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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Gods, Non-Olympian| ▸ |River God||View Options:  |  |  | 

River Gods
Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Tyre, Phoenicia

|Phoenicia|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.,| |Tyre,| |Phoenicia||dichalkon|
Romans refounded Tyre as a colony in 64 B.C., when Pompey annexed Phoenicia to the Roman Empire. Tyre flourished under the Rome and remained a Roman port city, even under the Byzantine Empire, until the 7th century when it was taken by Muslim conquest.
RP96396. Bronze dichalkon, BMC Phoenicia p. 289, 465 var. (murex shell on right); Rouvier -; Baramki AUB -; SNG Hunt -; SNG Cop -, F, rough dark green patina, earthen deposits, weight 16.345 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 0o, Tyre (Lebanon) mint, Oct 253 - Jun 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, laureate bust right; reverse COL TVRO METR, river-god (Adonis?) standing facing, head left, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, right hand dropping incense on flaming altar at her feet on left, long grounded reed vertical in left hand, murex shell on left; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, 1971 Caesarea Maritima surface find; Coin Archives records only one specimen of the type at auction in the last two decades; extremely rare; $400.00 SALE PRICE $320.00
 


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D., Edessa, Mesopotamia

|Mesopotamia| |&| |Babylonia|, |Severus| |Alexander,| |13| |March| |222| |-| |March| |235| |A.D.,| |Edessa,| |Mesopotamia||AE| |25|
In 230, the Persian King Ardashir I invaded Mesopotamia. Ancient historians disagree about the success or failure of Alexander's counterattack against Persia in 232, but there is no doubt that Alexander had enough success to recover Edessa and make the town the "Metropolis Colony of the Edessans." No documents mention this event but it is clearly attested on the coins, including this one. Both sides suffered heavy losses and agreed to a truce. In 233, Severus Alexander celebrated a triumph in Rome to observe his "victory."
RY92578. Bronze AE 25, SNG Cop 215; SNG Hunterian II 2548; BMC Arabia p. 104, 82; Lindgren I 2578 var. (head bare, etc.), VF, black patina with light earthen highlights, weight 9.755 g, maximum diameter 24.8 mm, die axis 150o, Mesopotamia, Edessa (Urfa, Sanliurfa, Turkey) mint, as caesar, 221 - 222 A.D.; obverse M A AΛEΞN∆EPOC KA, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse M A K AVP E∆ECC, Tyche seated left on rocks, wearing turreted crown, veil, and mantle, sacrificing at flaming altar before her, river-god swimming at her feet; from the Errett Bishop Collection; scarce; $160.00 SALE PRICE $128.00 ON RESERVE


Oiniadai, Akarnania, Greece, 219 - 211 B.C.

|Akarnania|, |Oiniadai,| |Akarnania,| |Greece,| |219| |-| |211| |B.C.||AE| |22|
Oiniadai was an Akarnanian polis near the delta of the Acheloos River. Allied with the Peloponnesian League, Oiniadai withstood pressure from Athens, including at least one siege by Pericles. It held out but eventually joined the Athenian League in 424. The city remained under Athenian influence and was a member of the second Athenian Confederacy in the 4th century B.C. In the Hellenistic period, Oiniadai was dominated by the Aitolians. Philip V freed the city from them in 219, but Rome's allies, the Aetolian League, took control again in 211. Rome made it Akarnanian again in 189.
GB98668. Bronze AE 22, BMC Thessaly p. 190, 12; SNG Cop 403; BCD Akarnania 349; HGC 4 899 (S), VF, bare bronze high points with contrasting dark fields, light marks, porosity, weight 5.800 g, maximum diameter 21.5 mm, die axis 135o, Oiniadai (Katochi, Greece) mint, 219 - 211 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, eagle right looking back behind, A (control letter) below; reverse head right of man-faced bull river-god, Acheloos, trident head right above, OINIA∆AN upward behind; scarce; $130.00 SALE PRICE $117.00
 


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D., Antioch, Seleukis and Pieria

|Antioch|, |Severus| |Alexander,| |13| |March| |222| |-| |March| |235| |A.D.,| |Antioch,| |Seleukis| |and| |Pieria||8| |assaria|
The Tyche of Antioch was a cult statue of the city goddess (fortune) of Antioch, venerated in a temple called the Tychaion. The statue was made by Eutychides of Sicyon (c. 335 - c. 275), a pupil of the great Lysippus. It was the best-known piece of Seleucid art, remarkable because it was sculpted to be viewed from all directions, unlike many statues from the period. Although the original has been lost, many copies exist, including the one in the photograph right, now at the Vatican. The goddess is seated on a rock (Mount Sipylus), has her right foot on a swimming figure (the river Orontes), wears a mural crown (the city's walls), and has grain in her right hand (the city's fertility).Tyche of Antioch
RY94894. Bronze 8 assaria, SNG Hunt 3042 (same obv. die); McAlee 832/2 (same); Butcher 488a; SNG Cop 256 var. (SHC in ex.); BMC Galatia, p. 209, 479 var. (same), aF, attractive for the grade, dark brown toning with green and red earthen highlighting deposits, porosity, weight 17.391 g, maximum diameter 32.2 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 13 Mar 222 - Mar 235 A.D.; obverse AVT KAI MAP AVP CE AΛEΞAN∆POC CEB, laureate head right; reverse ANTIOXEΩN MHTPO KOΛΩNIAC, Tyche seated left on rocks between standing Tyche, on left, holding rudder and cornucopia, and figure in military dress, on right, crowning the seated Tyche, tiny ∆-E (∆ EΠAPXEIΩN - of the four eparchies) high across field, river god Orontes swimming left between S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00
 


