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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ The Twelve Caesars ▸ NeroView Options:  |  |  | 

Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

Nero became emperor after his stepfather, the emperor Claudius, died (Claudius was probably poisoned by Nero's mother Agrippina II). At first, Nero ruled well, guided by his mentors Seneca and Burrus, but soon his reign degenerated into the debauchery and murder for which he is infamous. He had his mother, Burrus, Britannicus, and numerous senators and members of the nobility murdered or executed. Legend says he kicked Poppaea, his pregnant wife, to death. He was the first emperor to persecute Christians, blaming them for the Great Fire in 64 A.D. Nero committed suicide in 68 A.D after generals in Africa, Gaul, and Spain all rebelled, and the Praetorian Guard in Rome deserted him.


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Following tradition, when young Nero was elevated to princeps juventutis (prince of youth) in 51 A.D., the equestrian order (Roman knights) gave him a silver buckler (a small round shield) and lances. Coins depicting these traditional gifts were issued for Caius and Lucius, when they were designated princeps juventutis in the time of Augustus. Aurei and denarii with the same types were struck for Nero at Rome. Due to the rarity of the type and the lack of S C on the reverse, it was long believed this type was funded by the knights for distribution as gifts to attendees at the event where Nero was given his buckler and lances. In SNR 63 (1984), von Kaenel re-attributed this type to a Thracian mint. A few dozen examples are know and some, according to RPC I, were found in Thrace.
RB88176. Orichalcum sestertius, von Kaenel Thrakien, type A (unlisted dies); RIC I Claudius 108 (R4); BMCRE p. 195 note, pl. 37, 4; BnF II Claudius 288; Cohen I 99; see RPC I p. 311, aVF, dark brown near black patina, minor roughness, weight 26.001 g, maximum diameter 33.8 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Balkan or Thracian mint, as caesar, 51 - 54 A.D.; obverse NERONI CLAVDIO DRVSO GERMANICO COS DESIG, bare headed and draped bust right; reverse EQVESTER / OR-DO / PRINCIPI / IVVENT in four lines on a buckler (small round shield), lance vertical behind; ex CNG e-sale 424 (11 Jul 2018), lot 434; ex CNG e-sale 174 (10 Oct 2007), lot 204; ex CNG auction 67 (22 Sep 2004), lot 1316; ex Michael Weller Collection; very rare; $1620.00 (€1377.00)
 


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
SH82657. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 330, Cohen I 271, BnF I 417, Mac Dowall WCN 163, Hunter I 100, SRCV I -, BMCRE I -, gVF, excellent portrait, fine style, dark green and brown patina, some corrosion, gently smoothed, weight 24.425 g, maximum diameter 34.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 66 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P P P, laureate head left with light beard; reverse Roma seated left on cuirass, one round and one oblong shield behind, wearing crested helmet, right foot drawn back and resting on helmet, Victory offering wreath in Roma's extended right hand, her left hand rests on parazonium, ROMA in exergue, S - C (senatus consulto) at sides; Numismatica Ars Classica, auction 94 (6 Oct 2016), lot 127; ex Classical Numismatic Group 783132 ($1750); $1100.00 (€935.00)
 


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., Perinthus, Thrace

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In 46 A.D., after the death of the Thracian king Rhoemetalces III and after an unsuccessful anti-Roman revolt, the Thracian Kingdom was annexed by Claudius as the Roman province of Thracia. Perinthus was made the capital of Roman Thracia. Although the denomination is uncertain, RPC I suggests it is a sestertius.
RP87197. Brass provincial sestertius, Schonert Perinthos 233 - 235; RPC I 1754; Varbanov III 20 (R4); Moushmov 4421; BMC Thrace p. 148, 13 var. (obv. leg.); SNG Cop -, F, dark patina, some porosity, central cavities, weight 20.839 g, maximum diameter 33.2 mm, die axis 0o, Heraclea Perinthos (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 63 - 9 Jun 68 A.D.; obverse NEPΩN KΛAY∆IOΣ KAIΣAP ΣEBAΣTOΣ, laureate head left; reverse ΠEPIN/ΘIΩN in two lines within oak wreath tied at the bottom; $240.00 (€204.00)
 


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., Cyzicus, Mysia, Poppaea or Statilia Messalina Reverse

