagle's breast.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 3.9gms | Die Axis: 6
Sear: 6743 | Weber: 2142 | Liampi: 6-8
VERY RARE

This coin is a Type 3 (eagle type) bronze Quarter-Obol (two chalkoi). Alexander's Eagle bronzes are part of his Eagle coinage that also includes various silver denominations, including a stater, drachm, hemidrachm, diobol, and obol. Alexander's Eagle coins are much rarer than his issues of Herakles and Zeus imperial silver coins and his Herakles and weapons bronze coins.
*Alex
323_-_315_BC_ALEXANDER_III_AE_Quarter-Obol~0.JPG
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, AE Quarter-Obol (2 Chalkoi). Struck 323 – 315 BC under Nikokreon at Salamis, Cyprus.38 viewsObverse: No legend. Macedonian shield with Gorgoneion (Medusa) head as the boss in the centre. The shield boss is sometimes called the episema, the Greek name for a symbol of a particular city or clan which was placed in the centre of a soldier's shield.
Reverse: Macedonian helmet surmounted with a horse hair crest; B - A (for BAΣIΛEOΣ AΛEΞANĐPOY = King Alexander) above; mint marks below the helmet, to left, a kerykeion (caduceus) and to the right, the monogram NK (for Nikokreon).
Diameter: 14mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 1
Price: 3162 | Liampi, Chronologie 170-92

This coin is a Type 7 (Macedonian shield type) bronze Quarter-Obol (two chalkoi). Price dated the Macedonian Shield coins as beginning during the latter part of Alexander's life, c.325 BC, and ending c.310 BC. Liampi later argued, based on new hoard evidence, that they were minted as early as 334 BC. This particular coin is dated from c.323 to 315 BC.
*Alex
Kyrene,_North_Africa,_Ptolemy_Apion,_c__101_-_96_B_C_.jpg
GREEK, North Africa, Kyrene mint. c. 101 - 96 BC.21 viewsNorth Africa, Kyrene mint. c. 101 - 96 BC. Bronze quarter-obol, Fair, 1.214g, 12.2mm. Obv: diademed head of Ptolemy I as Zeus right, wearing aegis, hole from minting process. Rev: head of Libya or Isis right, PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS. Ref: Buttrey: The Extramural Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene, Libya, Final Reports, Volume VI, 542 - 603. Rare

Ptolemy Apion was a son of Ptolemy VIII, perhaps by an Egyptian concubine. This makes him a half-brother of Ptolemy IX and X. Ptolemy Apion died in 96 B.C., without an heir, leaving his kingdom to the Roman Republic. According to Butrey, Apion's coinage was nothing but very small change, with a peak about 1.3 grams. Buttrey notes, "the Greek coinage of Cyrenaica, of glorious tradition, ended in the lamentable small bronzes of Apion."
Bard Gram O
Kyrene_North_Africa_Ptolemy_Apion_101-96_BC_Rare.jpg
GREEK, North Africa, Kyrene mint. c. 101 - 96 BC. 17 viewsNorth Africa, Kyrene mint. c. 101 - 96 BC. Bronze quarter-obol, F/VF, 1.141g, 13.6mm. Dark patina, untrimmed flan edges. Obv: diademed head of Ptolemy I as Zeus right, wearing aegis, hole from minting process. Rev: head of Libya or Isis right, [PTOLEMAIOU] BASILEWS. Ref: Buttrey: The Extramural Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene, Libya, Final Reports, Volume VI, 542 - 603. Rare Bard Gram O
PsuedoAutonomous-Koinon.jpg
Greek, Quasi-autonomous, Macedonia14 viewsKoinon of Macedon, Pseudo-autonomous issue struck during the second quarter of the 3rd century A.D. Herakles facing right/Lion walking right.