Maximinus I Thrax, March 235 - May 238 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

|Roman| |Egypt|, |Maximinus| |I| |Thrax,| |March| |235| |-| |May| |238| |A.D.,| |Roman| |Provincial| |Egypt||tetradrachm|
In 237, King Ardashir I of Persia renewed his attacks on the Roman province of Mesopotamia.
RX94235. Billon tetradrachm, Geissen 2585; Dattari 4590; Milne 3285; BMC Alexandria p. 231, 1803; Kampmann 65.67; Emmett 3328/4 (R3), Choice F, well centered, dark brown patina, weight 12.256 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 236 - 28 Aug 237 A.D.; obverse AVTO MAΞIMINOC EVC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, seen from behind; reverse Nilus reclining left, lotus on head, nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, cornucopia in left hand, reed in right hand, elbow resting on hippopotamus, date L∆ (year 4) left; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00
 


Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

|Roman| |Egypt|, |Antoninus| |Pius,| |August| |138| |-| |7| |March| |161| |A.D.,| |Roman| |Provincial| |Egypt||drachm|
The Nilometer measured the height of the annual Nile flood. Sixteen cubits was considered the ideal height of the annual Nile flood. Less could mean drought or famine. Even in modern times, grand celebrations were held when the flood reached 16 cubits. In years when the flood failed to reach 16 cubits, the celebrations were canceled, and prayers and fasting were held instead. The peak flood occurred at the end of August, which explains why the Egyptian year began on 29 August.
RX94446. Bronze drachm, Geissen 1708; Savio 2764; Milne 2230; BMC Alexandria p. 136, 1152; Kampmann 35.602; SNG Cop -; Hunterian -, aF, a few pits, edge splits, weight 21.805 g, maximum diameter 39.9 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 153 - 28 Aug 154 A.D.; obverse AYT K T AIΛ A∆P ANTWNINOC CEB EYC, laureate and draped bust right, from behind; reverse Nilus reclining left, reed in right, genius emerging from cornucopia in his left, wearing lotus crown, himation from waist down, domed Nilometer in background on left, L I-Z (year 17) above, crocodile right and water plants below; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00
 


Macedonian Kingdom, Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C.

|Macedonian| |Kingdom|, |Macedonian| |Kingdom,| |Philip| |V| |or| |Perseus,| |187| |-| |168| |B.C.||AE| |23|
This coin was found in Southwestern Bulgaria (Serdi region) in 1997 alongside imitatives of the type struck by the Serdi Celts. The choice was appropriate for the Serdi Celts as the river Strymon runs through the Serdi region.
GB46739. Copper AE 23, SNG Cop 1299, SNG Alpha Bank -, SNG Munchen,, VF, dark green patina, porous, weight 7.113 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 0o, Amphipolis mint, 187 - 168 B.C.; obverse head of river-god, Strymon, right, with short horns and crown of reeds; reverse ornamented trident head, MAKE/∆ONΩN in two flanking upward lines, monograms below; ex Alex G. Malloy Serdi Celts Collection; scarce; $70.00 SALE PRICE $63.00
 


Macedonian Kingdom, Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C.

|Macedonian| |Kingdom|, |Macedonian| |Kingdom,| |Philip| |V| |or| |Perseus,| |187| |-| |168| |B.C.||AE| |23|
Philip V was king of Macedonia, 221 - 179 B.C. Philip's reign was principally marked by an unsuccessful struggle with the emerging power of the Roman Republic. He would lead Macedonia against Rome in the First and Second Macedonian Wars, losing the latter but allying with Rome in the Roman-Seleucid War towards the end of his reign. Perseus was the last king of the Antigonid dynasty who ruled in Macedonia, 179 - 168 B.C. After Perseus lost the Battle of Pydna on 22 June 168 B.C., Macedonia came under Roman rule.
GB97605. Copper AE 23, SNG Cop 1298, AMNG III 14, SNG Alpha Bank -, SNG Munchen -, F, dark blue-green patina, crackled rough surface, light earthen deposits, small edge splits, weight 8.393 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, Amphipolis mint, 187 - 168 B.C.; obverse head of river-god, Strymon, right, with short horns and crown of reeds; reverse ornamented trident head, MAKE/∆ONΩN in two flanking upward lines, monograms flanking shaft socket; from the Michael Arslan Collection; scarce; $70.00 SALE PRICE $63.00
 







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REFERENCES|

Imhoof-Blumer, F. "Fluss- und Meergötter auf griechischen und römischen Münzen (Personifikationen der Gewässer)" in RSN 23 (1923), pp. 173-421.
Malloy, A. "The Danubian Celts" in Alex G. Malloy Auction Sale XLVI, June 24, 1997. NumisWiki webpage
Molinari, N.J. & N. Sisci. Potamikon: Sinews of Acheloios. A Comprehensive Catalog of the Bronze Coinage of the Man-Faced Bull, With Essays on Origin and Identity. (Oxford, 2016).

Catalog current as of Sunday, November 28, 2021.
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