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RPC I notes, "although certainty is not at the moment possible (because of the small size and relatively poor preservation of the coins), the portrait of Nero seems to be the "steps" portrait, introduced in 63. If so, the bust should be that of Poppaea (or possibly Statilia Messalina)." In 62 A.D., Nero divorced Octavia and married Poppaea. In the summer of 65, Nero and Poppaea quarreled. She was pregnant. In a fit of rage, Nero kicked her in the abdomen, killing her. Statilia Messalina was already Nero's mistress. After Poppaea's death, Nero forced Statilia's husband to commit suicide, so he could marry her. Statilia kept a low profile in public and survived the fall of his reign. After Nero's death, Otho promised to marry her, before his suicide in 69.
RP85905. Bronze AE 16, RPC I 2249 (3 spec.), BMC Mysia -, SNG BnF -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, SNG Hunterian -, SNG Tübingen -, Lindgren -, aF, green patina, weight 3.390 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 0o, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 63 - 65 A.D.; obverse NEPΩN (counterclockwise on right), bare head of Nero right, ΦY monogram behind; reverse K-Y-Z (K over Z in left field, Z appearing as I, Y in right field), draped bust of empress right; only one specimen on Coin Archives; extremely rare; $125.00 (€106.25)
 


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., Apollonoshieron, Lydia

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Apollonos Hieron was located about 56 kilometers from Pergamon on a hill, but is exact location is unknown. The inhabitants of the village of Buldan, Turkey hold that their town is the location. However, Buldan is known to be the site of Tripolis, and both cities sent separate delegates to the Council of Chalcedon. It is possible the cities were adjacent to each other and this may explain why Pliny thought the name of Tripolis had previously been Apollonos. Apollonos Hieron was known for its temple, and is mentioned by Pliny, who describes it as small. Despite its size, Apollonos Hieron minted its own coins, of which there are today many examples.
RP88187. Bronze AE 18, RPC I 3045 (18 spec.); SNG Cop 33; SNGvA 2908; SNG Fitzwilliam 4845; BMC Lydia p. 24, 8, F, green patina, tight flan, light deposits, areas of corrosion, weight 2.957 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 180o, Apollonoshieron (near Buldan(?), Turkey) mint, 63 - 68 A.D.; obverse NEPΩN KAIΣAP ΣEBAΣTOΣ, laureate head right; reverse AΠOΛΛΩN/IEPE−ITΩN starting upward on right, ending downward on left, Apollo standing facing, patera in right hand, resting left hand on grounded lyre; $100.00 (€85.00)
 


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., Sardes, Lydia

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Sardis was the capital of the Kingdom of Lydia, an important city of the Persian Empire, a Roman proconsul seat, and in later Roman and Byzantine times the metropolis of the province Lydia. In the Book of Revelation, Sardis, one of the Seven Churches of Asia, is admonished to be watchful and to strengthen since their works haven't been perfect before God. (Revelation 3:1-6).
RP86895. Bronze AE 17, RPC I 3002; BMC Lydia p. 253, 120; SNG Cop 523; SNGvA 3146, SNG München -, VF, dark patina, earthen deposits, some porosity, slightly off center, weight 4.673 g, maximum diameter 16.5 mm, die axis 0o, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, strategos Mindios, c. 59 - 62 A.D.; obverse NEPΩN KAICAP (square C), young laureate head right; reverse EΠI MIN∆IOY CAP∆IANΩN (square C), bust of young Herakles right, Nemean lion skin tied around neck; $95.00 (€80.75)
 


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C. Howgego suggests that this might belong with the Thracian group of Neronian coins in Latin (RPC I 1758 ff.).
RP87433. Bronze semis, RPC I Supplement (online) S2-I-5487 (4 spec.), RIC I -, Cohen I -, BMCRE I -, BnF I -, aF, nice green patina, minor pitting, weight 4.079 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain (Perinthus, Thrace?) mint, c. 64 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR, bare head right; reverse VICTORIA AVGVSTI (the victory of the Emperor), Victory walking left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left; very rare; $80.00 (€68.00)
 