This coin actually has very nice, dark brown patina, however, I had to lighten the image to bring out the details. I haven't been able to attribute this further as all of the similar reverses I've seen show a club above the lion.
mrbutlertron
bpGS1G4Rhodes.jpg
GREEK, Rhodes, AR Didrachm53 viewsDidrachm, 6.56 gm, 16.9 mm, 400-335 BC, SNG Kayhan 913.
Obv: Anepigraphic with head of Helios at a three quarter face with hair loose and flowing suggesting the rays of the sun.
Rev: (POΔION) off flan at top.
Rose with Star in left field and Δ below. Rosebud in right field.
Comment: Both the o and r of this coin are in very high relief. My scanner does not give this little beauty the justice it deserves.
Massanutten
bpGB1L2Boeotia.jpg
GREEK, Thebes, Boeotia34 viewsAe18, 5.6 gm, 18.8 mm, 221-197 BC, Sear (GC) 2413
Obv: Anepigraphic with head of Persephone at three/quarter right facing angle.
Rev: ΒΟΙΩΤΩΝ
Poseiden, naked and standing left with right foot set on rock and holding trident.
ex-Berk
Massanutten
FotorCreated~16.jpg
GREEK, Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm circa 400-380 BC 19mm 6.16g 8h50 viewsMeto left in small and faint letters,head of the nymph Larissa three quarters facing right,wearing pendent earring and necklace with a central drop,border of dots.Rev NAPIEAL in exergue AI in tiny letters below horse belly,bridled horse right about to roll the riens trailing,above the exergue line.1 commentsGrant H
LarryW8015.jpg
GS Zeugitana, Carthage, c. 216-211 BC (Time of Hannibal)68 viewsSilver quarter-shekel, 13mm, 1.84g, gVF
Head of Tanit left, wreathed with grain, wearing pendant earring and necklace / Horse stands right on exergual line
Ex: Apollo Numismatics
Jenkins pl.28, 2
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
helios.jpg
helios158 viewsRhodos, Caria, West Asia Minor, c. 304 - c. 189 B.C.
Silver drachm, SNG Cop 780 var (magistrate's name), BMC -, VF, 2.60g, 16.0mm, 0o, Rhodos mint, obverse head of Helios three-quarter facing to right; reverse rose with bud on stem to right, club on left, magistrate name KALLISTRATOS above, P - O below; rare;
This magistrate is not listed in the major references.
1 commentsb70
Chersonnesos.jpg
Hemidrachm of Chersonnesos4 viewsThracian Chersonnesos. 480-350 BC. AR Hemidrachm.

Obv: Forepart of lion, head reverted./Rev: Quadripartite incuse square, dot and AG monogram
and amphora in two quarters.
symbol.
BMC Thrace 21; Weber 2406; McClean 4066; Dewing 1305;
SNG Copenhagen 837; Berlin I, 43.
Belisarius
41348Syracuse,_Sicily,_c__405_B_C_,_KIMON_.jpg
Hemilitron, c. 405 B.C. Arethusa/ wheel of four spokes, “SU-RA” & two dolphins; KIMON?10 viewsSyracuse, Sicily, c. 405 B.C., KIMON? Bronze hemilitron, SGCV I 1186; Calciati II p. 45, 19, VF, Syracuse mint, 2.833g, 15.9mm, 270o, c. 405 B.C.; obverse head of Arethusa left, hair bound with ampyx and sphendone, signature KIM in low field to right; reverse, wheel of four spokes, “ΣΥ−ΡΑ” in upper quarters, two dolphins in lower quarters. The master-engravers who signed their work in gold and silver also engraved dies for bronze coins. This coin is unsigned or the signature is off flan. While the engraver is uncertain, this beautiful coin does exhibit the superb style of Kimon. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
syracuse_hemilitron.jpg
Hemilitron, c. 415 - 405 B.C. AE 16.1mm; Arethusa/ wheel of four spokes, “SU-RA” & two dolphins10 viewsSyracuse, Sicily, c. 415 - 405 B.C. Bronze hemilitron, SGCV I 1186; Calciati II p. 45, 19, VF, nice green patina, Syracuse mint, 3.503g, 16.1mm, 180o, c. 415 - 405 B.C.; obverse head of Arethusa left, hair bound with ampyx and sphendone, dolphin behind; reverse, wheel of four spokes, “SU-RA” in upper quarters, two dolphins in lower quarters. Although no signature is visible, the style is that of the master engraver Phrygillos. Ex FORVMPodiceps
arethusa.jpg
Hemilitron, c. 415 - 410 B.C. AE 16; Arethusa/ Wheel of four spokes & dolphins10 viewsSyracuse, Sicily, c. 415 - 410 B.C. Bronze hemilitron, SGCV I 1186, Fine, rough, 3.484 g, 16.1 mm, 315o, obverse Head of Arethusa left, hair in sphendone; reverse SY RA, Wheel of four spokes, dolphins in bottom two quarters. ex FORVMPodiceps
30737.jpg
Henry III7 viewsEngland. Henry III. 1216-1272. AR penny (17.56 mm, .92 g, 1 h). hЄnRICVS x RЄX x AnGLIЄ, Crowned facing bust of Henry III (no beard?), annulets at bottom of hair curls on both sides / Long cross potent divides moneyer's name and city abbreviations; three pellets in each quarter, two sets of three are joined by an annulet between them. aVF, clipped.ecoli
henvi.jpg
Henry VI (1422 - 1461 A.D.)33 viewsAR Groat
O: +HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC / Crowned bust facing, with annulet on each side of neck.
R: +POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM VILLA CALISIE / Long cross with three pellets in each angle, annulet in two quarters and after POSVI.
Annulet issue. Calais mint; im: pierced cross 2. Struck 1422-1427.
3.72g
27mm
North 1424; SCBC 1836
5 commentsMat
henry_vii_k.jpg
Henry VII (1485 - 1509 A.D.) 23 viewsAR Groat
O: hENRIC DI GRA REX AGL Z FRA, Crowned facing bust in tressure of arches; crown of two arches, outer jeweled (crown 4).
R:POSVI DEV ADIVTOR MEV CIVITAS LONDON, Long cross; trefoils in quarters, cross end 8, saltire stops, ‘coded’ stops 20/10.
London mint; mm:anchor (upright). Struck 1499-1502.
Class IIIc
25mm
3.03g
Cf. SCBI 23 (Ashmolean), 363; North 1705c; SCBC 2199.

Double Struck Obverse
1 commentsMat
henviii2.jpg
Henry VIII (1509-1547 A.D.)49 viewsAR Groat
Third Coinage
O:  D. G. AnG. FRA. Z hIB. RЄX, , crowned bearded bust half right, rose after rex. , Laker bust A.
R:  C[IVI] TAS BRIS TOLIЄ, royal coat-of-arms over long cross fourchée; lis in forks; pellet below third quarter of shield; rose after TAS, lis before BRIS; pellet on inner border.
Bristol mint; im: -/WS “monogram of William Sharrington” Struck circa 1546-1547.
2.45g
26mm
North 1846; SCBC 2372
4 commentsMat
a40.jpg
Heraclius AE three-quarter Follis Constantinople Sear 81213 viewsTask_Force
her-rav1a.jpg
Heraclius, Follis, Ravenna mint, 630-631 AD (year 21), Sear 91426 viewsHeraclius (610-641 AD)

630-631 AD (year 21)

Follis

Obverse: DD NN HЄRACLIVS ЄT HЄRA CONST PP AVCC (or similar), Heraclius, crowned, in military attire and holding long cross, standing facing, foot on prostrate figure (a Persian?) below; to right, Heraclius Constantine, wearing crown and chlamys, holding globus cruciger, standing facing

Reverse: Large M; Above, cross; To left, ANNO; To right, XXI ; Exergus, RAV

Ravenna mint

This issue commemorates the victory of Heraclius over the Sasanid kingdom in 629 AD.