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., Perge, Pamphylia

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Perga was the capital of Pamphylia. Today it is a large site of ancient ruins, 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) east of Antalya on the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. During the Hellenistic period, Perga was one of the richest and most beautiful cities in the ancient world, famous for its temple of Artemis. It also is notable as the home of the renowned mathematician Apollonius of Perga.Ruins of the main street in Perga
RP84161. Bronze AE 18, RPC I 3373 (5 spec.), McClean 8902, BMC Lycia -, SNGvA -, aF, flan crack, rough, weight 4.647 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 0o, Perge mint, as caesar under Claudius, 50 - 13 Oct 54 A.D.; obverse NEPWN KAICAP, bare head right; reverse APTEMI∆OC ΠEPΓAIAC, Artemis running right, torch in left, bow in right; very rare; $60.00 (€51.00)
 


Corpus Nummormum Romanorum, Vol. XVII, Nero, coins of gold, silver and bronze

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BK13370. Corpus Nummormum Romanorum, Vol. XVII, Nero, coins of gold, silver and bronze A. Banti & L. Simonetti, 1978, in Italian, 283 pages, 998 illustrations, hardcover, used, fair condition; $22.00 (€18.70)
 







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OBVERSE LEGENDS

IMPNEROCAESARAVGPMAXTRPOTPP
IMPNEROCAESARAVGPMAXTRPPP
IMPNEROCAESARAVGPMTRPOTPP
IMPNEROCAESARAVGPONTMAXTRPOTPP
IMPNEROCAESARAVGPP
IMPNEROCAESARAVGVSTVS
NEROCAESAR
NEROCAESARAVGGERMIMP
NEROCAESARAVGIMP
NEROCAESARAVGVSTVS
NEROCAESAVGIMP
NEROCLAVCAEAVGGER
NEROCLAVDCAESARAVGGERMANI
NEROCLAVDCAESARAVGGERMPMTRPIMP
NEROCLAVDCAESARAVGGERPMTRPIMPPP
NEROCLAVDCAESARAVGGERMPMTRPIMPPP
NEROCLAVDCAESDRVSVSGERMPRINCIVVENT
NEROCLAVDDIVICLAVDFCAESARAVG
NEROCLAVDDIVICLAVDFCAESARAVGGERMANI
NEROCLAVDIVSCAESARAVGGERMA
NEROCLAVDIVSCAESARAVGGERMANIC
NEROCLAVDIVSCAESARAVGGERMPMTRPIMPPP
NEROCLDIVIFCAESAVGPMTRPII
NERONERONICLAVDIODRVSOGERMCOSDESIGN
NERONICLAVDIODRVSOGERMCOSDESIGN


REFERENCES

American Numismatic Society (ANS) Collections Database Online - http://numismatics.org/search/search
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, & P. Ripollès. Roman Provincial Coinage I: From the death of Caesar to the death of Vitellius (44 BC-AD 69). (London, 1992).
Calicó, E. The Roman Avrei, Vol. I: From the Republic to Pertinax, 196 BC - 193 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Clay, C. "Münzprägung des Kaisers Nero" in Numismatische Zeitschrift 96 (1982), pp. 7 - 17.
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 1: Pompey to Domitian. (Paris, 1880).
Giard, J-B. Le monnayage de l'atelier de Lyon, De Claude Ier à Vespasien (41-78 après J.-C.), et au temps de Clodius Albinus (196-197 après J.-C.). (Wetteren, 2000).
Giard, J-B. Bibliothèque National Catalogue Monnaies de L'Empire Romain II: De Tebère à Néron. (Paris, 1988).
King, C. Roman Quinarii from the Republic to Diocletian and the Tetrarchy. (Oxford, 2007).
Mac Dowall, D. The Western Coinages of Nero. ANSNNM 161. (New York, 1979).
Mac Dowall, D. "Two Roman Countermarks of A.D. 68" in NC 1960, pp. 103 - 112, pl. VII.
Mattingly, H. & R. Carson. Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum, Vol. 1: Augustus to Vitellius. (London, 1923).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. I. Augustus to Nerva. (Oxford, 1962).
Seaby, H. & R. Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Vol. II: Tiberius to Commodus. (London, 1979).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, The Millennium Edition, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Sutherland, C. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. I, From 39 BC to AD 69. (London, 1984).
Toynbee, J. Roman medallions. ANSNS 5. (New York, 1944).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).
von Kaenel, H.-M. "Britannicus, Agrippina Minor und Nero in Thrakien" in SNR 63 (1984).

Catalog current as of Friday, March 22, 2019.
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Roman Coins of Nero