After years of war between Romans and Sasanids, in 612, Heraclius launched a major counter-offensive in Syria in 613. He was decisively defeated outside Antioch by Shahrbaraz and Shahin, and the Roman position collapsed. Over the following decade the Persians were able to conquer Palestine and Egypt and to devastate Anatolia. Meanwhile, the Avars and Slavs took advantage of the situation to overrun the Balkans, bringing the Roman Empire to the brink of destruction.
During these years, Heraclius strove to rebuild his army, slashing non-military expenditures, devaluing the currency and melting down Church plate, with the backing of Patriarch Sergius, to raise the necessary funds to continue the war. In 622, Heraclius left Constantinople, entrusting the city to Sergius and general Bonus as regents of his son. He assembled his forces in Asia Minor and, after conducting exercises to revive their morale, he launched a new counter-offensive, which took on the character of a holy war. In the Caucasus he inflicted a defeat on an army led by a Persian-allied Arab chief and then won a victory over the Persians under Shahrbaraz. Following a lull in 623, while he negotiated a truce with the Avars, Heraclius resumed his campaigns in the East in 624 and routed an army led by Khosrau at Ganzak in Atropatene. In 625 he defeated the generals Shahrbaraz, Shahin and Shahraplakan in Armenia, and in a surprise attack that winter he stormed Shahrbaraz's headquarters and attacked his troops in their winter billets. Supported by a Persian army commanded by Shahrbaraz, the Avars and Slavs unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople in 626, while a second Persian army under Shahin suffered another crushing defeat at the hands of Heraclius' brother Theodore. Meanwhile, Heraclius formed an alliance with the Turks, who took advantage of the dwindling strength of the Persians to ravage their territories in the Caucasus. Late in 627, Heraclius launched a winter offensive into Mesopotamia, where, despite the desertion of the Turkish contingent that had accompanied him, he defeated the Persians at the Battle of Nineveh. Continuing south along the Tigris, he sacked Khosrau's great palace at Dastagird and was only prevented from attacking Ctesiphon by the destruction of the bridges on the Nahrawan Canal. Discredited by this series of disasters, Khosrau was overthrown and killed in a coup led by his son Kavadh II, who at once sued for peace, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories. Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem with a majestic ceremony in 629.


Sear 914, D.O. 297, B.M.C. 452, T. 282, B.N. 5, M.I.B. 253a.

RRR

VF

6,98 g.
L.e.
her-rav1a~0.jpg
Heraclius, Follis, Ravenna mint, 630-631 AD (year 21), Sear 914, celebrating the defeat of the Sasanid kingdom and the restoration of the True Cross to Jerusalem. 103 viewsHeraclius (610-641 AD)

630-631 AD (year 21)

Follis

Obverse: DD NN HЄRACLIVS ЄT HЄRA CONST PP AVCC (or similar), Heraclius, crowned, in military attire and holding long cross, standing facing, foot on prostrate figure (a Persian?) below; to right, Heraclius Constantine, wearing crown and chlamys, holding globus cruciger, standing facing

Reverse: Large M; Above, cross; To left, ANNO; To right, XXI ; Exergus, RAV

Ravenna mint

This issue commemorates the victory of Heraclius over the Sasanid kingdom in 629 AD.

After years of war between Romans and Sasanids, in 612, Heraclius launched a major counter-offensive in Syria in 613. He was decisively defeated outside Antioch by Shahrbaraz and Shahin, and the Roman position collapsed. Over the following decade the Persians were able to conquer Palestine and Egypt and to devastate Anatolia. Meanwhile, the Avars and Slavs took advantage of the situation to overrun the Balkans, bringing the Roman Empire to the brink of destruction.
During these years, Heraclius strove to rebuild his army, slashing non-military expenditures, devaluing the currency and melting down Church plate, with the backing of Patriarch Sergius, to raise the necessary funds to continue the war. In 622, Heraclius left Constantinople, entrusting the city to Sergius and general Bonus as regents of his son. He assembled his forces in Asia Minor and, after conducting exercises to revive their morale, he launched a new counter-offensive, which took on the character of a holy war. In the Caucasus he inflicted a defeat on an army led by a Persian-allied Arab chief and then won a victory over the Persians under Shahrbaraz. Following a lull in 623, while he negotiated a truce with the Avars, Heraclius resumed his campaigns in the East in 624 and routed an army led by Khosrau at Ganzak in Atropatene. In 625 he defeated the generals Shahrbaraz, Shahin and Shahraplakan in Armenia, and in a surprise attack that winter he stormed Shahrbaraz's headquarters and attacked his troops in their winter billets. Supported by a Persian army commanded by Shahrbaraz, the Avars and Slavs unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople in 626, while a second Persian army under Shahin suffered another crushing defeat at the hands of Heraclius' brother Theodore. Meanwhile, Heraclius formed an alliance with the Turks, who took advantage of the dwindling strength of the Persians to ravage their territories in the Caucasus. Late in 627, Heraclius launched a winter offensive into Mesopotamia, where, despite the desertion of the Turkish contingent that had accompanied him, he defeated the Persians at the Battle of Nineveh. Continuing south along the Tigris, he sacked Khosrau's great palace at Dastagird and was only prevented from attacking Ctesiphon by the destruction of the bridges on the Nahrawan Canal. Discredited by this series of disasters, Khosrau was overthrown and killed in a coup led by his son Kavadh II, who at once sued for peace, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories. Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem with a majestic ceremony in 629.


Sear 914, D.O. 297, B.M.C. 452, T. 282, B.N. 5, M.I.B. 253a.

RRR

VF

6,98 g.
L.e.
Herakleia_Owl.JPG
Herakleia, Lucania104 views281-278 BC
AR Drachm (16.5mm, 3.82g)
O: Head of Athena, three-quarters facing right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Scylla throwing stone; Φ behind.
R: Owl with wings closed, standing right on olive branch; club to right, |-HPAKΛEIΩN above, ΣΩΣI to left.
Van Keuren 114; HN Italy 1411
Scarce
ex NAC

The colony of Herakleia was a joint venture between the cities of Taras and Thurii, founded in 432 BC and intended to encourage peace between the two embattled polis’ and show a united front against the indigenous tribes of southern Italy. To this end Herakleia became the center of the newly formed Italiote League, probably around 380. This alliance consisted of emissaries from the Greek cities of Kroton, Metapontum, Velia, Thurii, and most notably Taras.
A century later, the period of this coin, Pyrrhus defeated the Roman Consul Laevinius near here, causing the Romans to try a different strategy. A political treaty was struck in 278, granting very favorable terms to the Greek city, and Herakleia became an ally of Rome. As a result the headquarters of the Italiote League was moved to Taras.
8 commentsEnodia
AAGWb_small.png
Hermaios AE tetradrachm (imitation?)20 viewsHermaios. c. 90 - 70 BC.

25mm., 9.17g.

Bare-headed, diademed bust of king right, Greek legend around: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ EPMAIOY (Basileos Soteros Hermaiou ... of King Hermaios, the Saviour)

Zeus enthroned three-quarters left, holding sceptre in left hand and bestowing blessing with right hand, Kharoshthi legend around: maharajasa tratarasa / heramayasa

References:

AAGW
RL
herod_agrippa_II.jpg
Herod Agrippa II, 55 - 95 A.D. Bronze quarter unit, Hendin 639 viewsJudaean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa II, 55 - 95 A.D. Bronze quarter unit, Hendin 634; AJC II 258, 56; RPC II 2299, F, nice green patina, Caesarea Maritima? mint, 3.539g, 13.8mm, 180o, 94 - 95 A.D.; obverse AVTO DOM, Domitian's laureate head right; reverse , “ΒΑ ΑΓΡ ΕΤ ΕΛ” (=year 35 King Agrippa) within wreath; scarc